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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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,  *      ^• 



'XIOK   e  .  Vb"2> 











Printed  by  Nichols,  Son,  and  Bentlby, 
Red  Lion  Passage^  Fleet  Stireet,  Loudon. 







OF  THB  ^ 










J.  CUTHELL  ;  •  CLARKE    AND    SONS ;      J.   AND   A.    ARCH  ;      J.   HARRIS  ;    BLACK, 

PARRY,     AND    CO. ;    J.  BOOTH  ;    J.  MAWHAN ;    GALE,    CURTIS,    AND   FENNER; 

R.  H.  EVANS  ;  J.  HATCHARD ;  J.  HARDING  ;  R.  BALDWIN ;  J*  MURRAY  ;  J.  JOHN- 

flON  AND  CO.  ;  E,  BENTLEY  }  AND  J.  FAULDER. 




^     « 

(JaAB,  or  CAB-BEN-ZOHAIR,  a  distinguished  Ara- 
biun  poety  was  one  of  the  rabbis  among  those  Arabians  who 
had  embraced  Judaism.  Mahomet,  irritated  by  a  satirical 
poem  which  Caab  h^d  written  against  him  and  his  ne\^ 
seet,  made  war  on  the  Jewish  Arabian  tribes,  ia  hopes  of 
seijBing  him  and  putting  him,  ^o  d^ath.  Caab,  however^ 
contrived  to  escape  his  fury^^^trf^M^0«5tnet  had  made  him- 
self master  of  Arabia,  wheil^-iiffe^iljad  tKe^  art  to  be  recon- 
ciled to  him,  turned  Maho&i^a^,  atHd  altered  his  poem  by 
inserting  the  name  of  Abub^^^tiHh^  of  Mahomet 

occurred;  and  as  these  conde^^^^did  not  seem  to  effect 
a  complete  reconciliation,  he  wrote  a  poem  in  favour  of 
one  of  his  mistresses,  which  was  so  successful  that  Maho- 
met received  him  into  fri  ^ndship,  and  bestowed  on  bini  hi^ 
own  mantle,  which  the  caliph  Moavias  purchased  when  he 
came  to  the  throne,  and  it  became  the  dress  of  his  siic-^ 
cessors  on  state  oeci^sions.  Caab  is  also  said  to  have  had 
a  considerable  hand  in  drawing  up  tb^^  Alqoran.  According 
to  Herbelot  he  died  in  the  fimt  ye»c  of  the  hegira,  or  A.  C. 
622.  An  edition  of  bis  poem  in  praise  of  Mahomet  was 
published  under  the  title  *'  Caa)^  Ben-Zobair  carmen 
panegyricum  in  laodem  Mohammediii,  &c/'  Leyden,  1748^ 
4tOj  with  an  eloge  by  Albert  Scultens.  * 

CAB  AN  IS  (Peter  John  Georgc),  a  French  physician 
of  considerable  efmoence^  the  son  of  Mons«  Ca1>ams,  an 
able  tgriculturist^  was  born  about  1756  ;  and  in  his  youth 

»  D'Hcfbeiot-^areri.— Pryeaux'f  Life  of  Mahomet,    p.  103.  «UU  4th, 
>70S,  Sfv. 

Vol.  Vin.  B 



shewed  much  taste  for  scientific  as  well  as  polite  literature, 
which  he  pursued  with  success ;  although  having  caught  the 
revolutionary  phrensy,  his  studies  became  interrupted  by 
his  political  engagements.  He  is  said,  however,  to  have 
had  no  hand  in^  any  of  the  excesses  which  aro3Q  out  of  the 
fury  of  contending  parties.  He  was  connected  with  Mi- 
rabeau,  and  attended  him  in  his  professional  capacity  on 
his  death-bed.  He  was  also  one  of  the  Council  of  Five  Hun- 
dred;  and  it  was  in  consequence  of  a  motion  maJ^  by  him, 
that  the  Directory  was  dissolved.  His  principles,  however, 
do  not  appear  to  have  been  much  more  steady  and  consis- 
tent than  those  of  his  brethren.  He  published,  1.  **  Obser- 
vations sur  les  Hopitaux,'^  Paris,  1790,  8vo.  2.  '*  Journal 
de  la  maladie  et  de  la  mbrt  de  Mirabeau,"  ibid.  1791,  8vo. 
3.  **  Travail  sur  I'education  publique,"  a  posthumous  work  of 
Mirabeau,  edited  by  Cabanis,  1791,  8vo.  4.  '^  Melanges  de 
LitteratureAIlemande,"  1796, 8vo.  5.  "Dudegrcde certitude 
delamedecine,"1797, 8vo,  republished  in  1802,  with  tlwaddi* 
tion  of  the  first  two  articles  in  this  list.  6.  ^^Quelques  considera- 
tions sur  rorganizationsociale  en  generale,^*&c.  179^^  12mo. 
7.  "  Des  rapports  du  physique  et  du  morale  de  Pbomme,'* 
1803,  2  vols.  8vo,  reprinted  with  additions  in  1804.  On 
the  merit  of  this  work  the  French  critics  are  divided ;  we 
may,  however,  form  some  idea  of  it  from  the  circilimstance 
of  its  htiivi|3g  been  praised  by  the  philosophers,  and  cen^^ 
sured  by  the  divines.  8.  '<  Coup  d'ocil  sur  les  revolutions 
etlareforn^e  de  la  medicine,"  1803.  9,  **  Observation* 
sur  les  affections  Catarrhales,"  ice.  1 807.  He  wrote  also 
some  curious  articles  in  the  ^^  Magazin  Encyclopedique  ;'^ 
aud  in  the  Moniteur  for  1799  are  many  of  his  i^eeches  in 
the  legislative  body.  He  was  connected,  we  are  told,  with 
a  great  part  of  the  writers  and  philosophers  who  contributed 
to  enlighten  the  eighteenth  century.  During  his  last  year» 
he  inhabited  a  country-house  at  Auteuil,  bequeathed  him 
by  his  friend  madame  Helvetius.  He  died  at  Meulan,  May 
5,  1808  ;  and  was  at  the  time  of  his  desBth  a  member  of  the 
institute,  c^  the  philomatic  society,  and  of  the  medical 
society.  * 

CABASILAS  (NiLUs),   archbishop  of  Thessalonica  in 

jnhe  fourteenth  century,  under  the  empire  of  the  Andronl- 

'^B%  wrote  two  treatises  against  the  Latins ;  the  first  tp  prove 

that  the  division  between  the  Greek  and  Latin  churchips 

is  owing  in  a  great  measure  to  the  conduct  of  th^  Pope^  wbq 

*  DieU  Hist. 


wishes  t6  tct  iode|iendQntly  af  an  oecuaienicid  cooqcUi  cod* 
tirary  to  the  usage  ot  the  diurch  :  the  second  is  a  more 
direct  attack  on  the  infaltibility  of  the  Pope,  and  reducea 
his  primacy  to  merely  «  priioacy  of  honour ;  and  be  urges 
many  arguments  against  tbe  assumed  power  of  the  pope 
which  are  perfectly  coesiatent  with  the  opinions  on  which 
tbe.  sefiDrmers  afterwards  proceeded.  These  treatises*  Da 
Pin  saijs^  are  written  with  method,  perspicuity,  and  learn* 
ing.  They  .were  at  first  printed  at  London  in  Greek,  with* 
out  datey  according  to  Du  Pin,  but  we  have  not  been  able 
to  discover  this  edition.  They  were,  however,  published  in 
English  at  London,  in  1 5$0 ;  or  at  least  the  latter  of  them, 
under  the  title  '*  A  Treatise  containing  a  declaration  of  tbe 
Pope's  usurped  primacie ;  written  in  Greek  above  seven 
hundred  yeares  since  by  Nilus  archbidiop  of  Thessalonica. 
Translated  by  Thomas  Gressop,  student  in  Oxford,"  8vo. 
There  are  also  editions  in  Greek  and  Latin  at  Basil,  U44« 
Francfort,  1535,  and  with  Salmasius's  notes,  1608.  Our 
author  also  wrote  a  large  work  on  the  procession  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  in  the  Latins*^ 

CABASILAS  (Nicholas),  nephew  of  the  preceding, 
and  successor  in  the  archbishopric  of  Thessalonica,  Sou* 
rifibed  under  the  reign  of  Cantacuzenus,  and  had  all  his 
uncle^s  prejudices  against  tbe  Latins.  He  also  wrote  *^  On 
the  procession  of  the  Holy  Ghost ;  and  an  exposition  of  tbe 
Liturgy,'^  in  which  he  delivers  the  doctrine  of  tbe  Greek 
church  concerning  the  mass ;  and  which  was  printed  ia 
Latin  at  Venice,  in  1545^  and  at  Antwerp  in  1560;  and 
in  Greek  and  Latin  in  the  '^  Bibliotheca  Patrum,^'  Paris, 
1624.  In  the  same  *'  Bibliotheca,"  is  also  included  his 
^'Life  of  Jesus  Christ,''  translated  into  Latin,  and  sepa-* 
rately  printed  at  lugolstadt,  in  1604.  A  translation  of  his 
work  '^against  Usury,"  is  also  contained  in  the  ^^  Biblio* 
theca.'*  In  the  sciences  of  mathematics  and  astronomy, 
he  is  said  to  have  surpassed  all  his  contemporaries.' 

CABASSQLE  (Philip  d^)  was  a  native  of  Cavailloni 
in  Provence,  where  he  became  a  canon  of  the  cathedtad^ 
archdeacon  and  bishop  in  1334.  He  was  also  honoured 
with  the  rank  of  cbaocelior  to  Sancha^  queen  of  Sicily,  by 
her  husband  Robert,  in  1341,  and  jointly  with  thatprinpess 
was  regent  during  tbe  minority  of  Joan  her  gcand*daughten 

•     '  -  *  '  • .  • 

1  Du  Pin. — Leo  AUatius  in  Diatribe  cle  Nili*  #t  eoruai  scriptis. — Care,  voJ.  U. 
•-Saxii  Ononiast.  3  it^ij. 

*  < 

B  2 

^  C  A  B  A  S  S  O  L  E.^ 

In  \Z66ihe  was  appointed  psttriarch  of  Jerusalem,  atid 
had  the  eharge  of  the  bishopric  of  Marseilles ;  and  at  last 
pope  Urban  V.  raised  him  to  the  rank  of  cardinal^  and 
vicar-general  spiritual  and  temporal  in  the  diocese  of 
Avignon,  and  wjiile  the  popes  resided  &t  Avfgnon,  Gre<^ 
gory  XI.  made  him  superintendant  of  the  papal  territory  in 
Italy.  He  died  at  Perugia  in  1372.  He  wrote  a  treatiscf 
^'De  Nngis  Curiaiium/'  some  sermons^  and  two  books  on 
the  life  and  miracles  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen.  Petrarch  was 
his  particular  friend,  and  dedicated  to  him  his  treatise  on 
a  solitary  life ;  and  many  of  his  letters  are  addressed  to  himi 
He  is  likewise  mentioned  with  high  praise  by  other  learned 
contemporaries.  * 

CABASSUT  (John),  of  Aix,  was  a  celebrated  priest  bf 
the  oratory,  who  taught  the  canon  law  at  Avignon,  and 
died  September  25,  1685,  at  Aix,  aged  eighty  one.  His 
chief  works  are :  ^^  Juris  Canonici  theoria^  et  praxis,^'  a  new 
edition  of  which  was  published  by  M.  Gibert,  1 738,  foL  with 
notes ;  an  **  Account  of  the  Ecclesiastical  History  of  tbte 
Councils  and  Canons,"  in  Latin,  the  best  edition  of  which 
is  1680,  fol.  In  the  edition  of  1670,  8vo,  are  some  Dis« 
sertations  not  to  be  found  in  that  of  1680,  Few  ecclesi-^ 
astics  have  been  more  praised  for  excellence  of  private 
character  than  Cabassut* 

.  CABEL,  or  KABEL  (Adrian  Vander),  a  painter  of 
landscape,  sea-ports,  and  cattle,  was  bom  at  Ryswick^  in 
1631,  and  became  a  disciple  of  John  Van  Goyen,  undei? 
whose  instruction  and  example  he  made  a  rapid  progress 
in  his  profession,  and  by  whom  his  name  was  changed  from 
Vander  Touw  to  Vander  Cabel.  He  copied  nature  and 
designed  every  object  before  be  inserted  any  in  his  com- 
positions. His  taste  in  designing  animals  and  figures  was 
formed  after  that  of  Castiglione ;  and  in  landscape  his 
model  was  the  style  of  Salvator  Rosa.  His  manner  i^'great,^ 
and  much  after  the  gout  of  the  Italian  school.  The  touch- 
Jogs  of  fais  trees  are  excellent ;  his  figures  and  animals  are 
very  correct,  and  marked  with  spirit.  Although  his  dif^ 
lerent  pictures  have  unequal  merit,  they  are  all  distinv 
guisbed  by  the  freedom  of  his  hand,  ar>d  the  fine  touch  of 
his  pencil.  In  his  colouring  he  was  solicitous  to  imitate' 
the  Caracci  and  Mola;  but  the  beauty  of  his  design  and^ 
composition  is  often  injured  by  too  dark  and  deep  tone  of 

^  Moreri.  *  MorerM^Dupiu.' 

V  A  B  £  Li*  "B 

celouring.  His  etchings,  of  which  some  feWremain,  are 
performed  in  a  slight,  free  style.     He  died  in  1G95.^ 

CABOT  (Sebastian)i  a  navigator  of  great  eminence 
and  abilities,  was  born  at  Bristol  about  the  year  1477.  He 
was  son  of  John  Cabot,  a  Venetian  pilot,  who  resided 
much  in  England,  and  particularly  in  the  city  of  Bristol ; 
^and  who  was  greatly  celebrated  for  bis  skill  in  navigation. 
Young  Cabot  was  early  instructed  by  his  father  in  arith- 
.metic,  geometry,  geography,  and  those  branches  of  know- 
ledge which  were  best  calculated  to  form  an  able  and  skilful 
seaman ;  and  by  the  time  he  was  seventeen  years  of  age, 
he  had  already  made  several  trips  to  sea,  in  order  to  add 
to  the  theoretical  knowledge  which  he  had  acquired,  a 
competent  skill  in  the  practical  part  of  navigation.  The 
first  voyage  of  any  importance  in  which  he  was  engaged, 
appears  to  have  been  that  made  by  his  father,  for  the  dis^ 
covery  of  unknown  lands ;  and  also,  as  it  is  said,  of  a  north- 
west passage  to  the  East  Indies.  John  Cabot  was  encou^ 
raged  to  this  attempt  by  the  discoveries  of  Columbus.  It 
was  in  1493  that  Columbus  returned  from  his  first  expe* 
,.dition;  and  in  1495,  John  Cabot  obtained  from  king 
Henry  VII.  letters  patent,  empowering  him  and  his  three 
sons,  Lewis,  Sebastian,  and  Sainctius,  to  discover  unknown 
lands,  and  to  conquer  and  settle  them,  for  which  they  were 
to  be  admitted  to  many  privileges ;  the  king  reserving  to 
himself  one-Bfth  part  of  the  neat  profits;  and  with  this 
single  restraint,  that  the  ships  they  fitted  out  should  be 
obliged  to  return  to  the  port  of  Bristol.  It  was  not  till  the 
.year  after  these  letters  patent  were  granted,  that  any  pre* 
parations  were  made  for  fitting  out  vessels  for  the  intended 
voyage ;  and  then  John  Cabot  had  a  permission  from  his 
majesty,  to  take  six  English  ships  in  any  haveu  of  the 
jealm,  of  the  burdeti  of  two  hundred  tons  and  under,  with 
as  many  mariners  as  should  be  willing  to  go  with  him. 
Accordingly,  one  ship  was  equipped  at  Bristol,  at  the 
king^s  expence ;  and  to  this  the  merchants  of  tlmtcuy,  and 
of  London,  added  three  or  four  small  vessels,  freighted 
with  proper  commodities. 

John  Cabot,  attended  by  his  son  Sebastiat),  s^t  sail  with 
this  fleet  in  the  spring  of  the  year  1497.  They  sailed 
happily  on  their  north  west  course,  till  thf?  24th  of  June, 
^n  the  same  year,  about  five  in  the  morning,  when  they 

1  D*ArgeDvi11e.-^PiIkiD5tOD  and  Strutt's  Dictionaries. 

6  CABOT. 

jdiscovered  the  island  of  BaccaUos,  now  much  better  kaown 
by  ttii  name  of  Newfoundland.  The  tery  day  on  which 
they  made  this  important  disco've^ry,  is  known  by  a  large 
map,  drawn  by  Sebastian  Cabot,  and  cut  by  Clement 
'Adams,  which  hung  in  the  privy  gallery  at  Whitehall; 
whereon  was  this  inscription,  under  the  author's  picture : 
**  Effigies  Seb.  Caboti,  Angli,  Filii  Jo.  Caboti,  Venetian!, 
Militis  Aurati,  &c/*  and  on  this  map  was  likewise  the  fol- 
lowing account  of  the  discovery,  the  original  of  which  wa« 
in  Latin:  **  In  the  year  of  our  Lord  1497,  John  Cabot, 
a  Venetian,  and  his  son  Sebastian,  with  an  English  fleet, 
set  out  from  Bristol,  and  discovered  that  island  which  no 
man  before  bad  attempted.  This  discovery  was  made  on 
the  four  and  twentieth  of  June,  about  five  o'clock  in  the 
morning.  This  land  he  called  Prima  Vista  (or  First  Seen), 
because  it  was  that  part  of  which  they  bad  the  first  sight 
from  the  sea.  The  island,  which  lies  out  before  the  land, 
he  called  the  island  of  St.  John,  probably  because  it  wa^ 
discovered  on  the  festival  of  St.  John  the  Baptist.  The 
inhabitants  of  this  island  wore  beasts*  skins,  and  esteemed 
them  as  the  finest  garments.''  To  this  Purchas  adds,  ^^  In 
their  wars  they  used  bows,  arrows,  pikes,  jiarts,  wooden 
elub^,  and  slings.  They  found  the  ^oil  barren  in  some 
places,  and  yielding  little  fruit ;  but  it  was  full  of  whitt 
bfiears  and  stags,  far  larger  than  those  of  Europe.  It  yielded 
plenty  of  fish,  and  those  of  the  larger  kind,  as  seals  aqd 
salmon.  They  found  soles  there  above  a  yard  in  length, 
and  great  abundance  of  that  kind  of  .fish  which  the  savages 
called  baccaiaos.  They  also  observed  there  partfidges,  a^ 
likewise  hawks  and  eagles ;  but  what  was  remarkable  in 
them,  they  were  all  as  black  as  ravens." 

The  accounts  of  this  voyage  made  by  John  Cabot,  ac- 
eompanied  by  his  son  Sebastian,  are,  in  some  respects, 
involvedin  much  obscurity  ;  and  Sebastian  is  supposed  to 
have  made  some  voyages  of  discovery  without  his  father, 
in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.  of  which  no  narrations  have  been 
preserved.  However,  it  appears  that  John  Cabot,  after 
the  discovery  of  Newfoundland,  sailed  down  to  Cape  Flo- 
rida, and  then  returned  with  three  Indians,  and  a  good 
cargo,  to  England,  where  he  was  well  received.  The 
discovery  that  he  and  his  son  had  made,  was,  indeed,  as 
Dr.  Campbell  observes,  very  important;  **  since,  in  truth, 
it  was  the  first  time  the  continent  of  America  had  been 
seek! ;    Columbus  being   unacquainted  therewith  till  his 


last  voyage,  wbicfa  was  the  year  fdiawing,  when  he  coasted 
along  a  part  of  the  isthmus  of  Darien.'* 

Alter  the  toyage  in  which  Newfoundland  was  discovered^ 
there  is  a  considerable  chasm   in   the  life  of  Sebastian 
Cabot;  for  we  have  no  distinct  accounts  of  what  he  per- 
formed for  the  3pace  of  twenty  years  together,  though  he 
probably  performed  several  voyages  during  that  period. 
Nor  have  we  any  account  at  what  time,  or  in  what  place, 
his  father  John  Uabot  died  ;  though  it  is  supposed  to  have 
been*  in  England.     The  next  transaction  concerning  Se- 
bastian Cabot,  of  which  we  meet  with  any  mention,  was  in 
the  eighth  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Henry  VIII.  and  our 
accounts  relative  to  this  are  not  very  clear.     But  it  seems 
he  had  entered  into  a  close  connexion  with  sir  Thomas 
Pert,   tlien  vice-admiral  of  England,    and  who  procured 
him  a  good  ship  of  the  king's,  in  order  to  make  discoveries. 
It  is  supposed,   however,  that  he   had  now  changed  his 
xoute,  and  intended  to  have  passed  by  the  South  to  the 
East '  Indies ;   for  he  sailed  first  to  Brazil,   and  missing 
there  of  his  purpose,  shaped  his  course  for  the  islands  of 
Hispaniola  and   Porto  Rico,   where  he  carried  on  some 
traffic,  and   then  returned,  failing  absolutely  in  the  de- 
sign upon  which  he  went ;  not  through  any  want  either  of 
courage  or  of  conduct  in  himself,  but  from  the  timidity  of 
his  coadjutor,  sir  Thomas  Pert. 

It  was  this  disappointment  which  is  supposed  to  have 
induced  Sebastian  Cabot  to  leave  England,  and  go  over 
into  Spain.  There  be  was  treated  with  great  respect,  and 
appointed  pilots-major,  or  chfef  pilot  of  Spain  ;  and  by  his 
office  entrusted  with  the  reviewing  of  all  projects  for  dis- 
covery ;  which  at  that  period  were  numerous  and  import- 
ant. His  great  capacity  and  reputation  as  a  navigator,  in- 
duced many  opulent  merchants  to  treat  with  him,  in  1524, 
about  a  voyage  to  be  undertaken  at  tlieir  expence  by  the 
new-found  passage  of  Magellan  to  the  Moluccos ;  and  Ca- 
bot accordingly  agreed  to  engage  in  the  voyage.  He  set 
sail  from  Cadiz,  with  four  ships,  about  the  beginning  of 
April  1525,  first  to  the  Canaries,  then  to  the  Cape  Verd 
islands,  and  from  thence  to  Cape  St.  Augustine,  and  the 
island  of  Patos,  or  Ge^se ;  and  near  Bahia  de  Todos  los 
Santos,  or  the  bay  of  All  Saints,  he  met  a  French  ship. 
When  he  came  to  the  island  just  mentioned,  he  was  in 
great  want  of  provisions ;  but  the  Jndians  treated  him  with 
much  kindness,  and  supplied  him  with  provisions  for  all  hi« 

«  CABOT. 

.ships.  ^  This  he  returned  by  an  act  of  base  ingratitude, 
carrying  off  with  him  by  force  four  sons  of  the  principat 
persons  of  the  island.     He  then  proceeded  to  the  river  of 
^late,  having  left  ashore,  on  a  desert  island,  Martin  Men- 
dibz,  his  vice-admiral,  captain  Francis  de  Rojas,  and  Mi- 
chael de  Rojas,  because  they  censured  his  conduct.     He 
was  now  prevented  from  prosecuting  bis  original  design  of 
.going  to  tbe  Spice  Islands,  both  by  a  scarcity  of  provisions, 
and  a  mutiny  among  his  men.     He  sailed,  however^  up  the 
river  of  Plate  ;  and  about  thirty  leagues  above  the  iHouth 
he  found  an  island,  which  he  called  St.  Gabriel,  about  a 
le^igue  in  compass,  and  half  a,  league  from  tbe  continent 
towards  Brazil.     There  he  anchored ;  and,  rowing  with  the 
boats  three  leagues  higher,  discovered. a  river  he  called 
San  Salvador,  or  St.  Saviour,  very  deep,  and  a  safe  har- 
bour for  the  ships  on  the  same  side;  whither  he  brought 
up  his  vessels,  and  unloaded  them,  hecau£»e  there  was  not 
much  water  at  the  mouth  of  tbe  river.     Having  built  a  fort, 
and  left  some  men  in  it,  he  determined  to  proceed  up  that 
river  with  boats,  and  a  flat-bottomed  caravel,  in  order  to 
ipake  discoveries ;  for  he  thought  his  voyage  might  thereby 
be  rendered  beneficial,  though  he  did  not  pass  through  the 
Straits  to  the  Spice  Islands.    When  he  bad  advanced  thirty 
leagues,  he  came  to  a  river  called  Zarcarana  i  the  inha- 
bitants in  the  neighbourhood  of  which  he  found  to  be  intel- 
ligent, and  not  unfriendly ;  a«id  here  he  erected  another 
fort,  calling  it  jSanti  Spiritus,  i.  e.  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and 
his  followers  by  another  name,  viz.  Cabot's  Fort,     He  then 
discovered  the  shores  of  the  river  Parana,  where  he  found 
several  islands  and  rivers,  aiid  at  length  came  to  tbe  river 
Paraguay,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  which  he  found  people 
tilling  the  ground ;  a  circumstance  which  had  not  occurred 
,tp  him  before  in  that  part  of  tl>e  world.     But  here  the  na- 
tives opposed  him  with  so  much  vigour,  that  he  advanced 
no  farther,  though  he  had  killed  many  of  the  Indians;  but 
they  slew  twenty-five  of  his  Spaniards,  and  took  three  of 
tliem,  who  went  out  to  gather  palmetos. 

While  Sebastian  Cabot  was  thus  employed,  James  Gar- 
cia, with  the  same*view  of  making  discoveries,  had  entered 
the  river  of  Plate,  without  knowing  that  the  other  was 
there  before  him.  He. had  been  sent  from. Gaiicia  with 
t,wo  vessels,  and  came  to  an  anchor  in  the  same  place  where 
Cabot's  ship  lay,  about  jhe  beginning  of  1527.  Directing 
his  course  towards  the  river  Parana,  he  arrived  at  the  fort 

CABOT.  9 

built  by  Cabot ;  and  about  one  hundred  a^nd  tei)  iMgues 
frooi  tbis  fort  he  found  Cabot  himself,  in  the  pqrt  of  St. 
Anne.  After  a  short  stay  there,  they  returned  together  to 
the  fort  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  from  whence  they  sent  mes- 
sengers into  Spain.  Those  who  were  dispatched  by  Cabot 
were  Francis  Caideron  and  George  Barlow,  who  gave  a 
very  favourable  account  of  the  fine  countries  bordering  on 
the  river  La  Plata,  shewing  bow  large  a  tract  of  land  he 
had  not  only  discovered,  out  subdued ;  and  producing  gold, 
silver,  ahd  other  valuable  commodities,  as  evidences  in 
favour  of  their  commander's  conduct.  They  then  de- 
manded on  his  behalf,  that  a  supply  should  be  sent  of  prq- 
visiuDs,  ammunition,  goods  proper  to  carry  on  a  trade, 
and  a  competent  recruit  of  seamen  and  soldiers.  But  the 
merchants,  by  whom  Cabot's  squadron  was  fitted  out,  would 
not  agree  to  these  requisitions,  rather  choosing  to  resign 
their  rights  to  the  crown  of  Castile.  The  king  then  took 
the  whole  upon  himself ;  but  was  so  dilatory  in  bis  pre- 
parations, that  Cabot,  who  had  been  five  years  employed 
in  this  expedition,  being  quite  tired  out,  determined  to 
r:eturn  home ;  which  he  accordingly  did,  embarking  the 
remainder  of  bis  men  and  all  his  effects  onboard  the  largest 
of  his  ships,  and  leaving  the  rest  behind  him.  He  ar- 
rived at  the  Spanish  court,  where  he  gave  an  account  of 
his  expedition,  in  the  spring  of  1531.  But  he  was  not 
well  received  :  for  be  had  created  himself  enemies  bv  the 
rigour  with  which  he  had  treated  his  Spanish  mutineers  ; 
and  he  had  also  disappointed  the  expectations  of  bis  owners 
by  not  prosecuting  his  voyage  to  the  Moluccos.  Notwith- 
standing these  unfavourable  circumstances,  be  found  means 
to  keep  his  place,  and  continued  in  the  service  of  Spain 
many  years  after,  till  at  length  he  resolved  to  return  agaia 
to  England.  What  were  his  particular  inducements  to  this 
we  meet  with  no  certain  account,  but  it  was  probably  about 
the  latter  end  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VUI.  that  Cabot 
returned  to  England,  where  he  resided  at  Bristol.  In  the 
beginning  of  the  following  reign  he  was  introduced  to  the 
duke  of  Somerset,  then  lord  protector,  who  received  him 
into  great  favour,  and  by  whom  he  was  made  known  to 
king  Edward  VI.  That  young  prince,  who  was  very  solici- 
tous to  acquire  knowledge,  aad  who  had  much  more  skill  in 
maritime  affairs  than  could  have  been  expected  from  his 
years,  took  great  pleasure  in  the  conversatioa  of  Cabot,  to 
whom  a  pension  was  granted,  by  letters  patent,    dated 

J«  e  A  B  R  A  L. 

•     i  ' 

j^hipf  with  which  he  left  Portugal;  and  having  then  ?«'<>- 
ceeded  to  Calecut,  he  entered  iqto  a  treaty  witl)  the  25a- 
morin  or  emperor,  who  allowed  him  to  build  a  factory  fqr 
, the  Portuguese,  and  although  \h^  zamorin  behaved  treache- 
rously afterwards,  Cabral,  by  chastising  his  insolenc<3, 
finally  atchfeved  bi$  pu^pqse.  H^  entered  into  a  similajr 
treaty  with  the  prince  of  Cananor,  and  in  1501  returned  tp 
^Portugal  vj^ith  his  fleet  rjchly  laden.  Of  bi^  future  lifje  we 
]iave  np  account,  buthp  lyrote  a  detail  of  his  voyage,  which 
'Ramusio  translated  ^njto  I^lian,  ancl  published  with  some 
others  at  Venice.  * 

GACCIA  (William),  an  artist,  known  by  the  name  of 

jMoncalvo,  from  his  long  abode  in  that  place^  was  born  in 

.)5iS8  at  Montebone,  in  ]^Iontferrat,  and  marks  perhs^ps^  ^be 

]brightest  data  of  Pieipontese  art,  thpugh  lyith  l^s^  qelebrity 

than  merit,  for  no  traces  appear  of  his  education  :  had  he 

been  a  scholar  of  the  Caracci,  his  first  essays  in  frescQ 

would  have,  been  made  at  Bologna,  not  at  the  stationary 

^chapels  of  Monte  Crea ;  his  style  of  design  would  reseipble 

that  of  Annibale  more  than  xhb  ideal  line  of  Ra(faelIo,  qr 

.Andrea  del  Sarto,  or  Parmigiano ;  and  his  landscape  have 

Jess  of  Paul  Brill.     His  numerous  small  Madonna^  breatbe 

the  spirit  of  the  Roman  and  Florentine  school,  and  pne  iu 

the  royal  palace  of  Torino  seems  to  have  issued  from  the 

hands  of  Andrea,  if  we  except  the  colour,  which,  though 

graceful   and   delicate,    has   more    of   the  weakness  that 

marked  the  tints  of  Sabbatini  and  the  predecessors  of  the 

Caracci.   The  powers  of  Moncalvo  were  not,  however,  conr 

fined  to. soft  subjects  :  the  contrary  appears  in  the  church 

of  the  Conventuals  at  that  place  in  numerous  instances,  and 

.still  more  in  a  chapel  of  S.  Domenico  at  Chieri,  where  the 

Hesuscitation  of  Lazarus,    and  the  Multiplication  of  the 

Loaves,  two  collateral  altar-pieces,  vie  with  each  other  in 

pathetic,  imagery,  legitimate  composition,  energy  of  ex?* 

pression  and  attitude,  and  correctness  of  design.     He  wa? 

assisted  by  several  scholars  of  no  very  eminent  note,  but 

N.  Sacchi  of  Casale,  in  energy  of  varied  expression  ana 

decision  of  pencil,  perhaps  excelled  the  master.     His  two 

daughters  Francesca  and  Orsola  Caccia  became,  under  hii 

tuition,  apt  associates  of  his  labours  in  fresco,  a  practici^ 

else  unknown  to  female  hands;  they  drew  from  the  fathe]^ 

the  structure  of  bodies,  but  not  their  animation  :  and  such 


•  Moreri. 

C  A  C  C  I  At  a 

ni^the  similarity  of  their  execution,  that  to  avoid  c^nfu* 
sioh,  Francesca,  the  younger,  maric^d  her  performances' 
with  a  small  bird,  whilst  Orsoia  distinguished  her  own  bj  $1^ 
flower;  she  fouTided  the  Conservatory  of  the  Ursulines  at^ 
Moncalvo,  where,  and  at  Casale,  she  left  altar-pieces  and* 
numerous  cabinet-pictures,  touched  in  the  manner  of  Paul 
Brill,  and  strewn  with  flowers;  A  holy  family  in  that  taste 
k  anfong  the  rich  collection  of  the  palace  Natta.  Caccia 
died  about  1 625.  ^ 

CADAMOSTO,  or  CADAMUSTI  (Lewis),  a  famous 
Venetian  navigator,  was  born  about  the  year  1:422,  and  by 
his  talents  attracted  the  notice  of  the  infent  don  Henry  of 
Portugah  This  prince,  animated  with  the  spirit  of  making: 
discoveries^  like  his  father  king  Jphn^  resolved  to  gain  the 
attachment  of  Cadamosto.  He  accordingly  applied  to  him^ 
thirough  the  consul  of  the  Venetian  republic  in  Portugal^ 
niCmed  Patrick  Conti,  for  information  concerning  the  advan- 
tageous commerce  of  the  island  of  Madeira,  conquered  in 
1430.  Cadamosto,  encouraged  by  the  hopes  of  profit, 
came  to  terms  with  don  Henry,  fitted  out  for  him  a  cara- 
velte,  of  which  Vincent  Diaz,  a  native  of  Lagos,  was  the 
patron.  ^  It  sailed  the  22d  of  March,  1455  ;  and,  after  hav-* 
hig  anchored  at  Madeira,  they  proceeded  to  reconnoitne 
the  Canaries,  the  cape  Blanco^  Senegal,  cape  Verd^  and 
the  mouth  x)f  the  river  Gambia,  in  a  second  voyage  which 
be  made  the  following. year^  with  a  Genoese  named  An-^^ 
thony^  they  prosecuted  their  discoveries  as  far  as  the  river 
of  St.  Dominic,  to  which  they  gave  that  name,  and  from 
whence  th^  returned  to  Portugal.  He  resided  a  long  time 
at  Lagos,  gaining  the  affection  of  the  merchants,  and  navi- 
gators of  the  place  by  acts  of  kindness  and  civility.  On  his 
return  io  his  native  country  in  1464,  he  published  the  ac^ 
eount  of  his  voyaees,  which  was  published  at  Vicenza, 
under  the  title  of  "^  La  Prima  Navigatione  per  TOceano  a 
l^  terre  de  Negri  delia  bassa  Etiopia,"  1507,  4to,'  but  the 
subsequent  edition  printed  at  Milan,  1519,  4to,  is  thought 
the  best. ' 

:.  CADELL  (Thomas),  an  eminent  bookseller,  and  a 
striking  instance  of  the  effects  of  a  strong  understanding: 
united  with  industry  and  integrity,  was  born  in  Wine-stroet^ 
Bristol,  6n  tlie  27th  of  October,  1742,  O.  S.  After.being 
educated  ill  his  native  city,  he  was  apprenticed,  in  .1758^ 

«       -  •  ■ 

*     ■  ■  •      • 

«  PiUcin^tOfi'sDict  »  Dicu  Hist.— Tiraboschi. 

14  C  A  D  E  t  t. 

to  Mr.  Andrew  Miliar,  at  that  time  at  the  he^  of  bis  f^te^ 
sion  in  London,  afid  the  steady  patron  of  Thomson,  Field-* 
ing,  and  many  other  celebrated  writers.  In  Mr.  Cadell 
be  soon  discovered  a  tftste  for  business,  a  love  of  industry^ 
and  an  understanding  uncommonly  acute>  which  embraced 
all  the  concerns  of  a  trade  that  necessarily  requires  more 
than  mere  mechanical  talents ;  and  Mr.  Millar  being  now 
advanced  in  life  readily  admitted  Mr.  Cadell  into  partner-^ 
ship  in  1765,  and  in  1767,  a  year  before  his  death,  relin-t 
quired  the  whole  to  him.  Mr.  Cadell  thns  became,  at  a 
very  early  period,  at  the  head  of  his  profession,  and  by 
associating  with  himself  the  late  William  Straban,  esq* 
secured  the  advice  and  assistance  of  a  printer  of  corre« 
spending  liberality  and  taste.  Introduced  at  the  same  time 
by  Mr.  Millar  to  writers  of  the  first  .rank  in  literature,  t» 
Johnson,  Hume,  Robertson,  Warburton,  Hurd,  &c.  he 
pursued  the  same  commendable  track,  and  acting  upon 
the  liberal  principles  of  his  predecessor  in  respect  to  au« 
thors,  enlarged  upon  it  to  an  extent,  which,  at  the  same 
time  that  it  did  honour  to  his  spirit,  was  well  suited  to  the 
more  enlightened  period  in  which  he  carried  on  business^ 
In  conjunction  with  Mr.  Strahan,  already  noticed^  and 
afterwards  with  his  son  Andrew  Strahan,  esq.  the  present 
member  for  Aldborough,  munificent  remune^tions  were 
held  out  to  writers  of  the  most  eminent  talents,  and^  as 
Dr.  Johnson  was  accustomed  to  say,  *^  the  price  of  litera*^ 
ture  was  raised.^'  The  names  of  some  of  the  writers  whose 
works  were  brought  forward  under  Mr.  Cadell's  auspices 
have  already  been  mentioned ;  nor  was  be  less  fortunate 
in  the  judicious  connexions  formed,  upon  the  most  liberal 
principles,  with  Blackstone,  Bum,  Henry,  Gibbon,  and 
Hiany  others  whose  works  are  to  be  found  in  every  library^ 
Although  in  success  such  as  Mr.  Cadell  experienced,  and 
which  must  depend  ultimately  on  the  pleasure  of  the  piib** 
lie,  chance  may  be  supposed  to  have  some  influence,  yet  it 
is  but  justice  to  add  that  Mr.  Cadell  had  acquired,  by  what-M 
ever  means,  an  uncommon  discernment  in  the  value  of 
books,  which  led  him  with  apparent  facility,  and  almost 
always  with  success,  to  predict  the  future  fate  of  what  was 
submitted  to  him ;  and  when  any  plan  of  republication  was 
discussed  in  conjunction  with  his  brethren,  we  have  the 
testimony  of  some  yet  living,  and  of  mai^  now  off  the 
stage,  that  no  man  could  see  more  clearly  than  Mr.  Cadell 
into  the  disposition  and  bias  of  the  reading  world,  or  dis« 

C  A  D  E  L  L.  IS 

play  more  judgaieiit  in  every  arrBngement  of  editions,  &c 
calculated  to  gratify  public  taste.  Hence)  in  bis  indivi^ 
dual  capacity,  it  was  universally  remarked  that  be  gave  the 
largest  prices  for  the  most  successfal  works,  and  that  at  a 
time  when  their  success  could  be  only  in  his  own  contem<^ 
platioQ ;  and  when  that  success  seemed  to  be  delayed  be-* 
youd  all  reasonable  hope,  even  in  such  cases  the  final 
issue  justified  bis  origins!  opinion,  and  proved  that  he  had 
formed  it  u|>on  substantial  grounds. 

In  1794  Mr.  Cadell  retired  from  business,  in  the  full 
possession  of  his  health  and  faculties,  and  with  an  ample 
fortune  corresponding  to  the  magnitude  of  the  (Concerns 
he  had  so  long  carried  on,  and  which  were  probably  the 
greatest  iu  Europe ;  and  wi^  succeeded  by  bis  only  aon^ 
Thomas,  and  Mr.  William  Davies,  who  entered  at  that  time 
into  partnership.  Accustomed,  however,  from  his .  early 
days  to  business,  Mr.  Cadell  senior,  with  a  laudable  am-^ 
bitlon,  sought,  and  most  honourably  obtained,  a  seat  in  the 
magistracy  of  the  city  of  London,  being  unanimously 
elected,  March  30,  171^8,  to  the  office  of  alderman  of  WslU 
brook  ward ;  and  the  following  year  was  elected  master  of 
the  worshipful  company  of  Stationers,  whose  hall  he  deco'* 
rated  with  a  magnificent  window  in  stained  and  painted 
glass.  At  Midsummer  1800,  a  period  when  party*spirit 
ran  high,  he  was  elected  by  a  very  honourable  majori^  on  w 
poll,  wiih  bis  friend  Mr*  Perring  (now  sir  John  Perring,  bart.)[ 
to  the  shrievalty  of  London  and  Middlesex :  an  office  which 
he  discharged  with  the  entire  approbation  of  his  consti- 
tuents<  His  conscientious  attendance  on  its  duties,  for  he 
was  never  absent  a  single  Sunday  frcmi  the  chapel  of  one  o6 
tlie  prisons,  we  are  sorry  to  add,  seems  to  have  laid  the 
foundation  of  that  asthmatic  complaint^  which  so  fatadly. 
terminated  at  a  period  when  the  citizens  of  London,  wha 
justly  esteemed  him  as  M  independent,  humane,  and  inteU 
ligent  magistrate,  anticipated  the  speedy  approach  of  his 
attainment  to  the  highest  civic  honours.  A  sudden  attack 
of  the  asthma  proved  fatal  in  the  night  of  Sunday,  Dec.  27, 
iS02,  to  the  lasting  regret  of  a  numerous  circle  of  friends/ 
and  to  th^  loss  of  many  public  institutions  of  wliicb  he  had 
been  an  active  governor,  and  to  which  he  had  been  a  liberal 
contributor.  He  was  interred  in  the  family  vault,  in  tlie 
churcb-yard  of  Elthamy  Kent  ^ 

16  CAD  O  Gf  A  N 

r  CADDGAN  (William),  a  physician  of  considet'able  note 
in  London,  was  educated  at  Oriel  collegCj  Oxford,  where 
he. took  his  degree  of  master  of  arts  in  1755  ;  end  the  sadie 
year  was  made  bachelor  and  doctor  ift  medicine.  He  bad 
previously,  viz.  in  1750,  published  a  small  treatise  on  the 
mirsing  and  management  of  children,  which  was  much  es* 
teemed,  and  contributed  toward  abolishing  some  improper 
treatment,  both  in. feeding  and  dressing  infants;  His  rules 
on  this  subject  were  first  adopted  by  the  managers  of  the 
Foundling  hospital,  and  by  degrees  became  general.  His 
next  publication  was  ^^  Dissertations  on  the  Gout,  and  all 
Chronical  diseases,'^  1764,  8Vo;  written  in  a- popular  mah'^ 
ner,  and  so  generally  read,  that  several  large  impressions 
ivere  sold  of  it.  The  three  principal  causes  or  Mi>urce8  of 
the  gout,  he  says,  are  indolence,  vexation,  and  intempe- 
rance. The  book' was  animadverted  upon  in  eleven  difter*ent 
pamphlets,  some  with  the  authors*  names,  and  some  with-* 
out,  but  he  did  not  condescend  to  answer  any  of  them. 
It  is,  on  the  whole,  well  written,  and  the  regulations  giveftf 
for  the  conduct  of  gouty  patients, '  with  the  view  of  miti-^ 
gating  the  fit,  and  preventing  frequent  relapses^  or  retumsr' 
of  the  complaint,  are  judicious,  and  well  deserving  atten-; 
tion.  He  was  fellow  of  the  college  of  physicians,  and^ 
which  is  by  no  means  usual,  spoke  tw%  Harveian  orations^' 
the  one  in  the  year  1764,  the  other  in  1793.  They  were? 
both  published.  He  died  in  his  eighty-sixth  year,  at  his 
kouse  in  George-street,  Hanover-square,  Feb.  26,  1797.* 
CADOGAN  (William),  first  earl  of  Cadogan,  the  son 
of  Henry  Cadogan^  a  counsellor  at  law,  by  Bridget,  dangh-* 
ter  to  sir  Hardress  Waller,  knt.  was  educated  to  a  uiilitary 
life,  and  in  1701  was  made  quarter-master- general  of  tb^^ 
army.  In  1703  he  was  constituted  colonel  of  the  Second 
tegiment  of  horse,  and  on  August  25,  1701',  brigadier- 
general,  having  that  year  behaved  with  great  gallantry  at 
the  attack  of  Schellenberg,  and  the  battle  of  Hocbstet.'*^ 
In  June  1705  he  was  elected  member  of  parliament  for 
Woodstock;  an d- on  July  18th  of  the  same  year,  at  the 
forcing  of  the  French  lines  near  Tirlemont,  he  behaved 
with  remarkable  bravery  at  the  head  of  his  regiment,  which 
first  attacking  the  enemy  had  such  success,  that  they  de<* 
feated  four   squadrons  of  Bavarian  guards,    drove  them' 

through  two  battalions  of  their  foot,  and  took  four  standards. 


>  Rees's  Cjrclop«dia«"«>LysoDs*8  Environti  SopplemenUFyWume. 

C  A  D  O  G  A  N^  17 

He  wa^  also  in  the  battle  of  RamilieSy  fought  on  Mqr  12, 
1706  ;  after  which  the  duke  of  Marlborough  sent  from  hisr 
cainp  at  Meerlebeck,  on  June  3,  brigadier  Cadogan,  with 
six  squadrons  of  horse,  and  his  letter  to  the  governor  of 
Antwerp,  to  invite  hioi  and  the  garrison  to  the  obedience 
of  king  Charles  III.  and  having  reported  to  his  grace  that 
ten  battalions  were  in  the  city  and  castle  of  Antwerp,  who 
seemed  inclined  to  surrender  on  honourable  terms,  the 
duke  sent  him  authority  to  treat  with  them.  And  after 
some  conferences,  they  complied,  and  the  garrison,  con-> 
sisting  of  six  French  and  six  Spanish  regiments,  were  al« 
lowed  to  march  out  in  three  days,  add  be  conducted  to 
Quesnoy.  But  of  the  Walloon  regiment,  consisting  of  60O 
men  each,  only  372  men  marched  out ;  the  rest  entering 
into  the  service  of  king  Charles,  except  some  few  who 
were  not  in  condition  to  serve,  and  returned  to  their  re- 
spective dwellings.  Afterwards,  towards  the  close  of  the 
campaign  that  year,  he  was  taken  prisoner  when  on  a  fo^ 
raging  party,  and  was  carried  into  Tournay,  but  he  re- 
mained there  only  three  days,  the  duke  of  Vendosme  send- 
ing bim,  on  August  19,  to  the  duke  of  Marlborough's  camp, 
upon  his  parole  ^  and  five  days  after  he  was  exchanged  for 
the  baron  Palavicini,  a  major*general  in  the  French  ser-^ 
vice,  taken  at  the  battle  of  Ramilies.  On  Jan.  l,  1706-7^ 
he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  major-general  of  her  ma- 
jesty's forces.  On  Mr.  Stepney's  decease  in  1707,  he 
succeeded  him  as  minister  plenipotentiary  in  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Spanish  Netherlands.  And  he  soon  after,  in 
conference,  brought  to  a  conclusion  the  negotiation  for  the 
speedy  exchange  of  prisoners<;  and,  having  shared  in  the 
most  difficult  etrterprizes  throughout  the  war,  was  consti- 
tuted a  lieutenant-general  on  January  10,  1708-9. 

On.  September  10,  1709,  the  day  before  the  battle  6( 
Tanniers,  near  Mons,  when  the  two  armies  were  in  sight 
of  each  other,  and  an  officer  from  the  French  having  made 
a  signal  for  a  truce,  several  of  both  sides  met  in  a  friendly 
manner,  and  the  French,  inquiring  for  an  officer  of  dis^t 
tinction,  desired  him  to  acquaint  the  duke  of  Marlborougby 
that  the  marshal  de  Villars  bad  some  affairs  of  importance 
to  propose  to  his  grace,  and  that  he  would  be  pleased  to 
send  a  trusty  person,  to  whom  he  might  communicate  the 
same.  On  *thts  his  grace  sent  general  Cadogan  to  knowi 
what  marshal  Villars  had  to  offer,  whereby  being  nearec 
the  French  army,  than  otherwise  he  could  have  been,  hm 

YQh.  VIII.  C 

IS  C  A  D  6  G  A  N; 

improved  the  opportunity  so  effectnally,  that,  by  viewing 
their  intrenchments  in  the  corner  of  the  wood  at  TaniHers, 
he  directed  the  colonel  of  the  artillery,  whom  he  tocA  with 
bim^  to  observe  where  he  dropped  his  glove,  and  there,  in 
the  night,  to  plant  his  cannon  ;  which,  by  enfiiading  their 
lines  the  next  morning,  greatly  contributed  to  the  forcing 
them,  and  was  the  principal  means  of  obtaining  that  vic*- 
tory.  Also  on  the  siege  of  Mons,  which  ensued,  being  (as 
he  ever  had  been)  indefatigable  in  serving  the  common 
cause,  and  going  voluntarily  into  the  trenches  to  animate 
the  troops  that  were  in  the  attack  of  a  ravelin,  he  received 
a  dangerous  wound  in  his  neck ;  his  aid-de-camp  being  also 
wounded  by  his  side,  of  which  he  soon  expired.  In  March 
1711,  he  was  at  the  Hague,  at  the  desire  of  the  council  of 
state  of  the  States  General,  to  assist  in  consulting  the  ope-* 
rations  of  the  ensuing  campaign. 

When  the  duke  of  Marlborough  was  disgraced,  and  went 
abroad,  be  resigned  all  his  employments,  choosing,  as  he 
had  a  share  in  his  grace's  prosperity,  to  be  a  partaker  in 
bis  adversity  ;  but  first  served  the  campaign,  in  1712,  under 
the  duke  of  Ormond.  At  the  accession  of  George  I.  vPn 
August  1,1714,  he  was  made  master  of  the  robes,  and 
colonel  of  the  second  regiment  of  foot-guards  ;  also  envoy 
extraordinary  and  plenipotentiary  to  the  States  General, 
In  17 1 5,  he  was  appointed  governor  of  the  Isle  of  Wight ; 
and  having  extinguished  the  remains  of  the  rebellion  in 
Scotland,  he  was  elected  a  knight  of  the  thistle  in  Jane 
i7l6,  and  on  the  30th  of  the  same  month  was  created  a 
peer  by  the  title  of  Lord  Cadogan,  baron  of  Reading.  His 
lordship  soon  after  was  again  sent  ambassador  extraordi* 
nary  and  plenipotentiaiy  to  the  States  of  Holland  ;  and 
arriving  at  Brussels,  on  Sept.  15,  1716,  signed,  «t  the 
Hague,  the  treaty  of  defensive  alliance  between  Great 
Britain,  France,  and  the  States  General.  He  set  out  for 
Utrecht,  on  Jan.  2f ,  1716,  to  wait  on  the  king,  expected 
there  that  afternoon ;  who  was  pleased  to  command  hi» 
attending  him  to  Great  Britain.  And  Mr.  Leatbes,  hia 
Biaje6ty''s  secretary  at  Bruseis,  was  appointed  to  reside  at 
the  Hague,  during  his  lordship's  absence. 

On  his  return,  he  was  sworn  of  the  privy  council,  on 
Mtirch  30,  1T17  ;  and  in  the  month  of  July  ending,  was 
consHituted  general  of  ail  bis  majesty^sfoot  fordesttmploye4y 
or  to  be  employed,  in  his  service.  The  following  year  h& 
was    again   appointed  embassador  ^(.traordinary  at  the^' 

C  A  D  O  G  A  N.  '    !• 

Hftgue^  where  be  arrived  on  Sept.  17, 1 7 IT;  and,  having 
brought  his  negotiations  to  a  eonclusion,  embarked  at  the 
Brill  for  England,  on  Nov.  7,  and  put  to  sea  the  same  eye- 
fliog.  On  May  8,  1718,  he  was  advanced  to  the  dignity  of 
Baron  of  Oakley,  viscount  Caversham,  and  earl  of  Cado«- 
gan,  with  remainder  of  the  barony  of  Oakley  to  Cbaries  his 
iM'other.  He  set  out  for  the  Hague  immediately  after, 
where  he  arrived  May  15,  1718,  and  on  the  1 8th  was  visited 
by  the  public  ministers,  and  by  the  president  of  the  States 
General  in  the  name  of  that  body.  Ten  days  after  he  was 
at  Antwerp,  where  he  conferred  with  the  marquis  de  Prie, 
governor  for  the  emperor  in  the  Netherlands,  in  order  to 
put  an  end  to  the  difficulties  that  bad  long  obstructed  th^ 
execution  of  the  barrier  treaty ;  and  bringing  him  to  com- 
ply with  what  was  demanded,  he  returned  to  the  Hague  on 
June  2  following,  and  communicated  to  the  States  his 
transactions  at  Antwerp,  who  appeared  sensible  of  his 
friendly  ofiices,  and  of  the  great  obligations  they  were 
under  to  his  Britannic  majesty.  And  having  fixed  for  his 
public  entry  the  king  his  master's  birth-day,  it  was  c6n«* 
ducted  with  great  splendour  and  magnificence.  He  theft 
laboured  with  great  diligence  to  adjust  the  difficulties^ 
which  deferred  the  finishing  of  the  convention  for  the  en- 
tire execution  of  the  treaty  of  barrier,  and  had  frequent^ 
conferences  with  the  Imperial  ministers  and  the  Slates 
General  for  that  purpose. 

On  Feb.  2,  1720,  his  majesty's  full  powers  were  dis- 
patched to  his  lordship,  for  signing,  in  conjunction  with 
the  ministers  of  the  several  allies,  the  treaty  of  quadru^^Ie 
alliance,  and  with  the  ministers  of  the  king  of  Spain,  the 
proper  instruments  for  receiving  his  catholic  majesty'^  ac- 
ceptance of  the  terms  of  peace  stipulated  in  the  treaty ; 
and  for  treating  of  a  cessation  of  arms  between  the  several 
powers  engaged  in  the  war ;  which  was  not  brought  to  a 
conclusion  till  June  7  following ;  when  the  ratificatronts 
were  accordingly  exchanged  with  the  minister  of  Spain. 
The  duke  of  Martborough  departing  this  life  on  June  16^ 
i72l2,  his  lordship  was,  two  days  afterwards,  constituted 
general  and  commander  in  chief  of  his  majesty's  forces^ 
master- general  of  the  ordnance,  and  colonel  of  the  first 
yegiment  of  foot-guards,  in  room  of  his  grace.  Also,  on 
Jane  23,  1723,  he  was  declared  one  of  the  lords  justices  of 
i^reat  Britain  during  his  majesty's  absence. 

His  lordship  married  Margaretta-Cecilia  Munter,  daugh- 

€  2 

to  C  A  D  O  G  A  N. 

let  of  William  Mtinter,  coonsellbr  of  the  court  of  HqU 
land,  by  his  wife  Cecilia  Trip,  of  Amsterdam  ;  and  by  her 
left  issue  only  two  daughters ;  the  lady  Sarah,  married  to 
Charles,  second  duke  of  Richmond ;  and  the  lady  Mar* 
garet,  married  to  Charles  John  count  Bentinck,  second  son 
to  William  earl  of  Portland,  by  his  second  wife.  His  lord- 
ship dying  on  July  17,  1726,  was  buried  in  Westminster* 
abbey.  Her  ladyship  survived  him  till  August,  1749,  when 
she  departed  this  life  at  the  Hague,  from  whence  her 
corpse  was  brought  the  next  month,  and  interred  by  his 
lordship's  in  Westminster-abbey.  As  they  left  no  male 
issue,  the  titles  of  viscount  and  earl  became  extinct,  and 
the  barony  of  Oakley  devolved  on  Charles,  his  brother, 
second  lord  Cadogan,  who  died  in  1776.^ 

CADOGAN  (William  Bromley),  grand  nephew. of 
the  preceding,  and  second  son  of  Charles  Sloan  Cadogan, 
third  baron,  and  first  earl  Cadogan  of  the.  new  creation 
(1800),  was  born  Jan.  22, 1751,  at  his  father's  hause  in  Bru- 
.ton*street,  and  was  educated  at  Westminster-school,  whence 
he  was  removed  to  Christ  church  college,  Oxford,  where 
he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  At  this  university,  he  distin- 
guished himself  by  obtaining  several  prizes  for' classical 
learning,  and  by  a  diligent  application  to  the  study  of  the 
holy  scriptures.  In  1774,  the  vicarage  of  St.  Gileses, 
Keading,  became  vacant,  by  the  death  of  the  rev.  William 
Talbot,  a  very  popular  preacher  of  Calvinistic  principles, 
and  was  conferred  on  Mr.  Cadogan,  unsolicited,  in  the  fol^ 
lowing  manner.  Lord  Bathursjt,  who  was  then  chancellor^ 
called  at  lord  Cadogan's  house  in  Privy  Gardens,  and  de- 
sired to  see  him.  Lord  Cadogan  was  not  at  home ;  and 
the  servants,  seeing  lord  Bathurst  plainly  dressed,  admitted 
him  no  farther  than  the  hall,  on  the  table  of  which  he  wrote 
a  note,  requesting  lord  Cadogan  to  accept  the  vicarage  pf 
St,  Giles's  for  his  son.  The  offer  of  so  valuable  a  prefer- 
ment, and  so  near  to  the  family  seat  at  Cayersham,  was 
peculiarly  acceptable  to  lord  Cadogan :  but  his  son  not 
being  in  priest's  orders,  it  was  held  by  sequestration  till 
he  was  ordained  priest  in  1775.  Soon  after,  he  was  pre- 
sented by  lord  Cadogan  to  the  rectory  of  Chelsea,  but  as 
he  could  not  hold  two  livings  without  being  a  master  pf 
arts,  that  degree  was  conferred  upon  him  by  archbishop 
Cornwallis ;  and  in  the  following  year,  being  then  of  suf* 

I  Collins's  Peerage,  by  Sir  £.  Brydges. 

C  A  D  O  G  A  N.  21 

ficient  stmnding  in  the  university^  he  was  regularly  ad- 
mitted to  the  same  degree  ot  Oxford. 

The  parishioners  of  St.  Giles's  were  deeply  affected  by 
the  death  of  Mr.  Talbot,  and  equally  grieved  at  the  ap- 
pointment of  his  successor;  and  their  only  hopes  were,  that 
as  he  was  a  youth  of  noble  family,  he  would  have  no  incli- 
nation to  do  the  duties  himself,  and  might,  perhaps,  con- 
tinue Mr.  Halward  as  curate,  who  had  been  appointed  to 
that  office  by  Mr.  Talbot,  and  was  highly  acceptable  to 
them.     Upon  a  petition,  however,  being  presented  to  Mr. 
Cadogan  in  favour  of  Mr.  Halward,  he  rejected  it  with  the 
strongest  marks  of  disapprobation,  and  the  congregation 
that  usually  met  in  St.  Giles  dispersed  themselves  among 
the  dissenting  meetings,  and  some  of  them  went  so  far  as 
to  erect  a  meeting  in  lady  Huntingdon's  connection.     On 
this  occasion  several  letters  passed  between  Mr.  Cadogan 
and   Mrs.  Talbot,  whose  house  was  opened  for  religious 
exercises.     At  first  he  was  highly  offended  ;  but  at  length* 
his  views  of  religious  doctrines  became  materially  altered, 
and  he  attained  before  his  death  a  popularity  equal,  or 
rather  superior,   to   that  of  his  predecessor,  and  a  cor- 
responding change  took  place  in   his  manner  and  habits. 
He   had  usually  divided  his  time  between  Reading  and 
Chelsea;  but  finding  his  labours  there  attended  with  lit- 
tle or  no  success,  and  having  been  prevailed  upon  to  let 
the  rectory-house,  he  left  that  populous  parish  to  the  care 
of  his  curate,  the  rev.  Erasmus  MiddJeton,  except  at  the 
season  of  Lent,  and  of  the  monthly  sacrament.     At  Read- 
ing, besides  preaching  on  Sundays,  morning  and  evening, 
he  preached  on  Thursday  evenings;  and  on  Tuesday  even- 
ings he  prayed  and  expounded  the  scriptures  in  his  own 
house;  but   finding  the  number  of  his  hearers  too  large, 
he  removed  this  instructive  exercise  into  the  chancel.     He 
also  instituted  four  Sunday  schools,  in  which  upwards  of 
120  poor  children  were  instructed.     These  schools  he  con- 
stantly attended,  encouraging  those  who  made  the  greatest 
improvement,  by  presents  of  money  or  books ;  and  sup- 
plying every  deficiency  in  the  collections  of  the  parishion- 
ers at  his  own  ex  pence.     He  was  usually  in  his  study  by 
six  o'clock,  and  devoted  the  greater  part  of  his  mornings 
to   reading  the  scriptures  in  the  original  languages ;  the   ' 
remainder  he  employed  in  exercise,  or  in  visiting  the  sick 
and  poor.     He  passed  much  time  in  secret  prayer,  and 
has  been  frequently  surprised  on  his  knees  by  his  servant. 

09  C  A  D  O  O  A  N. 

when  the  family  bad  retired  to  rest.  His  generosity  and 
charity  were  truly  great ;  nor  could  an  object  of  distress 
l>e  mentioned  to  him  by  any  of  his  congregation  without 
experiencing  his  liberality.  Many  clergymen,  in  circum-^  ^ 
stances  of  indigence  or  s^iction,  have  received  assistance 
from  him,  which  was  conveyed  in  the  most  private  way. 
He  had  great  politeness  in  his  manners  and  behaviour :  in 
bis  conversation,  the  scholar,  the  gentleman,  and  the  Chris* 
tian  were  united.  In  the  pulpit,  he  endeavoured  to  reform 
the  sinner,  and  display  to  all  men  the  blessings  of  salva* 
tion.  His  voice  was  not  pleasing,  but  his  delivery  was 
forcible ;  and  he  commanded  attention  by  the  earnestness 
with  which  he  impressed  iipon  his  bearers  the  sublime 
truths  of  the  gospel.  Amidst  these  Christian  duties,  Mr« 
Cadogan  was  seized  on  a  Thursday  evening  after  his  lec« 
ture,  with  an  inflammation  in  his  bowels,  which,  after  a 
short  interval  of  relief,  proved  fatal  Jan.  18,  1797. 

Mr.  Cadogan's  publications  consist  of  several  single  ser« 
inons  preached  on  various  occasions ;  and  after  his  death 
were  published  ^^  Discourses,  &c.  Leitters,  and  Memoirs 
of  his.  Life,  by  Richard  Cecil,  A.M."  1798,  8vo.* 

CiBLIUS  (AuRELiANUs),  or,  as  some  have  called  hiroi 
I^ucius  CsbUus  Arianus,  an  ancient  physician,  and  the  only 
one  of  the  sect  of  the  methodists  of  whom  we  have  any 
remains,  is  supposed  to  have  been  a  native  of  Sicca,  a 
town  of  Numidia,  in  Africa.     This  we  learn  from  the  elder 
Pliny ;  and  we  might  almost  have  collected  it,  without  any 
information  at  all,  from  his  style,  which  is  very  barbarous, 
and  much  resenibling  that  of  the  African  writers.    It  is 
half  Greek,  half  Latin,  harsh,  and  difficult ;  yet  strongs 
masculine,  and  his  works  are  valuable  for' the  matter  they 
contain*     He  is  frequently  very  acute  and  smart,  especially 
where  he  exposes  the  errors  of  other  physicians ;  and  al- 
ways nervous.    What  age  Caelius  Aurelianus  flourished  in 
we  caanot  determine,  there  being  so  profound '  a  silence 
about  it  amongst  the  ancients ;  but  it  is  very  probable  that 
be  lived  before  Galen,  since  it  is  not  conceivable  that  he 
should  mention,  as  he  does,  all  the  physicians  before  him, 
great  as  well  as  small,  and  yet  not  make  the  least  mention 
of  Galen.     Le  Clerc  places  him  in  the  fifth  century.     He 
was  not  only  a  careful  imitator  of  Soranus,  but  arlso  a 
ftrenuous  advocate  for  him.    He  had  read  over  very  dill* 

1  Coates's  Histoty  of  Reading.— 'Memoini  as  above. 

C  £  L  I  U  &  it 

gently  the  ancient  physicians  of  all  the  sects :  and  we  are 
obliged  to  him  for  the  knowledge  of  many  dogmas,  which 
are  not  to  be  found  but  in  his  books  **  De  celeribus  et 
turdis  passionibtts."  The  best  edition  of  these  books  is 
that  published  at  Amsterdam,  1722,  in  4to.  He  wrote,  as 
he  himself  tells  us,  several  other  works;  but  they  are  all 
perished.  This,  however,  which  has  escaped  the  ruins  of 
time  and  barbarism,  is  highly  valued,  as  being  the  only 
monument  of  the  Medicina  methodica  which  is  extant.  He 
is  allowed  by  all  te  be  judicious  in  the  history  and  descrip- 
tion of  diseases 

.  CAESALPINUS  (Andkbw),  an  eminent  botanist  and 
physician,  was  bom  at  Arezzo,  in  the  district  of  Florence, 
in  1519,  He  was  educated  under  Luke  Ghinus,  super* 
intendani  of  the  public  garden  at  Pisa,  where  he  appears 
to  have  acquired  his  taste  for  botanical  pursuits.  There 
abo  he  was  appointed  first  professor  of  physic  and  botany 
in  the  university,  and  afterwards  fifst  physician  to  pope 
Clement  VIU.  a  promotion  which  required  his  residence  at 
Rome,  where  be  died  in  1603.  He  described,  says  Dr. 
Pulteney,  with  exquisite  skill, 'the  plants  of  his  own  coun- 
try, and  left  an  herbarium  of  768  species.  He  extended 
Gesner's  idea,  and  commenced  the  period  of  systematic 
arrangement.  In  his  ^<  Libri  XVI  de  Plantis,**  .published 
in  1583,  at  Florence,  he  has  arranged  upwards  of  800 
plants  into  classes,  founded,  after  the  general  division  of 
the  trees  from  herbs,  on  characters  drawn  from  the  fruit 
particularly,  from  the  number  of  the  capsules  and  cells ; 
the  number,  shape,  and  disposition  of  the  seeds  ;  and  from 
the  situation  of  the  corculum,  radicle,  or  eye  of  the  seed, 
which  he  raised  to  great  estimation.  The  orders,  or  sub- 
divisions, are  formed  on  still  more  various  relations.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  biographer  of  Linnseus  remarks,  that, 
though  hi9  genius  was  inventive,  his  knowledge  of  botany 
was  neither  original  nor  universal.  He  missed  both  leisure 
and  opportunity.  Clusius  had  discovered  more  fresh  plants 
than  he  ever  was  acquainted  with.  His  herbal  did  not  con- 
tain nine  hundred  species,  a  fact  fully  proved  by  the  Flo- 
rentine botanist  Micheli,  who  had  it  in  his  possession.  A 
provision  of  this  kind  was  too  small  to  give  a  eomprehen- 
aive  view  of  botany,  and  the  knowledge  which  Csesalpinus 
acquired  of  the  internal  structure  of  plants  was  too  defective 

1  LeCierc  Hist  de  Med.—Haller  Bibl.  Med.  Pract. 

U'  C  A  E  S  A  L  P  I  N  U  S.  . 

to  point  out  the  most  perfect  order.     He  was  only  directed 
Vythe  fruit,  and  mostly  by  that  part  on  whic^  the  shoots  or 
germing  repose.  This  system  had  its  defects,  but  it  brought 
CsBsalpinus  much  nearer  to  the  truth,  and  he  discovered  more 
real  similarities,  more  natural  classes,  than  all  the  botanists 
who  preceded,  and  many  who  followed  him.     His  specula* 
tions  in  anatomy  are  still  more  ingenious.     He  describes 
very  clearly  the  circulation  of  the  blood  through  the  heart,- 
and  was  acquainted  with  the  uses  of  the  valves.     Douglas 
thinks  him  entitled  to  equal  praise  with  Harvey,  who  only  com- 
pleted what  he  had  nearly  achieved.     He  clearly,  Douglas- 
says,  diescribes  the  contraction  and  dilatation  of  the  heart, 
which  is  shewn  from  the  following  passage  from  his  fourth' 
book  *'  Question  urn  Peripateiicarum."     **  The  lungs,'*  he 
says,  ^^  drawing  the  warm  blood  through  a  vein  (the  pul- 
i»onary  artery)  like  the  arteries,  out  of  the  right  ventricle 
of  the  heart,  and  returning  it  by  an  anastomosis  to  the 
venal  artery  (the  pulmonary  vein)  which  goes  to  the  left 
ventricle  of  the  heart,  the  cool  air  being  in  the  mean  time' 
l<at  in  through  the  canals  of  the  aspera  arteria,  which  are 
extended  along  the  venal  artery,  but  do  not  communicate 
^ith  it  by  inosculations,  as  Galen  imagined,  cools  it  only 
by  touching.     To  this  circulation  of  the  blood  out  o^  the' 
right  Ventricle  of  the  heart  through  the  lungs  into  its  left 
ventricle,  what  appears  upon  jdissection  answers  very  w^ll : 
fbr  there  are  two  vessels  which  end  in  the  right  ventricle^  and' 
two  in  the  left :  but  one  only  carries  the  blood  in,  the  other 
seltids  it  out,  the  membranes  being  contrived  fpr  that  pur-' 
prose.'^     His  works  on  the  practice  of  medicine  have  also 
their  portion  of  merit.     '<  Questionum  Medicarum    Libri' 
ir. ;"  *^  De  Facultatibus  Medicamentorum  Libri  duo,"  Venet. 
1593,  4t6;  *^  Speculum  Artis  Medicae  HippocraticoB,  ex- 
hlbens  dignoscendos  curandosque  morbos,  in  quo  multa  vi-' 
suntur,  quffi  a  praecls^rissimis  medicis  intacta  relicta  erant,'* 
Lyons,  1601-2-3,  3  ypls.  8vo.  * 

CiESAR  (Julius),  the  illustrious  Ron(ian  general  and 
historian,  was  of  the  family  of  the  Julii,  who  pretended- 
they  were  descended  from  Venus  by  iEneas.  The  descen- 
dants of  Ascanius  son  of  MneBs  and  Creusa,  and  surnamed 
Julius,  lived  at  Alba  till  that  city  was  ruined  by  Tulliis 
I^ostilius,  king  of  Rome,  who  carried  them  to  Rome,  where 

i  HMIier  and  Manget. — Pulteuey's  Botany.— StO€Ver'8  Life  of  Uonsos^  p.  $0, 
— QcB.  Diet.— Freheri  Theatnun. 

C  ^  S  A  R,  95 

tibey  flourished.     We  do  not  find  that  they  produced  mora 
than  two  branches.    .The  first  bore  the  name  of  Tuiius,  the 
other  that  of  Caesar.     The  most  ancient  of  the  Csesacs  were 
those  who  were  in  public  employments  in  the  1 1th  year  of 
the  first  Punic  war.     After  that  time  we  find  there  was  al- 
ways some  of  that  family  who  enjoyed  public  offices  in  the 
commonwealth,  till  the  time  of  Caius  Julius  Csesar,  the 
subject  of  this  article.     He  was  born  at  Rome  the  12th  of 
the  month  Quintilis,  year  of  the  city  653,  and  lost  his 
father  anno  669,  and  the  year  after  he  was  made  priest  of 
Jupiter.     Sylla  was  aware  of  his  ambition,  and  endeavoured 
to  remove  him ;  but  Cee$ar  understood  his  intentions,  and^ 
to  avoid  discovery,  changed  every  day  his  lodgings.     He 
was  received  into  Sylla's  friendship  some  time  after ;  and 
the  dictator  told  those  who  solicited  the  advancement  of 
young  Caesar,  that  they  were  warm  in  the  interest  of  a  man 
who  would  prove  some  day  or  other  the  ruin  of  their 
country  and  of  their  liberty.     When  Caesar  went  to  finish: 
his  studies  at  Rhodes,  unde/  Apoilonius  Molo,    he  was* 
seized  by  pirates,  who  offered  him  his  liberty  for  thirty, 
talents.     He  gave  them  forty,  and  threatened  to  revenge 
their  insults ;  and  he  no  sooner  was  out  of  their  power  than 
he  armed  a  ship,  pursued  them,  and  crucified  them  all,. 
His  eloquence  procured  him  friends  at  Rome;  and  the> 
generous  manner  in  which  he  lived,  equally  served  to  pro* 
mote  his  interest.     He  obtained  the  office  of  high  priest  at 
the  death  of  Metellus ;  and  after  he  had  passed  through  thd 
inferior  employments  of  the  state,  he  was  appointed  over^ 
Spain,  where  be  sigpalized  himself  by  his  valour  and  in* 
trigues.     At  his  return  to  Rome  he  was  made  consul,  and 
soon  after  he  effected  a  reconciliation  between  Crassus  and- 
Pompey.     He  was  appointed  for  the  space  of  five  yearn 
over  the  Gauls,  by  the  interest  of  Pompey,  to  whom  he 
had  given  his  daughter  Julia  in  marriage.     Here  he  eiv» 
larged  the  boundaries  of  the  Roman  empire  by  conquest,, 
and  invaded  Britain,  which  was  then  unknown  to  the  Ro- 
man people.     He  checked  the  Germans,  and  soon  after 
had  his  government  over  Gaul  prolonged  to  five  other 
years,  by  means  of  his  friends  at  Rome*    The  death  of 
Julia  and  of  Crassus,  the  corrupted  state  of  the  Roman 
senatje,  and  the  ambition  of  Caesar  and  Pompey,  soon  be« 
came  the  causes  of  a  civil  war.  Neither  of  these  celebrated 
Romans  would  suffer  a  superior,  and  the  smallest  matters 
were  sufficient  ground  for  unsheathing  the  sword.     CaesarV 

f «  ^  M  s  An. 

petitions  were  receiired  with  coldness  or  indifference  by 
the  Roman  senate ;  and  by  the  influence  of  Pompey,  a 
decree  was  passed  to  strip  him  of  his  power.  Antony,  who 
opposed  it  as  tribune,  fled  to  Ca&sar's  camp  wjth  the  news; 
and  the  ambitious  general  no  sooner  hea^d  this,  than  he 
made  it  a  plea  of  resistance.  On  pretence  of  avenging 
the  violence  which  had  been  offered  to  the  sacred  office  of 
tribune  in  the  person  of  Antony,  he  crossed  the  Rubicon, 
which  was  the  boundary  of  his  province.  The  passage  of 
tJie  Rubicon  was  a  declaration  of  war,  and  Csesar  entered 
Italy  sword  in  band.  Upon  this,  Pompey,  with  all  the 
friends  of  liberty,  left  Rome,  and  retired  to  Dyrrachium ; 
dnd  C^Bsar,  after  he  had  subdued  all  Italy,  in  sixty  days^ 
entered  Rome,  and  provided  himself  with  money  from  the 
public  treasury.  He  went  to  Spain,  where  he  conquered 
Ae  partizans  of  Pompey,  under  Petreius,  Afranius,  and 
Varro ;  and  at  his  return  to  Rome  was  declared  dictator, 
and  soon  aifter  consul.  When  he  left  Rome  he  went  in 
quest  of  Pompey,  observing  that  he  was  marching  against 
a  general  without  troops,  after  having  defeated  troops 
without  a  general  in  Spain.  In  the  plains  of  Pharsalia^ 
B.  C.  48,  the  two  hostile  generals  engaged.  Pompey  was 
conquered,  and  fled  into  Egypt,  where  he  was  basely  mur« 
dered.  Ceesar,  after  he  had  made  a  noble  use  of  victory, 
pursued  his  adversary  into  Egypt,  where  he  sometime 
forgot  his  fame  and  character  in  the  arms  of  Cleopatra,  by 
whom  he  had  a  son.  His  danger  was  great  while  at  Alex- 
aiodria ;  but  he  extricated  himself  with  wonderful  success, 
and  made  Egypt  tributary  to  his  power.  After  several 
conquests  in  Africa,  the  defeat  of  Cato,  Scipio,  and  Juba, 
and  that  of  Pompey's  sons  in  Spain,"  he  entered  Rome, 
and  triumphed  over  five  different  nations,  Gaul,  Alexan- 
dria, Potitus,  Africa,  and  Spain,  and  was  created  perpe- 
tual dictator.  But  now  his  glory  was  at  an  end,  his  un- 
common success  created  him  enemies,  and  the  chiefest  of 
the  senators,  among  whom  was  Brutus  his  most  intimate 
friend,  conspired  against  him,  and  stabbed  him  in  the  se- 
nate house  on  the  ides  of  March.  He  died,  pierced  with 
twenty-thi^ee  wounds,  the  1 5th  of  March,  B.  C.  44, "in  the 
£ifty.sixth  year  of  his  age.  Casca  gave  him  the  first  Wow, 
and  immediately  he  attempted  to  make  some  resistance ; 
but  when  he  saw  Brutus  among  the  conspirators,  he  sub- 
mitted to  his  fate,  and  fell  down  at  their  feet,  muffling  up 
Bis  mantle,  and  exclaimi-ng,  "  Tu  quoque  Brute  !'*  Csesar 


C  M  S  AIL  n 

Dtitgbt  have  escaped  the  svrord  of  the  cdiitpiralor^  i£  b^  bid 
listened  to  the  advice  of  his  wife  Calpurnia,  whose  dreamsi 
on   the  night  previous  to  the  day  of  his  murder,  were 
alarming.     He  also  received,  as  he  went  to  the  senate* 
bouse,  a  paper  from  Artemidorus,  which  discovered  the 
whole  conspiracy  to  him ;  but  he  neglected  the  reading  of 
what  might  have  saved  his  life.     When  he  was  in  his  firsfc 
campaign  in  Spain,  he  was  observed  to  g^ze  at  a  statue  of 
Alexander,  and  even  he  shed  tears  at  the  recollection  that 
that  hero  had  conquered  the  world  at  an  age  in  which  be 
himself  had  done  nothing.  The  learning  of  Cwsar  deserves 
commendation,  as  wdl  as  his  military  character.     He  te* 
formed  the  calendar.     He  wrote  bis  commentaries  on  the 
Gallic  wars  on  the  spot  where  he  fought  his  battles,  and 
the  composition  has  been  admired  for  the  elegance  as  well 
as  the  correctness  of  its  style*    This  valuable  book  was 
nearly  lost;  and  when  Csesar  saved  bis  life  in  the  bay  of 
Alexandria,  he  was  obliged  to  swim  from  his  ship,  with  h^ 
arms  in  one  hand  and  his  commentaries  in  the  other.     Be* 
sides  the  Gallic  and  civil  wars,  he  wrote  other  pieces  which 
are  now  lost.    The  history  of  the  war  in  Alexandria  and 
Spain  is  attributed  to  him,  and  by  others  to  Hirtius. 
Cffisar  has   been  blamed  for  his  debaucheries   and    ex* 
pences,  and  the.  first  year  he  had  a  public  office,  his  debts 
were  rated  at  830  talents,  which  his  friends  distcharged  i 
yet,  in  his  public  character,  he  must  be  reckoned  one  of 
the  few  heroes  that  rarely  make  their  appearance  among 
mankind.     His  qualities  were  such,  that  in  every  battle  he 
could  not  be  but  conqueror,  and  in  every  republic,  master; 
and  to  his  sense  of  his  superiority  over  the  rest  of  the  worlds 
or  to  his  ambition,  we  are  to  attribute  his  saying,  that  he 
wished  rather  to  be  first  in  a  little  village,  than  second  at 
Rome.    It  was  after  his  conquest  over  Pharnaces  in  one 
day,  that  he  made  use  of  these  remarkable  words,  to  ex-* 
press  the  celerity  of  his  operations,  "  Veni,  vidi,  vici.^ 
Conscious  of  the  services  of  a  man,  who.  m  the  intervals  of 
peace  beautified  and  enriched  the  capital  of  his  country 
with  public  buildings,  libraries,  and  porticoes,  the  senate 
permitted  the  dictator  to  wear  a  laurel  crown  on  his  bald 
bead ;  and  it  is  said,  that,  to  reward  his  benevolence,  they 
were  going  to  give  hiih  the  title  or  auttKurity  of  king  all 
over  the  Roman  empire,  except  Italy,  when  be  was  mur- 
dered.    In  his  private  character,  CsBsar  has  been  accused 
of  seducing  one  of  the  Vestal  virgins^  and  suspected  of 

$S  CM  SAB. 

being  privy  to  Catiline's  conspiracy ;  and  it  was  his  fond- 
ness  for  dissipated  pleasures,  which   made  his  country- 
men   say,    that  he   was   the   husband  of  ail   the  women 
at  Rome.     It  is    said    that  he   conquered    300 .  nations, 
took  800  cities,  and  defeated  three  millions  of  men,  one 
of  which  fell  in  the  field  of  battle.     Pliny  says,  that  be 
could   employ  at  the  same  time,  his  ears  to   listen,   his 
eyes   to  read,  bis  hand  to  write,  and  his  mind'  to  die-* 
tate.     His  death  was  preceded,  as  many  authors  mention^ 
by  uncommon  prodigies ;  and  immediately  after  his  death,' 
a  large  comet  made  its  appearance.     Cassar  when  young, 
was  betrothed  to   Cpssutia,  a  rich  heiress,  whom  he  dis« 
missed  to  marry  Cornelia,  the  daughter*  of  Cinna,  by  whom 
he  had  Julia.     His  attachment  to  Cornelia  was  so  great, 
that  he  never  could  be  prevailed  upon  by  the  arts  or  threats 
of  Sylla  to  divorce  her;  but  her  attachment  he  baldly 
preferred   to  his  own   personal   safety.     After  her  early 
death,  which  he  lamented  with  great  bitterness  of  grief,  he 
married  Pompeia,  the  grand-daughter  of  Sylia;  and  for 
bis  fourth  wife  he  took  Calpurnia,    the  daughter  of  the 
consul  Piso,  a  connection  formed  from  political  motives. 
The  best  editions  of  Ceesar's  Commentaries,  are  the  mag- 
nificent one  by  Dr.  Clarke,  Lond.  1712,  fol. ;  that  of  Cam*- 
bridge,  with  a  Greek  translation,   1727,  4to ;  that  of  Ou- 
dendorp,  2  vols.  4t09  L.  Bat.  1737 ;  that  of  Elzevir,  8vo, 
L.  Bat.  1635  ;  that  of  Homer,  London,  1790,  2  vols.  8vo ; 
and  of  Oberlin,  Leipsic,  1 805,  8 vo.  * 

CiESAR  (Julius),  a  learned  civilian,  was  born  near 
Tottenham,  in  Middlesex,  in  15S7.  His  father  was  Caesar 
Adelmar,  physician  to  queen  Mary  and  queen  Elizabeth; 
lineally  descended  from  Adelmar  count  of  Genoa,  and  ad- 
miral of  France,  in  the  year  806,  in  the  reign  of  Charles 
the  Great.  This  Csesar  Adelmar's  mother  was  daughter  to. 
the  duke  de  Cesarini,  from  whom  he  had  the  name  of 
Csesar ;  which  name  Mary  I.  queen  of  England,  ordered 
to  be  continued  to  his  posterity  ;  and  his  father  was  Peter 
Maria  Dalmarius,  of  the  city  of  Trevigio  in  Italy,  LL.  D-. 
sprung  from  those  of  his  name  living  at  Cividad  del  Friulii 
Julius,  who  is  the  subject  of  this  article,  had  his  education  in 
the  university  of  Oxford,  where  he  took  the  degree  of  B.  A. 
May  17,  1 575,  as  a  member  of  Magdalen  hall.  Afterwards 
be  went  and  studied  in  the  university  of  Paris ;  where,  ia 

'  The  life  of  Cesar  properly  belongs  to  history,  and  is  detailed  at  great  length 
ID  every  Roman  histo  y,  particularly  Hooke's  and  the  Universal  History.  For 
%$  above  sketch  we  are  indebted  to  Dr.  Lempriere. 

C  iE  S  A  R.  ^9 

the  beginning  of  1581,  he  was  created  D.  C.  L.  and  had 
letters  testimonial  for  it,  under  the  seal  of  that  university, 
dated  the  22d  of  April,  1581..    He  was  admitted  to  the 
same  degree  at  Oxford,  March  the  5th,   1583;  and  also 
became  doctor , of  the  canon  law.  In  the  reign  of  queen  Eli- 
zabeth, he  was  master  of  requests,  judge  of  the  high  court 
of  admiralty,  and  master  of  St  Catherine's  hospital  near 
the  Tower.     On  the  22d  of  January,  1595,  he  was  present 
at  the  confirmation  of  Richard  Vaughan,  bishop  of  Bangor, 
in  the  church  of  St.  Mary-le-^Bow,  London. .   Upon  king 
James's  accession  to  the  throne,  having  before  distinguished 
himself  by  bis  merit  and  abilities,  he  was  knighted  by  that 
prince,  at  Greenwich,  May  20,  1603.     He  was  also  con- 
stituted chancellor  and  under-treasurer  of  the  exchequer ; 
,  and  on  the  5th  of  July,  1607,  sworn  of  his  majesty's  privy 
council.     January.  16tb,  in  the  eighth  of  king  James  I.  be 
obtained  a  reversionary  grant  of  the  ofEice  of  master  of  the 
rolls  after  sir  Edward  Phillips,  knight ;  who,  departing  this 
life  September  11,   1614,  was  succeeded  accordingly  by 
sir  Julius,  on  the  1st  of  October  following ;  and  then  he 
resigned  bis  place  of  chancellor  of  the  exchequer.      la 
;1613  be  was  one  of  the  commissioners,  or  delegates  em*- 
ployed  in  the  business  of  the  divorce  between  the  earl  of 
JEssex  and  his  countess ;  and  gave  sentence  for  that  divorce. 
About  the  same  time,  he  built  a  chapel  at  bis  house,,  on 
the  north  side  of  the  Strand^  in  London,  w;hich  was  conse^* 
erated,  May  8,  1614.     As  he  had  been  privy-counsellor 
to  king  James  I.  so  was  he  also  to  his  son  king  Charles  I. ; 
and  appears  to  have  been  custos  rotulorum  of  the  county 
of  Hertford.     We  are  likewise  informed  by  one  author^ 
that  he  was  chancellor  of  the  duchy  of  Lancaster.     After 
having  thus  passed  through  many  honourable  employment^ 
and  continued  in  particular,  master  of  the  rolls  for  above 
twea;ity  years,  be  departed  this  life  April  28,   1636,  in  the 
seventy-ninth  year  of  his  age.   He  lies  buried  in  the  church 
of  Great  St.  >  Helen's  within  Bishopgate,  London,  under 
a  fair,  but  uncommon  monument,  designed  by  himself; 
being  in  form  of  a. deed,  and  made  to  resemble  a  ruffled 
'  parchment,  in  allusion  to  his  ofKce  as  master  of  the  rolls. 
With  regard  to  his  character,  he  was  a  man  of  great  gra* 
vity  and  integrity,  and  remarkable  for  his  extensive  bounty 
and  charity  to  all  persons  of  worth,  or  that  were  in  want : 
so  that  he  might  seem  to  be  almoner->general  of  the  nation. 
Fuller  giv^s  the  following  instance  of  his  uncommon  charity : 
^^  A  gentleman  once  borrowing  bis  coach  (which  was  i^jj^ 

scr  e  iE  8  A  R. 

well  known  to  poor  people  as  any  hospital  in  Engiand) 
was  so  rendezvouzed  about  with  beggars  in  London,  that 
it  oost  him  all  the  money  in  his  purse  to  satisfy  their  im-» 
portunity,  so  that  be  might  have  hired  twenty  coaches  oa 
the  same  terms/'  He  entertained  for  s6nie  time  in  his 
ho«ise  the  most  illustrious  Francis  lord  Bacon,  viscount 
St.  AU>an*s.'  He  made  his  grants  to  all  persons  double 
kindnesses  by  expedition,  and  cloathed  (as  one  expresses 
it)  bis  very  denials  in  such  robes  of  courtship,  that  it  was 
not  obviously  discernible,  whether  the  request  or  denial 
were  oaost  decent.  He  had  also  this  peculiar  tohimself^ 
that  he  was  very  cauCious  of  promises,  lest  falling  to  an 
incapacity  of  performance  he  might  forfeit  bis  reputationf, 
and  multipl^y  his  certain  enemies,  by  his  design  of  creating 
uncertain  friends.  Besides,  be  observed  a  sure  principle 
of  rising,  namely,  that  great  persons  esteem  better  of  such 
they  have  done  great  courtesies  to,  than  those  they  have 
received  great  civilities  from ;  looking  upon  this  as  their 
disparagement,  the  ot^r  as  their  glory. 

Besides  sir  Julius,  Csesar  Adelmar  had  two  sons  that 
w^re  eminent  in  their  way.  His  second  son,  sir  Thomas 
Caesar,  was  one  of  the  barons  of  the  exchequer*  And  his 
third  son,  Henry  Csesar,  educated  in  Baliol  college,  and 
St.  Edmund  Hall,  Oxon,  became  prebendary  of  Westmin- 
Bter  in  the  second  stall,  in  September  1609,  which  be  re- 
signed the  latter  end  of  1625;  and  dean  of  Ely  in  1614. 
He  died  at  Ely  the  27th  of  June,  I6816,  aged  seventy- 
two,  and  was  huried  on  the  nortii  side  of  the  presbjrtery  of 
ifae  cathedral.  He  founded  two  scholarships  and  two  fel- 
lowships in  Jesus  coliege,  Cambridge,  to  be  elected  from 
the  king's  free^school  at  Ely,  and  gave  a  noble  benefaction 
to  tAie  choir,  &c.  of  Ely  cathedral,  but  his  nephew  and 
executor  having  heem  prevailed  upon  to  lend  the  principal 
money  of  these  benefactions,  the  whole  was  lost  both  to 
the  cathedral  and  the  college. 

In  December  1757,  sir  Julius  Caesar's  collection  of  ma- 
nuscripts, which  had  long  been  preserved  in  the  family, 
was  sold  by  public  auction  by  Sam.  Paterson.  By  th^ 
lapse  of  time  and  the  decay  of  the  family,  they  had  fallen  * 
into  the  hands  of  some  uninformed  ^persons,  and  were  on 
the  point  of  being  sold  by  weight  tp  a  cheesemonger,  as 
waste-paper>  for  the  siim  often  pounds ;  but  some  of  them 
happened  to  be  shewn  to  Mr.  Paterson,  who  instantly  dis* 
covered  their  yalue.    He  then  digested  a  masterly  cata« 

•    C  iB  S  A  R.  %k 

Segue  of  the  whole  coUectien,  and  distributing  it  ia  several 
thousands  of  the  most  singular  and  interesting  heads, 
caused  them  to  be  sold  by  auction,  which  produced  356/. 
Many  of  them  were  in  the  library  of  the  late  marquis^ 
of  Lansdowne,  and  are  now,  consequently,  in  the  British 
jnuseum. ' 

CAGLIARI   (Paul),  a  celebrated  artist,  called   PAUI4 
Veronese,  the  great  master  of  what  is  called  the  orna^ 
vaental  style,  was  born  at  Verona  in  1530,  and  was  tha 
disciple  of  Antonio  Badile.     When  young,  in  concurrency 
with    Batista  del   Moro,  Domenico  Brusasoroi,   and  Paol 
Farinato,  he  painted  at  the  summons  of  cardinal   Ercolo 
Gonzaga,.in  the  cathedral  of  Mantua,  and  left  no  doubt  of 
his  superiority  in  the  contest.     He  then  went  to  Venice^ 
and  with  the  procurator  Grioiani  to  Rome,  where,  from  the 
frescos  of  M.  Aivgelo  and  RafTael,  he  acquired  the  idea  of 
that  breadth  which  distinguishes  him  in  all  his  aliegorical 
and  my thojcrgic  pictures ;  and  tliough  the  simplicity  inse-^ . 
parable  from  real  grandeur  was  not  a  principle  to  be  courted, 
by  him  who  aimed  at  captivating  the  debauched  Venetian 
eye,  he  gave  proofs,  that,  if  i^^  did  not  adopt,  he  had  a 
9ense  for  its  beauties.    The  Apotheosis  of  Venice  in  the 
ducal   palace,  in  magnificence  of  combin^on,  loftiness, 
splendor,  variety,  offers  in  one  picture  the  principles  an() 
the  elemental  beauties  of  his  style.     It  was,  hqwever,  less; 
to. this  work,  than  to  his  C^ne,  or  convivial  compositions,, 
that  Paolo  owed  his  celebrity*     He  painted  four  at  Venice, 
for  four  refectories  of  convents,  all  of  enofmous  dimedsiona   . 
and  equal  copiousness  of  invention.     Th^  first,  ^ith  the  ^ 
Nuptials  of  Cana,  once  in  the  refectory  of  St.  Giorgio 
Maggiore^  now  in  the  Louvre,  and  known  by  numeroua 
copies,  is  thirty  palms  long,  comprizies  130  figures,  witli  a 
number  of  distinguished  portraits ;  and  yet  was  painted, 
$ays  Lanzi,  for  no  more  than  ninety  ducats.     The  second, 
better  preserved,  was  painted  for  the  convent  of  S»  Gio- 
vanni and  Pa(»lo,  and  represents  the  call  of  St.  Matthew ; 
|t,  is  chiefly  praised  for  the  character  of  the  heads,  which 
Ricci  copied  for  bis  studies  at  an  advanced  age.     The 
third,  at  St   Sebastian,  is   tlie  Feast  of  Simon,  which  is 
likewise  the  subject  of  die  fourth,  painted  for  the  refec- 
tory of  the  Servi,  but  sent  to  Lewis  XIV.,  and  placed  at 
Versaillef .     Thi9i  perhaps,  is  the  master-^.piece  of  ^he  four, 

1  Biog.  Brit.— Beniham's  El/.    ' 

U  C  A  G  L  I  A  R  I. 

though  placed  in  an  unfavourable  light,   and  greatly  in-^' 
jured  by  neglect,  and  the  dampness  of  the  place. 

No  painter  ever  was  hurried  along  by  a  greater  torrent 
of  commissions,  and  no  painter  ever  exerted  jiimself  with 
'  greater  equality  of  execution.     Light  grounds  and  virgin 
tints  have  contributed  to  preserve  the  freshness  of  his  pic^ 
tures  :  the  family  of  Darius  presented  to  Alexander,  in  the 
Pisani  palace  at  Venice,  and  the  S.  Giorgio,  once  at  Verona, 
iiow  in  the  Louvre,  have,  without  the  smallest  loss  of  the 
bloom  that  tones  them,  received  from  time  that  mellow* 
ness,  that  sober  hue,  which   time  alone  can  give.     More 
fixed  in  a  system,  and  consequently  nearer  to  manner  than 
Titian,  with  less  purity  and  delicacy ;  greyer,  not  so  warm, 
so  sanguine,  or  so  juicy  as  Tintoretto,  Paolo  excels  both 
in  fascinating  breadth  of  bland  and  lucid  demi-tints;  and 
in  his  convivial  scenes,  though  thronged  with  pomp,  gor- 
geous  attire,  and  endless  ornament,  never  once  forgets 
that  they  were  admitted  to  shew  and  not  to  eclipse  the 
actors.     The  actors  were  not,  indeed,  those  of  the  histo-> 
rian,  no  more  than  the  costume  that  of  the  times,  or  the 
ornaments  and  architecture  those  of  the  country.     The 
ostentatioflr  of  ornamental  painting  is  not  to  be  arraigned  at 
the   tribunal  of  serious   history.     The   humble  guests  of 
Cana,  the  publican  forsaking  his  till,  Magdalen  at  the  feet 
of  Christ,  travestied  into  Venetian   patriarchs,    belles,  or 
nobles,  ^wei'e  only  called  upon  to  lend  their  names,  and  by 
their  authority  to  palliate  or  flatter  the  reigning  taste  or 
vice  of  a  debauched  and  opulent  public. 

This  great  artist  was  highly  esteemed  by  all  the  prin- 
cipal men  of  his  time  ;  and  so  much  admired  by  the  great 
masters,  as  well  his  contemporaries  as  those  who  sue-* 
ceeded  him,  that  Titian  himself  used  to  say,  he  was  the 
ornament  of  his  profession.  And  Guido  Reni  being  asked^ 
which  of  the  masters  his  predecessors  he  would  choose  to 
be,  were  it  in  his  power,  after  JRaphael  and  Corregio, 
named  Paul  Veronese,  whom  he  always  called  his  Paolino.' 
He  died  of  a  fever  at  Venice  in  1588,  and  had  a  tomb  and 
a  statue  of  brass  erected  in  the  church  of  St.  Sebastian. 

Paul  left  great  wealth  to  bis  two  sons,  Gabriel  and 
Chs^rles,  who  were  painters,  and  lived  very  happily  to- 
gether. They  joined  in  finishing  several  pieces  left  im* 
perfect  by  their  father ;  and  followed  his  manner  so  closely 
in  other  works  of  their  own,  that  the  connoisseurs  do  not 
easily  distinguish  them  from  those  of  Paul's  hand.     Charles 

C  AG  LI  A  HI.  S3 

h^  H  genius  for  painting,  and  at  eighteen  years  of  age  Iikd 
done  some  excellent  pieces.    It  is  tbQught^  if  be  bad  livedo 
that  he  would  have  exceeded  his  father ;  but  coiitracting 
an  imposthume  in  his  breast,  by  applying  too  intensely  ta 
his  profession,  he  died  of  it  in  1596,  when  he  was  only, 
twenty-six  years  old.     Gabriel  had  no  great  genius  for 
painting;  and  therefore,  after  his  brother's  decease,  ap-- 
plied  himself  to  merchandise.     Yet  he  did  not  quite  lay 
aside  his  pencil,  but  painted  a  considerable  number  of 
portraits,  and  some  historical  pieces  of  good  taste*     He 
died  of  the  plague  in  1631,  aged  sixty-three. 

There  was  also  Benedict  Cagliari,  a  paipter  and  sculptor^ 
who  was  Paul's  brother,  and  lived  and  studied  with  him. 
He  assisted  him,  and  afterwards  his  sons,  in  finishing  se- 
veral of  their  compositions ;  but  was  most  successful  in 
painting  architecture,  in  which  he  delighted.  His  style 
in  painting  was  like  his  brother's;  and  not  b^ing  ambi- 
tious enough  of  fame  to  keep  his  productions  separate^ 
they  are,  in  a  great  measure,  confounded  with  Paul's.  He 
practised  for  the  most  part  in  fresco ;  and  some  of  his  best 
pieces  are  in  chiaro-obscuro.  He  possessed  moreover  a 
tolerable  stock  of  learning,  was  something  of  a  {)oet|  and 
had  a  peculiar  talent  in  satire.  He  died  in  1598^  aged 
sixty-six.  ^ 

CAGLIOSTRO  (Count  Alexander),  a  noted  impostor, 
whose  true  name  was  Joseph  Balsamo,  was  born  at  Palermo 
the  8th  of  June  1743 ;  Peter  Balsamo  being  his  father^  and 
Felix  Braconieri  his  mother,  both  of  humble  parentage. 
He  was  still  a  child  when  his  father  died  ;  and  was  there- 
fore brought  up  by  the  relations  of  his  mother,  who  caused 
him  to  be  instructed  in  the  first  principles  of  religion  and 
philosophy,  but  it  was  not  long  before  he  shewed  how  little 
be  was  disposed  to  either,  by  ruuning  away  more  than  once 
from  the  seminary  of  St.  Roche  at  Palermo,  where  he  had 
been  placed  for  education.  In  his  thirteenth  year  his  guar-^ 
dians  delivered  him  to  the  care  of  the  general  of  the  friars  of 
niercy,  who  took  him  along  with  him  to  the  monastery  of 
that  order  at  Cartagirone ;  where  he  was  entered  as  a  no-*^ 
vice,  and  committed  to  the  tuition  of  the  apothecary ; 
under  whom,  as  he  says,  he  found  means  of  acquiring  tiie 
fijfst  elements  of  chemistry  and  physic.     But  neither  here 

^  Pilkington.^-D'Argenville.— «Sir  Joshua  Reynolds^!  Works.    Se«  iBdex.-— 
Itrutt^s  Diet,  of  Engrarers. 

'  VOL.VnL  D 

M  C.A  G  L  I  D  S  T  R  O. 

did  he  mdike  any  long  stay.  He  continued  to  shew  hibi* 
self  on.  his  worst  side,  and  his  superiors  were  frequentljl^' 
Qbliged  to  give  him  correction  for  obliquities  in  hts  cOn-- 
duct.  When,  according  to  the  custom  of  monastic  foun-^ 
dationsy  it  came  to  his  turn  to  read  during  dinner-time^ 
he  never  read  what  was  contained  in  the  book,  but  deli-* 
vered  a  lecture  according  to  the  dictates  of  his  fancy*  He' 
himself  confesses,'  that  in  reading  frotti  the  martyrology^ 
instead  of  the  names  of  the  holy  women,  be  inserted  those' 
of  the  most  noted  courtesans  of  the  town.  At  length,  being 
weary  of  repeated  chastisement,  he  thirew  off  the  cowi^  and" 
went  back  to  Palermo,  where  for  a  time  be  studied  draw- 
ing ;  and  without  ihaking  any  reform  in  his  manners,  '2lA* 
dieted  himself  to  excesses  of  every  kind.  It  was  bis  great- 
est pleasure  to  rove  about  armed,  and  to  frequent  the  com- 
pany of  the  most  profligate  young  men  of  the  tdWn.  Thielrfe 
was  no  fray  in  which  he  was  not  concerned,  and  he  fert-/ 
joyed  nothing  more  than  when  he  could  resist  the  magis- 
trate, and  deliver  the  prisoner  from  his  authdrity.  Hfe 
even  stooped  to  the  mean  felony  of  forging  the  tickets  of 
admission  to  the  thesltres ;  and  from  an  uncle,  with  wfaoni 
he  liv4sd,  he  stole  considerable  sums  of  money  and  othei^ 
property.  In  a  l6ve  intrigue  between  4  peir^on  of  rank 
and  a  cousin  of  his,  he  made  himself  the  lett^r-carrierj 
and  occasionally  de'tii^nded  of  the  Ibver  dt  brie  time  monfey, 
at  another  a  watchj  and  always  something  of  f&lue,  in  the 
name  of  the  fair  one,  which  he  Appropriated  to  hithseljfl 
He  then  insinuated  himself  into  the  good  graces  of  ^  no-^ 
tary,  to  whom  he  Was  related  ;  and,  for  the  sake  of  a  bribe, 
counterfeited  a  will  in  favour  of  a  certain  niarchese  MeEu- 
rigi;  The  forger)^  was  discovered  some  years  afkerWairdsi 
and  the  affair  being  brought  before  the  judges,  was  fully 
proved  ;  but  this  was  at  a  time  when  the  persons  interested 
ivere  not  at  Palermo.  He  was  likewise  charged  with  hav- 
ing murdered  a  canon,  and  with  obtaining  several  sums  of 
money  from  a  monk  fot  giving  him  written  permits  of  ab-* 
fience  from  his  convent  at  various  times  ;  all  of  which  pa* 
pers  were  found  to  be  forged.  * 

For  such  transactions  as  these  he  was  several  times  at- 
rested  and  put  into  prison;  but  either  for  want  of  sufl9ciebt 
evidence,  or  from  the  complicated  nature  of  the  busin^ss^ 
or  from  the  extensive  influence  of  his  relations,  he  as  often 
found  means  of  soon  regaining  his  liberty.  At  length  he 
was  forced  to  take  to  flight  for  cheating  a  silversmith, 

(f  A  G  L  BjO  S  T  Jl  O.  3* 

mned  Marwo,  of  apwards  erf  Mxty  onndies  of  gold)  under 
pretencjb  of  shewiivg  bim  a  tretisure  hid  in  a  care.  On*, 
bringing  BiikLto  the  place,  be  began  t6  exhibit  a  variety  of 
fantastidal  muinmeries^  an  if  practising  some  magical  rites^ 
which  terminated  in  the  appearance  of  tome  accomplices 
df  Bfeilaamo,.  whoy  ih  the  di^uise  of  theatrical  devils,  be*^ 
labottrad  the  shoulders  of  poor  Marano.  The  silversmith, 
though  highly  incensed  at  this  infamous  treatment,  thought 
it  not  prudent  to  have  recourse  to  the  law,  but  resolved  to 
have  his  revenge  bjr  murdering  the  impostor,  which  being 
suspected  hj.  Balsarao,  he  thought  it  expedient  to  remove' 
to  another  place. 

-  from  k  newspaper  of  the  time  of  his  being  arrested  at 
Bame  it  appears  that  he  was  strongly  suispected  of  witchcraft, 
wkieh  smpicion  was  grounded  on  two  circumstances;  The 
fikoner,  ihat^  a«ider  pretext  of  relieving  one  of  his  sister^ 
who  was  posbesslsd  by  a  devil,  he  obtained  from  a  country^ 
vicar^  mmed  Bagario,  a  pledget  of  cotton  dipped  in  holy 
oil,  though  none  of  his  sisters  were  possessed.  -  The  other 
tes  the  appafritioi(i  of  a  lady.  It  was  affirmed,  that,  being 
asked  i»  a  certain  company,  in  what  attitude  and  employ -> 
m^nt  the  absent  lady  was  at  the  moment  %tiey  were  speftk- 
iag  of  her;  Balsamo,  to  satisfy  their  curiosity,  immediately 
drew  a  quadrangle  on  the  floor,  atid  passing  his  hands  to 
and  fro  abuvt^  it,  she  was  fairly  seen  upon  the  floor  playing 
at  cards  with  three  other  persons^  A  servant  was  directly 
dispatched  to  the  lady's  house ;  who  found  her  exactly  tn 
the  aiititude  atid  employment  with  the  three  friends  &s  te- 
presented  in  the  figure. 

Balsamo,  wbo  had  quitted  his  country,  Palermo,  i^  th^ 
maaner  above  mentioned,  now  began  to  roam- about  tfa6 
world.  We  can  here  only  follow  his  own  account,  till  Wd 
flpjeet  hkn  at  Rome,  ^ for  want  of  other  traces  and  informa* 
tiom..  With  the  money  he  had  procured  by  his  fraud  bn 
the  sil^rsmith  he  travelled  to  Messina.  Here  he  got  ac- 
^aiftted  vf ith  a  certain  Altotas,  a  Greek-,  or,  according  td 
others^  a  Spaniard,  who  was  versed  in  several  l-Anguage^: 
possessed  b  namber  of  Arabic  writings,  and  gave  himself 
out  for  a  great  chemist.  With  thi^  tiew  friend  he  took  ship, 
vj^ed' the  >Archi|}0lago^  and  landed  at  Alexandria  ill 
Sggrpt,  where  th^y  staid  about  forty  days,  diid  his  feHbit 
tr^dtkr  uiideiiloc^  a  variety  of  chemical  operations,  and 
among  the  rest  that  of  making  a  sort  of  silky  stuff  from 
hamp  and  flaac^  by  which  he  got  much  money.     From 

D  2 

^6  C  A  G  L  I'  Oi  S'  T  R'  O; 

Alexandria  tbey  firoceeded  to  Rodiy  where  they  nk^wcMe^ 
obtained  sa^q  money  by  chemical  operations.  Quitting* 
tbje  isle  of  Rodi  they  bent  their  course  to  Grand  Cairo^  but 
by  contrary  winds  were  driven  to  Malta,  where  they  re- 
ijKiained  some  time,  working  in  the  laboratory. of  the  grand* 
master  Pinto.  Here  Altotas  died ;  and  Badsamo  resolved* 
to  go,  in  company  with  a  knight  to  whom  he  was  recom* 
mended  by  the  grand-master  himself,  to  Naples. 

It  is  impossible  by  any  means  to  contract  the  numberless 
tricks  and  stratagems  of  this   grand  impostor,  in  almost 
every  part  of  Europe,  within  the  limits  prescribed  to  the 
articles  of  this  work.     His  astonishing  ingenuity  in  every 
species  of  fiction  and  deceit,  exceeds  all  that  has  been  re- 
corded in  the  annals  of  ancient  or  modern  roguery,  inso- 
much that  he  was  held  for  a  real  prodigy  by  every  one  <o 
whose  ears  his  fame  had  reached.     His  impostures  iu  each 
of  the  places  he  visited  would  fill  a  considerable  volume ; 
and  we  must  content  ourselves  with  adding,  that,  for  some 
enormities  committed  at  Rome,  he  was  thrown  into  the* 
castle  of  St.  Angelo,  where  he  died  towards  the  latter  end 
of  1794;  referring  such  readers  as  would  wish  to  know 
more  of  him  to  the  Italian  original,  published  at  Rome  by 
the  apostoUcal  chamber,  under  the  title  of-  ^^  Compendium 
of  the  Life  and  Actions  qf  Giuseppe  Balsamo,  otheiwise 
called  count  Cagliostro,  extracted  from  the  documents  of 
the  process  carried  on  against  him  at  Rome  in  the  year 
1790  "   &c.  * 

,  CAGNATI,  or  CAGNATUS  (Marsiuus),  of  Verona, 
an  eminent  physician,  was  first  lecturer  in  that  faculty  at 
'Rome  in  the  sixteenth  century,  under  the  popes  Clement 
VIII.  and  Paul  V.  He  studied  at  Padua  under  Zabarelia, 
and  was  a  man  of  great  learning,  and  considered  as  the 
head  of  bis  profession.  His  distinguished  merit  procured 
him  an  invitation  to  Rome,  where  he  taught  philoso^y 
and  medicine,  in  the  college,  and  was  honoured  with  some 
considerable  appointments.  As  he  was  an  excellent  Greek 
and  Latin  scholar,  anji  conversant  with  the  historians  in 
both  languages,  his  lectures  acquired  a  particular  interest 
from  the  quotations  he  occasionally  made  .in  them  from 
these  writers.  He  wrote  two  books  on.  the  manner  of  pre- 
serving health,  on  diet,  exercise,  &c.  .Rome  1591,  and 
Padua,  1605.    He  wrote  aUo  on  the  inundations  of  the 

1  From  tiie  last  edition  of  tkii  DieiioQary. 


^b^;  the'salubpity  of  the  air  at  Rome,  ^[ndemic  disorders^ 
the  24th  aphorism  of  Hippocratesi  which  be  thought  had 
been  long  misunderstood,  and  on  the  cure  of  fevers  as 
practised  at  Rome.  His  knowledge  appeared  also  in  his 
four  books  of  **  Observations,"  Rome,  1587,  inserted  af- 
terwards in  the  third  volume  of  Gruter*s  "  Thesaurus  Cri'- 
ticus/'  1604,  8vo..  In  1603  a  quarto  volume  was  pub^ 
Itshed  of  his  ^*  Dissertations"  on  various  medical  topicsr. 
He  died  in  1610.^ 

•  CAIET,  or  CAYET  (Pbtbr  Victor  Palma),  was  born 
in  15125  at  Montrichard  in  Touraine,  of  a  poor  family,  and 
was  at  first  a  protestant  divine,  fittached  to  Catherine  of 
Bourbon,  sister  of  Henry  IV.  but  was  deposed  in  a  synod 
on  a  charge  of  practising  the  arts  of  magic,  and  for  hciving 
written  a  book  in  favour  of  public  stews.  This  sentence 
accelerated  his  abjuration,  which  he  delivered  at  Paris  in 
4595,  and  died  in  1610,  at  the  age  of  eighty-five,  doctor 
of  Sorbonne,  and  professor  of  Hebrew  in  the  college  royaL 
Caiet  was  of  a  kind  and  officious  disposition,  and  was  so 
unfortunate  as  to  have  for'  his  enemies  all  whom  he  had 
obliged.  His  slovenly  dress,  his  manner  of  life,  and  tiis 
absurd  attempts  to  discover  the  philosopher's  stone,  drew 
upon  him  no  less  contempt  than  his  learning  brought  hini 
respect.  Notwithstanding  his  humble  and  shabby  exterior^ 
Henry  IV.  continued  to  admit  him  to  court,  not  without 
wishing,  however,  to  avoid  it,  which  he  shewed  by  pre- 
senting him  with  a  small  estate  in  the  country,  a  philoso^ 
phical  retreat  sufficient  to  satisfy  the  ambition  of  a  dcholan 
The  Calvinists,  whom  he  had  deserted,  endeavoured  to 
expose  his  principles  and  conduct,  and  as  after  his  abjura^ 
tion  he  had  had  a  conference  with  Du  Moulin,  this  was  a 
fresh  reason  for  their  animosity.  Caiet  did  not  remain 
silent,  but  published,  in  1603,  against  Du  Moulin,  the 
book  emphatically  entitled  ^^  The  fierv  Furnace,  and  the 
reverberatory  Furnace,  for  evaporating  the  pretended  wa- 
ters of  Siloam  (the  title  of  Du  Moulin's  work),  and  for 
strengthening  the  fife  of  purgatory."  The  intimacy  be- 
tween the  count  de  Soissons  and  the  sister  of  Henry  IV* 
proceeded  such  lengths,  that  they  ordered  Caiet  to  marry 
them  immediately..  On  his  refusal  to  do  it,  the  prince 
threatened  to  kill   him.  *^  Kill  me  then,"  replied  Caiet  ^ 

*  Hfforeri.-^Haller  and  Manfet.— ^Erytbrci  Pinacotbeca.— Diet.  Hist.-r-Saxii 


<'  I  -had  pHich  ratker  die  by  tbe  k^nd  of'  pi  t»dpc#  llH^n  by 
tbs^t  pf  the  hangman.'* 

He  left  behind  him  seyernl  controversial  pieces,  iiar  leif 
consultj&d  than  bi$.  ^'  Ghrotiologie  septenpair^/'  160/6,  8vc^ 
from  the  peace  of  Vervins  in  1598  to  1604.  The  reception 
this  work  noet  with  obliged  him  to  add  to  the  history  of  the 
peace  that  of  the  war  that  went  before  it.  We  have  this 
additional  history  in  the  3  vols,  of  hi*  **  Chrpnologie  no- 
vennaire,"  1608,  8vo,  from  1589  to  1598.  Theabb6  d'Ax- 
tigny  has  collected  the  principal' particulars  of  it  in  hi^f 
"  Nouveaux  Memoires  de  Litterature."  Dr.  Caiet  enters 
into  all  the  details  that  may  furnish  amuseoient  to  curiosity, 
and  matter  of  reflection  to  philosophy.  In  the  "  Chrono- 
Jogie  septennaire"  ar^  contained  reUtioi^Sj  poems,  miani- 
festos,  instructions,  letters,  pleadings,  and  other  pieces, 
of  which  the  greater  part  would  have  b^en  lo<$t  to  posterity. 
Besides  these  public  pieces,  wfs  Und  a  great  number  of 
private  anecdotes,  unknown  to  other  writers,  which  tfaft 
author  was  enabled  to  pick  up  ajt  thie  court  qf  Catherine  de 
@ourbon,  and  that  of  Henry  IV.  with  whooi  be  wa3  on  a 
familiar  footing.  ^ 

d AJETAN,  a  cardtnd^  was  born  in  1 46^,  at  Csgeta,  » 
town  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples.  JHis  proper  name  was 
Thomas  de  Vio,  but  he  took  that  of  Cajetan  from  the  place 
pf  his  nativity.  He  was  entered  of  the  order  of  Dominic, 
pf  which  be  became  an  illustrious  ornament;  and  having 
taken  a  doctor's  degree  when  be  was  about  twenty-two 

?ears  of  age,  he  taught  philosophy  and  divinity  first  at 
*aris,  and  afterwards  at  Rome.  He  went  regularly  through 
all  the  honours  of  his  order,  till  he  was  made  general  of 
it;  which  office  he  exercised  for  ten  years.  He  defended 
the  authority  of  the  pope,  which  suffered  greatly  at  the 
council  of  Nice,  in  a  work  entitled  "  Of  the  Power  of 
the  Pope  ;''  and  for  his  zeal  upon  this  occasion,  was  made 
bishop  of  Cajeta.  Then  he  was  raised  to  the  archiepisco^ 
pai  see  of  Palermo ;  and  in  1517  was  made  a  cardinal  by 
pope  {^o  X.  The  year  after  he  was  sent  a  legate  into 
Germany,  to  quell  the  commotions  which  Luther  had 
Yaised  by  his  opposition  to  Leo's  indulgences :  but  Luther, 
being  under  the  particular  protection  of  Frederic  elector 
0f  Saxony,  set  him  at  defiance;  and. though,  in  obedience 
to  the  cardinaPs  summons,  he  repaired  to  Augsburg,  yet 

1  Geo,  Diet,  10  Ca^et^^Morerl^—Dict.  Hitt 

C  A  J  E  T  A  N.  9» 

|;ie  refider^  )^»  endeayours  of  poeffqc^  paj^tao  indeed 
wa^  tfajB  most  improper  person  that  cpqjjl  jiaye  been  se- 
lected to  oppose  Luther,  having  nothing  ito  advance  but 
the  arrogant  dicUtes  of  mere  authority.  Pe  was,  however, 
ippfe  advantagpousLy  employed  in  several  other  negotia- 
tions ^nd  trau^actiQps,  being  not  only  a  rpan  of  lettern, 
but  having  a  peculiar  turn  for  business ;  apd  at  length  died, 
in  1534,  when  be  y^as  sixty- five  years  old. 

Sixtus  SepeQsis  tells  us,  that  he  i^§is  a  most  subtle  lo-, 
gician,  an  ^4i^i^^})^^  pbilo,sQpher,  ^ud  an  it)comparabie 
divine.  He  wrote  upon  Arjstotle's  philo- 
fophy,  and  upop  ThoB^a^  iVq^inas's  theology ;  the  latter, 
ho^jireyer,  by  np  means  c;^lcu)ated  to  give  us  a  favourable 
idea  of  his  log|c,  or  his  perspicuity.  He  gaye  a  lUeral 
translation  of  ai|  the  booljLS  of  the  Q14  and  New  Testaments 
from  the  originals,  excepting  Solomon's  Song  anci  the  Pro- 
gbets,  which  h^  bad  beguu,  l^ut  did  npt  )iy^  to  proceed  far 
\^;  and  the  ^evelatigms  of  St.  Jp.ho,  designedly 
omitted,  saying,  that  tq  e::^p)ain  ^hem,  it  w^  necessary  for 
^  man  to  l^e  eudqed,  pot  \yith  parts  and  learning,  but  with 
^e  spirit  of  prophecy.  F^er  Simon's  account  of  him, 
af.a  tiansl^or  of  the  Bib^e^  is  critical  and  historical:  ."Car- 
dinal Cajptan,"  says  he,  ^f  was  very  fpnd  of  translations  pf 
)be  Sibie  purely  literal;  being  persuaded,  that  the  Scfip-r 
|uji;;e  poul4  ^9^  ^e  translated  pqo  literally,  it.  being  the  word 
pf  ,Qod,  to .  v^hicb  it  is  exprpssjy  forbid  either  to  add  or 
flimip|sh  any  thing,  fl^is  cardinijLl,  in  his- preface  to  the 
J^^alpis,  largely  explains  th.e  metjiod  he  observed  in  his 
translation  of  that  bo9k  ;  and  he  affirms,  that  although  he 
i:new  nothing  of  the  Hebreyir,  yet  he  had  translated  part  of 
^he  Bible  word  for  wprd  from  it.  Fgr  this  purpose  he 
H^ade  Mi/se  of  two  persons,  w^o  unders.tQQd  the  language 
well,  the^  o^ne  a  Jew,  the  other  a  (Christian,  .whom  he  de- 
sired to  t^auslfite .  the  Hebrew  words  exactly  according  to 
the  letter  ai^d  grammf^-,  ^though  .their  translation  mig^t 
appear  to  make  np  sense  at  all.  I  oyvn,  says  he,  that  my 
interpreters  we-re  pft^n  sayiog^o  me,  this  Hebre  v  diction 
fs  literally ' [^p ;. but  then  the  sense, will  not  be  clear  unless 
^t  is  cbangied  ^p  :.  to  wbpn)  (,  when  I  heard  all  the  different 
signific^M^iop^,  cpnstaptly  replied,  Neyer  trouble  yourselves 
.fibpjut  the  S^^se,  if  'ip.49i^9  QOt  apf^ieac  to  you ;  because  it 
|a  jioty  pur  business  .to,  e^^pQupd)  but.  ito  interpret :  do  you 
interpret  it  exactly  as  it  lies,  and  leave  to  the  expositors 
the  care  of  making  sense  of  it."     'Cardinal  Pallavicini,  who 

4d  C  A  J  E  T  A  N. 

looked  upon  this  as  too  bold,  says,  that  Cajetan,  '^  who 
has  succeeded  to  the  admiration  of  the  whole  world  in  his 
other  works,  got  no  reputation  by  .what  he  did  upon  the 
Bible,  because  he  fallowed  the  prejudices  of  those  who 
stuck  close  to  the  Hebrew  grammar/'  But  father  Simon 
is  .of  opinion  that  he  *^  may  in  some  measure  be  justified  : 
for  he  did  not,  says  he,  pretend  to  condemn  the  ancient 
Latin  translator,  or  the  other  translators  of  the  Bible ;  bnt 
nvould  only  have  translations  of  the  Bible  to  be  made  from 
the  original  as  literally  as  can  be,  because  there  are  only 
these  originals,  which  can  be  called  the  pure  word  of  God ; 
and  because  in  translations,  which  are  not  literal,  there  are 
always  some  things  which  do  not  thoroughly  express  the 
original."  These  ^^  Commentaries  on  the  Holy  Scriptures,'' 
if  they  deserve  the  name,  were  published  at  Lyons  in  5 
vols.  fol.  1639.  > 

CAILLE  (Nicholas  Lewis  de  la),  an  eminent  French 
mathematician  and  astronomer,  was  born 
the  diocese   of  Rheims  on  March  15,  1713.     His'  father 
having  quitted  the  army,  in  which  he  had  served,  amused 
himself  in  his  retirement  with  studying  mathematics  and 
mechanics,  in  which  he  proved  the  author  of  several  in^ 
^  mentions  of  considerable  use  to  the  public.     From  this  ex-? 
ample  of  his  father,  our  author  almost  in  his  itifaticy  took  a 
fancy  to  mechanics,  which  proved  of  signal  service  to  him 
in  his  maturer  years.    At  school  he  discovered  early  tokens 
of  genius.     He  came  to  Paris  in  1729  ;  where  he  studied 
the.  classics,  philosophy,  and  mathematics,  and  afterwards 
divinity  in  the  college  de  Navarre,  with  a  view  to  the 
church,  but  he  never  entered  into  priest's  orders,  appre- 
hending that  his  astronomical  studies,  to  which  he  had 
become  much  devoted,  might  too  much  interfere  with  his 
religious  duties.     His  turn  for  astronomy  isoon  connected 
him  with  the  celebrated  Cassini,  who  procgred  him  an 
apartment  in  the  observatory ;  where,  assisted  by  the  coun- 
sels of  this  master,  he  soon'  acquired  a  name  among  the 
astronomers.     In  1739  he  was  joined  with  M.  Cassini  de 
Thury,  son  to  M.  Cassini,  in  verifying  the  meridian  through 
the  whole  extent  of  France ;  and  in  the  same  year  be  was 
named  professor  of  mathematics  in  the  college  of  Mazarine. 
Jn  1741   oar  author  wai|   admitted  into  the  academy  Of 
.   sciences  as  an  adjoint  member  for  astronomy ;  and  ha4 

1  Moreri  and  Diet.  Hist,  in  yio.-i-Mo8heiin. — ^XHirio* 

C  A  I  L  L  E.  41 

many  excellent  papers  inserted  in  their  memoirs ;  beside 
ivhich  he  published  several  useful  treatises,  viz.  Elements 
of  Geometry,  Astronomy,  Mechanics,  and  Optics.  He  also 
carefully  computed  all  the  eclipses  of  the  sun  and  moon 
that  had  happened  since  the  Christian  ssra,  which  mere 
printed  in  the  work  entitled  **  UArt  de  verifier  les  dates,*! 
&c.  Paris,  1750,  ito.  He  also  compiled  a  volume  of  astro- 
nomical ephemerides  for  the  years  1745  to  1755;. another 
for  the  years  L755  to  1765  ;  and  a  third  for  the  years  1765 
to  1775  ;  as  also  the  most  correct  solar  tables  of  any ;  antd 
an  excellent  work  entitled  ^^  Astronomiae  fundameuta  no^- 
yissimis  solis  et  stetlarum  observation ibus  stabilita." 

Having  gone  through  a  seven  years  series  of  astronomical 

observations  in  bis  own  observatory  in  the  Mazarine  college, 

he  formed  the  project  of  going  to  observe  the  southern 

stars  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.     This  expedition   being 

countenanced  by  the  court,  he  set  out  in  1750,  and  in  the 

space  of  two  years  he  observed  there  the  places  of  about 

ten  thousand  stars  in  the  southern  hemisphere  that  are  not 

visible  in  our  latitudes,  as  well  as  many  other  important 

elements,  viz.  the,  parallaxes  of  the  sun,  moon,  and  some 

of  the  planets, -the  obliquity  of  the  ecliptic,  the  refractions, 

&c.     Having  thus  executed  the  purpose  of  his  voyage,  and 

no  present  opportunity  offering  for  his  return,  he  thought 

of  employing  the  vacant  time  in  another  arduous  attempt; 

no  less  than  that  of  taking  the  measure  of  the  earth,  as  he 

bad  already  done  that  of  the  heavens.  This  indeed  had  been 

done  before  by  different  sets  of  learned  men  both  in  Europe 

and  America ;  some  determining  the  quantity  of  a  degree 

at  the  equator,  and  others  at  the  arctic  circle :  but  it  had  not 

as  yet  been  decided  whether  in  the  southern  parallels  of 

latitude  the  same  dimensions  obtained  as  in  the  northern. 

His  labours  were  rewarded  with  the  satisfaction  he  wished 

for;  having  determined  a  distance  of  410,814' feet  from  a 

plaee  .called  KUp-Foutyn  to  the  Cape,  by  means  of  a  base 

^f  S8j802  feet,  three  times  actually  measured  :  whence  he 

discovered  a  new  secret  of  nature,  namely,  that  the  radii 

Ojf  the  parallels  in  south  latitude  are  not  the  same,  length 

as  thos^e  of  the  corresponding  parallels  in  north  latitude* 

About  the  23d  degree  of  south  latitude  he  found  a  deglree 

on  the  meridian  to  contain  342,222  Paris  feet.     The  court 

of  Versailtes.also  sent^biq^  fm  order  to  go  and  fix  the  situ- 

f^tion  pf  the  Isles  of  France  and  qf  Bourbon.    While  at  the 

i^ape  too  he  observed  a  vybnderful  effect  of  the  atmosphere 

#♦  C  A  L  A  M  Y. 

ittinister  of  St.  Mary  Aldermanbory,  which  brought  him  tip^ 
to  LoDdon,'  16S9.    The   controversy  coucerning  church- 
gchremment  was  then  at  its  greatest  height,  in  which  Mr*. 
Calamy  had  a  very  large  share.     In  the '  month  of  July 
163^,  he  was  incorporated  of  the  university  of  Oxford^ 
which,  however,  did  not  take  him  off  from  the  party  in 
which  he  was  ejigaged.     In  1640  he  was   concerned  in 
writing  that  famous  book,    called   Smectymnuus,   which 
himself  says,  gave  the  first  deadly  blow  to  episcopacy,  and 
therefore  we  find  frequent  references  to  it  in  all  the  de^^ 
fenc^  and  apologies  for  nonconformity  which  have  been 
since  published.     In  1641  he  was  appointed  by  the  house 
of  lords  a  member  of  the  sub-committee  for  religion,  whieb 
consisted  of  very  eminent  divines,  whose  conduct,  how-^ 
ever,  has  been  differently  censured.     He  made  a  great  fi^ 
gure  in  the  assembly  of  divines,  though  he  is  not  n>en^' 
tioned  in  Fuller's  catalogue,  and  distinguised  himself  both 
hy  his  learning  and  moderation.     He  likewise  preached 
several  times  before  the  house  of  commons,  for  which  his 
Memory  has  been  very  severely  treated.     He  was  at  the 
same  time  one  of  the  Corn  hill  lecturers,  and  no  man  had 
a  greater  interest  in  the  city  of  London,  in  consequence 
of  bi&  ministerial  abilities.     He  preached  constantly  in  his 
own  parish  church  for  twenty  years  to  a  numerous  au-^ 
dience,  composed  of  the  most  eminent  citizens,  and  even 
persons  of  great  quality.     He  steadily  and  strenuously  op-- 
posed  the  sectaries,  and  gave  many  pregnant  instances  of 
bis  dislike  to  those  violences  which  were  committed  after- 
wards, on  the  king's  being  brought  from  the  Isle  of  Wight. 
He  opposed  the  beheading  of  his  sovereign  king  Charles  I. 
with  constancy  and   courage.     Under  the  usurpation  of 
Gromwell  he  was  passive,  and  lived  as  privately  as  be 
could ;  yet  he  gave  no  reason  to  suspect  that  he  was  at  all 
a  well-wisher  to  that  government.     When  the  times  af- 
forded a  favourable  opportunity,  he  neglected   not  pro-* 
moting  the  return  of  king  Charles  II.  and  actually  preached 
before  the  house  of  commons  on  the  day  they  voted  that 
g^reat  question,  which,  however,   has   not  hindered  some 
from  suggesting  their  suspicions  of  his  loyalty.     After  this 
step  was  taken,  he,  Mr.  Ash,  and  other  eminent  divines, 
were  sent  over  to  compliment  the  king  in.,  Holland,  by 
whom  they  were  extremely  well  received.     When  his  ma- 
jesty was  restored,  Mr.  Calamy  retained  still  a  considerable 
^lare  in  bis  favour,  and  in  June  1660,'  was  appointed  one- 

CALAMY.  *» 

•f  his  chaplains  in  ordinaiy,  aiid  was  offered  the  bi^hop-^ 
ric  of  Coventry  and  Litchfield,  which  he  refused.     Whettf 
the  convocation  came  to  be  chosen,  he  and  Mr.  Baxter 
were  elected.  May  2,  1661,  for  Loudon;  but  the  bishop 
of  that  diocese  having  the  power  of  chasing  two  out  of 
four,  or-  four  out  of  six,  elected  within  a  certain  circuit:. 
Dr.  Shddon,  who  was  then  bishop,  was  so  kind  as  to  ex^' 
cuse  both  of  them;   which,  perhaps,  was  owing  to  the 
share  they  had  in  the  Savoy  conference.     After  the  mis- 
carrying of  that  design,  Mr.  Calamy  made  use  of  all  his 
interest  to  procure  the  passing  of  an  act  agreeable  to  the 
king's  declaration  at  Breda  :  bat  when  this  was  frustrated^ 
and  the  act  of  uniformity  passed,  he  took  a  resolution  06 
^bmitting  to  ejection,  and  accordingly  preached  his  fare*- 
wel  sermon  at  Aldermanbury,  August  17, 1662.    He  made^ 
however,  a  last  effort  three  days  afterwards,  by  presenting 
a  petition  to  his  aiajesty  to  continue  in  the  exercise  of  hisi 
ministerial  office.     This  petition  was  signed  by  many  of 
the  London  clergy,  and  Dr.  Manton  and  Dr.  Bates  assisted 
at  the  poesenting  it,  when  Mr.  Calamy  made  a  long  and 
moving  speech ;  bat  neither  it  nor  the '  petition  had  any 
good  effect,  though  the  king  expressed  himself  in  favour 
of  toleration.     He  remained,  however,  in  his  parish,  and 
came  constantly  to  church,  though  another  was  in  the 
pulpit,  which  proved  an  occasion  of  much  trouble  to  him ; 
for  on  December  28,  1662,  the  expected   preacher  not 
coming  in  time,  some  of  the  principal  persons  in  the  parish 
prevailed  upon  Mr.  Calamy  to   supply  his  place,  which, 
with  some  importunity,  he  did  ;  but  delivered  himself  with 
such  freedom,  that  he  was  soon  after,  by  the  lord  mayor's 
warrant,  committed  to  Newgate  for  bis  sermon.     But  the 
ease  itself  being  thought  hard,  and  some  doubt  arising  how 
far  the  commitment  was  legal,  his  majesty  in  a  few  days 
discharged  him.     He  lived  to  see  London  in  ashes,  the 
sight  of  which  broke  his  heart.     He  was  driven  through  the 
rains  in  a  coach  to  Enfield,  and  was  so  shocked  at  thedis- 
oial  appearance,  that  he  could  never  wear  off  the  impres- 
sion, but  kept  his  chamber  ever  after,  and  died  October 
29,  1666,  within  two  months  after  this  accident  happened. 
He  was,  though  a  veiy  learned  man,  yet  a  plain  and  prac- 
tical preacher,  and  one  who  was  not  afraid  to  speak  hi^ 
.sentiments  freely  of  and  to  the  greatest  men  *.     He  was 

*  Dr.  Calamy  tells  «8«  that  our  author,     greatest  ii^terest  in  court,   city,  aod 
tkithe  tim«  of  th«  RestoratioQj  had  the     couatry,  «f  .any  of  the  ministers,  and. 


C  A  L  A  M  Y. 

twice  married.  By  his  fiit^t  wife  he  bad  a  $ oo  arid  daugbie^} 
and  by  bi&  second  seven  childteii,  sodie  of  lAiom  W^  $ba\\ 
have  occasion  to  mention  in  suceeeding  atticles.  ? 

Besides  th^  piec^  already  mentioned,  Mr.  Calaniy  p«b« 
lished  several  single  sermons  pre!ached  on  different  occ^^ 
sions^  and  fiye  sermons  entitled  /^  The  Godly  Man's  Ark/ 
or  a  city  of  refuge  in  the  dajr  of  bis  distress/'  the  eigbib 
^ition  of  which  W2M5  printed  ftt  London,  16SS,  in  121110^ 
He  had  a  hand  in  drawing  up  the  ^^  Vindication  of  the  Pres« 
by terian  Government  and  Ministry/'  London,  1650;  and 
the  ^^  Jus  Divinum  Ministerii  Evangeliei  Anglicani,"  printed 
in  1*654.  Since  his  death,,  there  was  a  treatise  of  Meditft'^ 
tion  printed  in  a  clandestine  way,  not  by  his  son,  nor  fr<N» 
his  manuscript,  but  from  some  impeirfect  notes  tak^i  by 
an  auditor. ' 

.  CALAMY  (EDMUND)i  elde$t  son  of  the  preceding,  waft 
born  at  St.  Edmund' s-Bury^.  in  S^affdlk,  about  the  year 
1635.  In  his  jurfior  years  he  was  carefully  instructed  b^ 
his  father,  and.  when  he  had  acquired  a  sufficient  fund  ot 
teaming,  he  wits  transferred  to  the  university  of  Cambridge, 
where  he  wb&  entered  of  SEdney  college^  Mbreh<28^  165  U 
He  took  the  de^s;Tee  of  bachelor  0f  arts  in  1654-5.  Thteft 
he  removed  to  Pertibroke-hajl,  where  he  took  tii^  degree 
of  master  of  artfii  in  1658.  He  became  afterwards  feUo#' 
of  that  eoUege ;  and  on  April  20,  165d,  was  presented  to 
the  living  of  Moreton  in  Essex,  which  be  held  tiU  be  w«i 
iremoved  by  the  act  of  uniformity  in  1662.  After  his  eject* 
ment  he  retired  to  London,  and  kept  a  meeting  prUately 
in  his  house  in  Aldermanbury.  When  Charles  II.  poblished 
his  declaration  for  indulgence,  he  set  up  a. public  meetii^ 
in  Curriers-hal),  near  Gripplegate.  Biit  when  the  dissen- 
ters were  again  persecuted,  he  had  recourse  to  his  formef 
method  ;  and  thoUgh  he  was  very  assiduous  in  his  duty, 
yet  he  escaped  imprisonment,  nbtwitbstanding  warranti 
were  frequently  out  against  him  ;  but  he  had  the  misfor- 
tune, with  several  other  of  his  brethren,  to  fall  under  tt 
crown-office  prosecution,  which  put  him  to  a  great  deal  of 

therefore,  was  extremely  caressed  at 
first ;  bat  he  sobn  saw  ivbithsr  things 
were  tending.  Among  other  evidences 
of  it  this  ,is  one  :  That  having  general 
Monk  for.  his  auditor  in  his  own  church, 
A  little  after  the  Restoration,  on  a  sa- 
crament-day, he  had  occasion  to  speak 
of  ^i%  lucres  "  And  why,"  said  he, 


is  it  called  Jilihy,  hut  because  it 
inaktiS  then' do  ba^b  ^ti^  Jilihy  things  t 
Some  men,''  Said  hfr,  « wiH  betr»^ 
three  kingdoms  iov filthy  lucre's  sake." 
Saying  which,  he  thi^w  his  handker- 
chief, which  he  nsnaUy  Wared  np  And 
down  while  he  was  preaching,  toward* 
the  general's  pew. 

>  Biog;  Brit.«^mlaffly'8  Liyes^  fcc. 

C  A  L  A  M  Y-  47 

trouble  and  expence.  As  be  was  a  person  of  mucb  leai-n-. 
ing  and  unaffected  piety,  so  he  was  very  careful  to  avoid 
whatever  might  draw  upon  him  the  imputation  of  party. 
}n  the  earlier  part  of  life  he  declined  takihg  the  cotenant^ 
and  through  the  whole  course  of  it  lihewed  a  spirit  of  mo-^ 
deration  and  charity  agreeable  to  his  calling.  He  w6^j 
though  a  tionconformist,  a  man  of  very  free  notiotis,  ana 
one  who  never  pretended  to  confine  the  church  of  Christ 
within  the  bounds  of  any  particular  sect.  He  had  a  great 
contempt  for  the  goods  of  this  world,  and  was  Such  a  loveir 
of  obscurity  and  retirement,  that  though  he  was  a  veiy  able 
preacher,  and  was  known  to  have  done  much  good  in  th^ 
qjace  of  three  .and  twenty  years  that  he  exercised  the 
ministry  in  London,  yet  he  would  never  be  prfevailed  oh  id 
appear  in  print,  but  satisfied  himself  with  the  conscious* 
nests  of  having  performed  his  duty.  Having  thuA  led  h 
private  and  peaceable,  though  not  ^  quiet  life,  he  etchah^ed 
it  for  a  better  in  the  month  of  May  1685,  being  laket^  off 
by  a  consumption.  He  left  behind  him  a  son  and  foUir 
daughters.  ^ 

CALAMY  (Bknjamin),  an  eminent  divihe  of  thfe  fchlirt-ft 
of  England,  was  the  son  of  Mr.  Edmund  Calaniy^  inihUtek^ 
of  Aidertiianbury  befote-menlioned,  by  a  second  wife^  and 
received  the  first  tincture  of  learning  at  St.  Pftur§  sbhool^ 
from  whence  he  was  sfent,  when  very  young,  to  the  uniVer** 
stty  of  Cambridge,  and  there  (entered  of  Catberihe-hall.' 
In  1664-5,  he  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of  artis;  in 
1668,  that  of  tnaster  of  and,  and  became  also  fellow  df  that 
hall,  and  a  very  emiiieht  tutor  there.  April  25,  1677,  he 
was  chosen  in  the  room  of  Dr.. Simon  Ford,  minister  of  St; 
Mary  Aiderttanbury ;  and  soon  after  appointed  one  of  hii 
majesty's  chaplains  in  ordinary.  In  1680,  he  took  his  de- 
gree  of  doctor  in  divinity.  In  1683,  he  preached  in  that 
church  his  feiiions  sermon,  which  he  afterwards  published 
under  the  title  of  "A  Discoursie  about  a  jScrupulous  Con- 
science,^* than  which  no  piec^  df  its  kind  or  size  gained 
nibre  credit  to  its  author^  of  was  morts  taken  notice  of  by 
the  public.  This  iertnon  he  plieacbed  a  second  tim^  iL% 
Bow  church  with  great  effect,  and  this  csxcited  a  eealou^ 
noncdnformi^  dtie  Mr.  Thomas  pe  Lauhe,  who  had  beth 
forrnerty  a  schoolmaster,  to  write  against  it ;  which  he  did 
in  such  a  manner  as  drew  upon  him  a  fatal  iiUprisoniiient, 

1  Bioy.  ferit. — CaUmy*!  Lives,  he. 

•  » 

4f  C  A  t  A  M  Y. 

ivhich  he  endeavoured  by  all  means  to  ascribe  to  D^.  CJa/ 
lamy,  though  his  complaints  on.  this  head  had  little  or  no 
foundation.     In    1683^  Dr.  Calamy   was  admitted  to  the 
vicarage  of  St.  Lawrence  Jewry,  with  St.  Mary  Magdalen 
Milk-street  annexed,  to  which  he  was  collated  by  the  dean 
and  chapter  of  St.  Paul's^   in  the  room  of  Dr.  Benjamin 
Whichcot.     June  18,  1685,  be  was,  on  the  decease  of  Dn 
John  Wells,  installed  into  the  prebend  of  Harleston,  in  the 
cathedral    church    of   St.  Paul.     These   preferments  are 
abundant  proofs  of  his  merit,  and  of  his  great  interest  in 
the  city  of  London,  which  he  maintained,  not  by  attaching 
himself  to  any  party,  but  by  living  in  great  intimacy  with 
the  best  men  of  all  parties.  He  was  particularly  acquainted 
with  alderman  Cornish,  whp  was  his  parishioner,  and  for 
whom  he  had  so  great  a  respect,  that  he  gave  testimony  in . 
kis  favour  when. he  was  tried  for  high-treason,  October  16, 
16S5,  which  was  no  ordinary  mark  of  friendship  in  those 
times.     It  is  thought,  that  a  sense  of  public  calamities  had 
a  great  share  i\^  bringing  his  last  illness  upon  our  author, 
who  fell  into  a  declining  state  in  the  autumn  of  the  year 
last  mentioned^  and  died  of  a  pleuritic  fever  in  the  month 
of  January  1.686.     He  was  a  man  equally  valuable  for  the 
abilities  which  he  possessed,  and  the  uses  ,to  which  he 
applied  them.     He  was  a  sincere  son  of  the  church  of  Eng- 
land, and  very  intent  on  gaining  over  dissenters  of  all  sort9 
to  her  communion ;  and  had  an  extensive  charity,  and  a 
just  aversion  to  persecution.     He  was  heartily  loyal,  but 
without  bitterness  or  passion ;  and  his  loyalty  occasioned 
his  grief,  when  he  saw  those  steps  taken  which  could  end 
in  nothing  but  public  confusion.     His  own  virtues,  how-*' 
ever,  exempted  him  in   a  great  measure  from  envy  and 
scandal,  even  in  the  worst  of  times;  insomuch,  that  the 
greatest  men  of  all  sects  and  all  parties  readily  joined  m 
paying  a  just  tribute  of  praise  to  his  memory.     Though 
few  in  his  situation  were  either  better  or  more  frequent 
preachers,  yet  he  left  behind  him  very  little  in  print.  Some 
sermons  of  his  were  after  his  decease,  published  by  hiB 
brother,  which  served  only  to  raise  a  great  regret  in  the 
world,  as  that  so  many  more  of  his  excellent  performances 
were  buried  in  oblivion.     His  sernions  are  still  valued  as 
well  for  the  beauty  of  their  language  as  the  excellent  sen^ 
timents  contained  in  tbeni.^* 

^  Biog.  Brit.-^Faiieral  Sermon  by  Sherlock. 

C  A  L  A  ft|  Y.  49 

6  ALA  MY  j[ James),  son  to  Edmund  Calamy,  B.  D.  be- 
fore-mentioned, by  a  second  wife,  and  younger  brother  to 
Dr.  Benjamin  Calamy,  of  whom  in  the  preceding  article, 
was  educated  at  Catherine-hall,  in  the  university  of  Cam- 
bridge, where,  in  1672,  he  took  the  degree  of  bachelor  of 
arts  ;  and  in  1676,  that  of  master.  Having  received  holy 
orders,  and  being  highly  considered  on  account  of  his  fa- 
ther's reputation,  he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Nor- 
thill,  in  Bedfordshire,  where  he  continued  till  1707,  when 
he  was  presented  by  his  intimate  friend  Df,  Blackall, 
bishop  of  Exeter,  to  that  of  Cheriton-Bishops  in  Devon- 
shire ;  and  had  at  the  same  time  a  prebend  in  the  church 
of  Exeter  bestowed  on  him.  He  was  a  man  of  great  learn- 
mg,  but  much  greater  modesty,  which  is  the  reason  that 
he  left  nothing  behind  him  in  print,  except  his  dedication 
of  his  brother's/  sermons.  He  led  a  sinorle  life,  and  on 
December  14,  1714,  was  surprised  by  a  sadden  death.* 

CALAMY  (Edmund),  a  very  eminent  divine  among  the 
nonconformists,  grandson  to  Mr.  Edmund  Calamy,  minister 
of  Aldermanbury,  by  his  eldest  son  Mr.  Edmund  Calamy 
(who  was  ejected  out  of  the  living  of  Moreton  in  Essex,  on 
St.  Bartholomew's  day,  1662),  was  born  April  5,  1671. 
Having  made  a  considerable  progress  in  grammar  learning 
at  several  private  schools,  and  under  Mr.  HartclifFe  at  Mer- 
chant Taylors,  where  he  contracted  a  close  friendship  with 
Mr.  Dawes,  afterwards  sir  William  Dawes,  and  archbishop 
of  York,  as  also  with  Mr.  Hugh  Boulter,  the  primate  of 
Ireland,  he  went  through  a  course  of  logic,  natural  philo- 
sophy, and  metaphysics,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Samuel 
Craddock  at  the  academy  kept  by  him  at  Wickham  Brook 
in  Suffolk.  In  March  1688,  he  went  over  to  the  univer- 
sity of  Utrecht,  where  he  studied  philosophy  under  Da 
Vries,  and  civil  law  under  Vander  Muyden,  and  attended 
Grsevius^s  lectures  upon  Sophocles  and  PufFendorf's  In- 
troduction. His  application  to  his  studies  at  this  place 
was  so  great,  that  he  spent  one  whole  night  every  week 
among  his  books;  and  his  proficiency  gained  him  the 
friendship  of  two  of  his  countrymen  at  that  university,  who 
rose  afterwards  to  very  high  stations  in  church  and  state, 
lord  Charles  Spencer,  the  famous  earl  of  Sunderland,  and 
his  tutor  Mr.  Charles  Trimnell,  afterwards  successively 
bishop  of  Norwich  and  of  Winchester,  with  both  of  whom 

»  Bioff.  Brit 

VouVIII.  E 

60  C  A  L  A  M  Y. 

he  kept  up  bis  acquaintance  as  long  as  he  and  they  lived* 
Whilst  he  resided  in  Holland,  an  offer  of  a  professor's  chair 
in  the  university  of  Edinburgh  was  made  him  by>Mr.  Car- 
stairs,  principal  of  that  university,  sent  over  on  purpose  to 
find  a  person  properly  quaUfied  for  such  an  office  ;  which 
he  declined,  and  returned  to  England  in  1691,  bringing 
with  him  letters  from  Graevius  to  Dr.  Pocock,  canon  of 
Christ-church,  and  regius  professor  of  Hebrew,  and  to  Dr. 
Edward  Bernard,  Savilian  professor  of  astronomy,  who  ob- 
tained leave  for  him  to  prosecute  his  studies  in  the  Bodleian 
library;  and  his  residence  at  Oxford  procured  him  the  ac- 
quaintance  of  the  learned  Mr.  Henry  Dodwell.     Having 
resolved  to  make  divinity  his  principal  study,  he  entered 
into  an  examination  of  the  controversy  between  the  xon- 
formists  and  nonconformists,  and  was  led  tp  join  the  latter. 
Coming  to  London  in    1692,  he  was  unanimously  chosen 
assistant  to  Mr.  Matthew  Sylvester  at  Blackfriars ;  and  on 
June  22,  1694,  was  ordained  at  Mr.  Annesley's  meeting- 
house in  Little  St.  Helen's,  which  was  the  first  public  trans- 
action of  the  kindi  after  the  passing  of  the  act  of  unifor- 
mity, and  was  not  undertaken  without  some  timidity  on 
the  part  of  the  elder  nonconformists,  such  as  Mr.  Howe 
and  Dr.  Bates,  who  seemed  afraid  of  giving  offence  to  go- 
vernment.    Six  other  young  ministers  were  ordained  at 
the  same  time,  and  the  ceremony  lasted  from  ten  o'clock 
in  the  morning:  to  six  in  the  evening.     He  was  soon  after 
invited   to  become    assistant  to    Mr.  Daniel  Williams   in 
Hand-alley,  Bishopsgate-street.  Oct.  20, 1 702,  he  was  chosen 
one  of  the  lecturers  at  Salters'-hall,  and  in  1703  succeeded 
Mr.  Vincent  Alsop,  as  pastor  of  a  congregation  in  West- ' 
minster.   He  drew  up  the  table  of  contents  to  Mr.  Baxter's 
History  of  his  life  and  times,  which  was  sent  to  the  press 
in  1696,  made  some  remarks  on  the  work  itself,  and  added 
to  it  an  index ;  and  reflecting  on  the  usefulness  of  the 
book,  he  saw  the  expediency  of  continuing  it,  for  Mr. 
Baxter's  history  came  no  lower  than   1684.     Accordingly 
he  composed  an  abridgment  of  it ;  with  an  account  of  many 
others  of  those  ministers  who  were  ejected  after  the  resto- 
ration of  Charles  H.  their  apology  for  themselves  and  their 
adherents ;  containing  the  grounds  of  their  nonconformity 
and  practice,  as  to  stated  and  occasional  communion  with 
the  church  of  England ;  and  a  continuation  of  their  history 
till  the  year  1691.  This  work  was  pubHshed  in  1702,    The 
t'ollowing  year  Mr.  Hoadly  (afterwards  bishop  of  Winches- 

C  A  L  A  M  Y.  «l 

ter)  published  the  two  parts  of  his  ''  Reasonableness  of 
Conformity  to  the  Church  of  England,  &c.  in  answer  to  Mr. 
Calamy's  Abridgement  of  Mr.  Baxter's  history,  &c."  As  a 
reply  to  these  treatises,  Mr.  Calamy  published  the  same 
year,  "  A  Defence  of  moderate  Nonconformity  ;"  and  soon 
after  Mr.  Hoadly  sent  abroad,  ^'  A  serious  -admonition  to 
Mr.  Calamy,''  occasioned  by  the  first  part  of  his  ^^  Defence 
of  moderate  Nonconformity." 

Next  year  Mr.  Calaipy  published  the  second  part  of  bis 
**  Defence  of  moderate  Nonconformity  ;"  with  an  answer  to 
Mr.  Hoadly's  Serious  Admonition.    In  1705  he  sent  abroad 
the  third  part  of  his  Defence ;  to  which  was  added,  **  A 
letter  jto  Mr.  Hoadly,  in  answer  to  his  Defence  of  the  Rea- 
sonableness of  Conformity."     In    1707  Mr.  Hoadly  pub- 
lished his   Defence   of  Episcopal   Ordination  ;    and   Mr. 
Calamy  drew  up  a  reply,  both  to  the  argumentative  and 
historical  part  of  it,  but  forbore  printing  it,  as  he  tells  us 
himself  in  his  abridgment  of  Baxter's  life,  that  he  might 
not  give  his  antagonist  any  disturbance  in  the  pursuit  of 
that  political  contest,  in  which  he  was  engaged.     In  1709 
Mr.  Calamy  made  a  tour  to  Scotland,  and  had  the  degree 
of  D.  p.  conferred  on  him  by  the  universities  of  Edinburgh, 
Aberdeen,  and  Glasgow.     In  1713  he  published  a  second 
edition  of  his  Abridgment  of  Mr.  Baxter's  history  of  his  life 
and  times;    in  which,  among  other  aciditions,  there  is   a 
continuation  of  the  history  through  king  William's  reign, 
and  queen  Anne's,  down  to  the  passing  of  the  occasional 
bill ;  and  in  the  close  is  subjoined  the  reformed  liturgy, 
which  was  drawn  up  and  presented  to  the  bishops  in  1661 ; 
^' that  the  world  may  judge  (he  says  in  the  preface)  how 
fairly  the  ejected  ministers  have  been  often  represented  as 
irreconcileable  enemies  to  all  liturgies."    In  1718  he  wrote 
a  vindication  of  his  grandfather  and  several  other  persons, 
against  certain  reflections  cast  upon  them  by  Mr.  archdea- 
con Echard  in  his  History  of  England;  and  in  172S  ap- 
peared his  continuation  of  the  account  of  the  ministers,  lec- 
turers, masters,  and  fellows  of  colleges,  and  school-masters, 
who  were  ejected  and  silenced  after  the  restoration  in  1660, 
by,  or  before  the  act  of  uniformity.    He  died  June  3,  1732, 
greatly  regretted,  not  only  by  the  dissenters,  but  also  by 
the  moderate   membets  of  the   established  chur(?h,  both 
clergy  and  laity,  with  many  of  whom  he  lived  in  great  in- 
timacy.    Mr,  Daniel  Mayo,  by  whom  his  funeral  sermon 
w^s  preached,  observes,  **  that  he  was  of  a  candid  and  be- 

¥.  1 

52  C  A  L  A  M  Y. 

nevolent  disposition^  and  very  moderate  with  regard  to 
differences  in  point  of  religion."  Besides  tiie  pieces  already 
mentioned,  iie  published  a  great  many  sermons  on  several 
subjects  and  occasions,  particularly  a  vindication  of  that 
celebrated  text,  I  John  v.  7,  from  being  spurious,  and  an 
explanation  of  it  on  the  supposition  of  being  genuine,  in 
four  sermons,  preached  at  the  Salters^-hall  lectures.  He 
was  twice  married,  and  had  thirteen  children. 

Dr.  Calamy  left  behind  him  a  MS.  in  3  vols,  folio,  en- 
titled "  An  historical  account  of  my  own  life,  with  some 
reflections  on  the  times  I  have  lived  in."  Some  account 
is  given  of  this  MS.  in  the  Biog.  Britannica,  by  Dr.  Kippis, 
who  was  favoured  with  the  perusal  of  it  by  the  author's 
grandson  Edmund  Calamy,  esq.  barrister  at  law ;  but  there 
does  not  appear  to  be  much  in  it  that  would  now  be 
thought  interesting.  His  most  valuable  work  is  undoubtedly 
his  Lives  of  the  Nonconformists,  to  which,  whatever  objec- 
tions may  be  offered  to  individual  passages,  every  student 
of  English  biography  must  acknowledge  his  obligations. 
An  abridgment  of  this  work,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  under  the  title 
of  "  The  Nonconformist's  Memorial,'*  was  published  by  the 
rev.  Sam.  .Palmer  .of  Hackney,  in  1775,  and  republished, 
with  additions,  in  1802,  3  vols.  8vo.  ^ 

CALANUS  was  an  Indian  philosopher  who  followed 
Alexander  the  Great  in  his  expedition  to  the  Indies.  Being 
tormented  with  the  colic  after  passing  eighty-three  years  in 
health,  he  petitioned  the  conqueror  to  cause  a  funeral  pile 
to  be  erected  whereon  he  might  finish  his  days  according 
to  the  custom  of  his  country.  That  prince,  who  loved  and 
esteemed  him,  reluctantly  yielding  to  his  entreaties,  or- 
dered his  army  to  range  itself  in  order  of  battle  round  the 
funeral  pile.  Calanus,  crowned  with  flowers,  and  magni- 
ficently habited,  ascended  the  pile  with  a  tranquil  and 
composed  countenance,  saying  as  he  went  up,  that  ^^  hav- 
ing lost  his  health,  and  seen  Alexander,  life  had  nothing 
more  to  interest  him."  He  bore  the  action  of  the  fire 
without  discovering  any  signs  of  uneasiness  or  pain ;  and, 
on  being  asked  if  he  had  nothing  to  say  to  Alexander  ?— - 
**  No,"  returned  the  philosopher,  "  I  reckon  soon  to  receive 
him  at  Babylon."  The  hero  dying  three  months  after- 
wards in  that  city,  thfe  brachman  was  thought  to  have  been 
a  prophet  ^  a  circumjstance  which  added  not  a  little  of  the 

>  Biog.  Brit»— Funeral  Sermon  by  Mayo. 

C  A  L  A  N  U  S.  53 

marvellous  to  his  history.     Calanus's  death  took  place  in 
the  fourth  year  of  the  1 13th  Olympiad,  or  325  B.  C. ' 

CALASIO  (Marius)  was  a  Franciscan^  and  professor  of 
the  Hebrew  language  at  Rome,  but  we  have  no  other  in- 
formation respecting  his  personal  history.  He  p.biished 
at  Home  in  1621,  a  '^Concordance  of  the  Bible,"  which 
consisted  of  four  great  volumes  in  folio.  This  work,  which 
is  properly  a  concordance  of  Hebrew  words,  has  been 
highly  approved  and  commended  by  both  papists  and  pro* 
testants.  Besides  the  Hebrew  words  in  the  Bible,  which 
are  in  the  body  of  the  book,  with  the  Latin  virrsion  over 
against  them,  there  are  in  the  margin  the  ditiFerences  be* 
tween  the  Septuagint  version  and  the  Vulgate;  so  that 
at  one  view  may  be  seen  wherein  the  three  Bibles  agree, 
and  wherein  they  diiFer;  and  at  the  beginning  of  every 
article  there  is  a  kind  of  dictionary,  which  gives  the  signi- 
fication of  each  Hebrew  word,  and  affords  an  opportunity 
of  comparing  it  with  other  oriental  languages,  viz.  with  the 
Syriac,  Arabic,  and  Chaldee;  which  is  extremely  useful  for 
determining  more  exactly  the  true  meaning  of  the  Hebrevt 
words.  The  plan  of  this  Hebrew  concordance  was  takea 
from  a  concordance  of  rabbi  Nathan,  which  was  pnnted 
first  at  Venice,  iand  afterwards  at  Basil,  much  augmented 
by  rabbi  Mordochee.  Calasio's  concordance  was  published 
in  London  by  Romaine,  Rovve  Mores,  and  Lutzena,  a 
Portuguese  Jew,  1747,  4  vols,  folio;  but  very  incorrectly, 
as  it  is  said  ;  and  the  fidelity  of  the  principal  editor,  who 
was  a  follower  of  Hutchinson,  has  upon  that  account  been 
suspected,  probably  without  justice,  but  it  is  certain  that 
the  learned  give  the  preference  to  the  old  edition.  * 

CALCAGNINI  (Crlio),  a  canon  of  the  church  of  Fer- 
rara,  and  a  poet  and  orator  of  considerable  distinction, 
was  born  at  Ferrara  in  1479,  and,  as  generally  supposed, 
was  the  natural  son  of  a  person  who  was  an  apostolic  ro-^ 
tary.  He  studied  under  Peter  Pomponazzo,  but  devoting 
himself  to  a  military  life,  served  under  the  emfieror  Maxi« 
xnilian.  He  afterwards  engaged  in  the  service  of  Julius  IL ' 
and  was  endployed  in  several  important  negociations.  Re- 
turning to  Ferrara,  he  obtained  the  particular  favour  of  the 
family  of  Este,  and  was  chosen  to  accompany  the  cardinal 
Ippolito  on  his  journey  into  Hungary.  About  the  year 
1520,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  the  belles  lettres  in 

1  Moreri.— •Bruckert— Qaintuf  Curtiuf  •  *  Moreri.-— Diet.  Hist. 


the  unirersity  of  Ferrara,  which  situation  he  611ed  with 
great  credit  untii  his  death,  in  1541.  He  was  interred  in 
the  hbrary  of  the  Jacobins,  to  which  he  bequeathed  his 
books,  and  on  «yhich  are  two  inscriptions  to  his  memory, 
one  signifying  that  ^^  by  continual  study,  he  had  learned  to 
despise  earthly  things,  and  not  to  be  insensible  of  his  own 
ignorance,"  fignorantiarn  suavi  non  ignoi^are.J  His  works 
were  published  at  Basil  in  1541,  one  vol.  folio,  or  accord- 
ing to  Moreri,  in  1544,  and  contain  sixteen  bo4»ks  of  epis- 
tles, and  philosophical,  political,  and  critical  dissertations 
on  various  subjects,  and  he  also  wrote  some  Latin  poetry, 
which  the  critics  of  his  time  prefer  to  his  prose,  the  latter 
being  heavy,  unequal,  and  affected ;  his  poetry  was  pub- 
lished with  the  poems  of  John  Bapttsta  Pigna  and  Louis 
Ariosto,  at  Venice,  1553,  8vo.  He  appears  to  have  cor- 
responded with  Erasmus,  whom,  like  many  others,  he 
hlamed  for  his  undecided  character  in  the  questions  which 
arose  out  of  the  reformation. ' 

CALCAR,  or  KALKAR  (John),  a  historical  and  por- 
trait painter,  was  born  at  Calcar,  a  city  ofOleves,  in  1499, 
and  was  the  principal  disciple  of  Titian  ;  and  by  the  pre- 
cepts of  that  great  master,  made  such  progress,  that  several 
of  his  designs  and  paintings  have  been  accounted,  by  very 
sufficient  judges,  the  work  of  Titian's  own  hand.  Even 
Goltzius  himself,  when  at  Naples  he  was  examining  some 
of  Calcar's  portraits,  was  of  opinion  they  were  Titian's,  nor 
could  he  be  undeceived  till  he  saw  the  name  of  Calcar  in- 
scribed on  others,  which  were  equally  excellent.  It  is  also 
affirmed  by  Sandrart,  that  he  imitated  the  works  of  Ra- 
phael with  such  exactness,  as  to  deceive  the  connoisseurs. 
Vasari,  who  knew  hiip  at  Naples,  says  that  it  is  impossible 
to  observe  in  the  works  of  this  master,  the  smallest  traces 
of  the  Flemish  taste.  He  designed  all  the  beads  for  the 
works  of  Vasari,  and  the' anatomical  figures  in  the  works  of 
Vesalius.  Rubens  possessed  a  most  capital  picture  by 
Calcar,  a  nativity,  afterwards  purchased  by  Sandrart,  and 
*  sold  by  him  to  the  Emperor  Ferdinand.  Calcar  died  in 

'   CALDERINUS  (Domitius),  a  man  of  great  learning  in 
the  fifteenth  century,  was  bom  at  Torri  sul  lago,  in  1445. 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. — Rotco«'i  Leo.— Paul  Joyius,  who  gires  a  rary  ai^ 
flilroarabl^  account  of  X^alcagniifi,  %  Pilkiogtoq, 


C  A  L  D  E  R  I  N  U  S.  5p 

•Sacfa  was  fais  early  reputation,  that  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
four  he  was  invited  by  Paul  II.  to  take  upon  him  the  office 
of  public  lecturer  on  the  belles-lettres  at  Rome ;  and  Sixtus 
IV.  appointed  him  apostolic  secretary.     After  a  short  life  / 

of  incessant  study  and  literary  warfare,  he  was  cut  o(F  by  a 
fever  in  1477,  when  only  thirty-two  years  of  age.  To  him 
is  attributed  the  praise  of  having  first  pointed  out  and  ex- 
emplified the  true  method  of  elucidating  ancient  authors, 
by  combining  with  verbal  criticism,  the  lights  of  antiquity 
and  general  erudition.  The  literary  reputation  of  Cal- 
derinus  procured  him  many  rivals  during  his  life-time,  as 
George  Merula,  Aurispa,  Aug.  Sabinus,  Nic.  Perottus, 
Trapezuntius,  &c.  and  it  is  certain  that  Politian  draws  his 
character  with  much  more  blame  than  praise.  Of  his  ta- 
lents, indeed,  his  application  and  skill  in  Latin,  Politian 
speaks  in  handsome  terms,  and  acknowledges  that  his  pro- 
ficiency in  Greek  was  not  inconsiderable ;  but  adds,  that 
he  was  so  vain  of  his  own  talents,  and  so  tenacious  of  any 
opinion  he  had  once  adopted,  as  to  adhere  to  it  in  open 
defiance  of  conviction  and  truth.  The  style  of  his  compo- 
sitions is  haughty,  contemptuous,  and  overbearing ;  he 
cavils  on  every  trifling  pretext,  and  attacks  all  without 
discrimination.  These  were  propensities  which  involved 
him  in  numberless  disputes  with  the  learned  of  the  day. 
Yet  while  he  was  the  object  of  undisguised  hatred  to  per- 
sons of  this  description,  such  was  his  authority  in  letters, 
that  even  in  his  youth  be  carried  away  the  palm  of  ce- 
lebrity from  all  the  Roman  professors.  Politian  adds  more 
to  the  same  purpose,  which  may  be  seen  in  our  authority  ; 
on  the  other  hand,  the  learned  world  are  under  unquestion* 
able  obligations  to  Calderinus,  and  probably,  had  he  lived 
longer,  he  would  have  corrected  that  vivacity  of  passion 
which  involved  him  so  often  with  his  contemporaries.  > 
Among  his  works,  is  an  ample  Commentary  on  Martial, 
Venice,  1474,  fol. ;  another  on  Juvenal,  ibid.  1475,  fol. 
The  edition  of  Virgil  of  1492,  has  some  notes  of  his ;  and 
,  he  commented  on  Ovid's  Metamorphoses,  Persius,  and  Ca- 
tullus. His  notes  "  In  Ibih"  were  published  at  Venice, 
1485,  and  on  the  "  Sylvae"  of  Statins,  Brixiae,  1476,  with 
a  dissertation  on  the  letter  of  Sappho,  and  another  on  the 
most  difficult  passages  of  Propertius,  addressed  to  Francis 
of  Arragon,  son  of  Ferdinand,  king  of  Naples.  * 

1  Gen.  Diet.— CirttwelPs  Politian.— 'PaulJorius  in  Elogiis. — Saxii  Oaomast. 


CALDERONI  de  la  Barca  (Don  Pedro),  a  celebrated 
Spanish  dramatic  poet,  was  chevalier  of  the  order  of  St. 
James,  and  at  first  distinguished  himself  as  a  soldier.  This 
profession  he  quitted,  and  became  an-ecclesiastic,  and  was 
made  priest  and  canon  of  Toledo.  There  are  several  dra- 
matical pieces  by  him  in  9  vols.  4to,  Madrid,  1689;  not 
to  mention,  several  others  that  have  not  been  printed. 
The  imagination  of  Calderoni,  however,  was  too  fertile  to 
allow  him  to  be  regular  and  correct.  The  rules  of  the 
drama  are  violated  in  almost  all  his  works.  We  perceive 
in  his  tragedies  the  irregularity  of  Shakspeare,  his  eleva- 
tion and  his  degradation,  flashes  of  genius  as  strong,  comic 
turns  as  much  out  of  place,  an  inflation  no  less  capricious, 
and  the  same  bustle  of  action  and  incident.  Some  of 
his  pieces  are  still  performed  on  the  Spanish  stage,  and 
some  have  been  translated  into  Frenqb.  This  poet  flou- 
rished about  the  year  1640.  * 

C  ALDER  WOOD  (David),  a  famous  divine  of  the 
church  of  Scotland,  and  a  distinguished  writer  in  behalf 
of  the  presbyterians,  was  descended  of  a  good  family  in 
that  kingdom,  and  born  in  1575.  Being  early  designed 
for  the  ministry,  he  applied  with  great  diligence  to  the 
study  of  the  scriptures  in  their  original  tongues^  the  works 
of  the  fathers,  the  councils,  and  the  be^t  writers  of  church 
history.  He  was  settled,  about  1604,  at  Crailing,  not  far 
from  Jedburgh,  in  the  south  of  Scotland.  James  VI.  of 
that  country,  and  the  first  of  Great  Britain,  being  desirous 
of  bringing  the  church  of  Scotland  to  a  near  conformity 
with  that  of  England,  laboured  earnestly  to  restore  the 
episcopal  authority,  and  enlarge  the  powers  of  the  bishops 
in  that  kingdom  ;  but  this  design  was  very  warmly  opposed 
by  many  of  the  ministers,  and  particularly  by  David  Cal- 
derwood,  who,  when  James  Law,  bishop  of  Orkney,  came 
to  visit  the  presbyteries  of  the  Merse  and  Teviotdaie,  de- 
clined his  jurisdiction,  by  a  paper  under  his  hand,  dated 
May  5,  160S.  The  king,  however,  having  its  success 
much  at  heart,  sent  the  earl  of  Dunbar,  then  high-trea- 
surer of  Scotland,  Dr.  Abbot,  afterwards  archbishop  of 
Canterbiiry,  and  two  other  divines,  into  that  kingdom, 
with  instructions  to  employ  every  method  to  .persuade  both 
the  clergy  and  the  laity,  of  his  majesty's  sincere  desire  to 
promote  the  good  of  the  church,  and  of  his  zeal  for  th« 

1  Diet.  If  i|t.—Moreric— Antonio  Bibl.  Hisp. 

C  A  L  D  E  R  W  GOD.  SI 

-Protestant  religion,  in  which  they  succeeded.     Calder- 
wood,  however,  did  not  assist  at  the  general  assembly  held  at 
Glasgow,  June  8,  1610,  in  which  lord  Dunbar  presided  as 
commissioner ;  and  it  appears  from  his  writings,  that  he 
looked  upon  every  thing  transacted  in  it  as  null  and  void. 
Exceptions  were  also  taken  by  him  and  his  party,  against 
a  great  part  of  the  proceedings  of  another  general  assembly, 
held  with  much  solemnity  at  Aberdeen,  Aug.    13,   1616. 
In  May  following,  king  James  went  to  Scptland,  and  iii 
June  held  a  parliament  at  Edinburgh ;  at  the  same  time 
the  clergy  met  in  one  of  the  churches,  to  hear  and  ad- 
vise with  the  bishops ;  which  kind  of  assembly,  it  seems, 
was  contrived  in  imitation  of  the  English  convocation.    Mr. 
Calderwood  was  present  at  it,  but  declared  publicly  that 
he  did  not  take  any  such  meetings  to  resemble  a  convoca- 
tion ;  and  being  opposed  by  Dr.  Whitford  and  Dr.  Ha- 
milton, who  were  friends  to  the  bishops,  he  took  his  leave 
of  them  in  these  words  :  "  It  is  absurd  to  see  men  sitting 
in  silks  and  satins,  and  to  cry  pqverty  in  the  kirk,  when 
purity  is   departing."      The  parliament  proceeded  mean 
while  in  the  dispatch  of  business ;  and  Calderwood,  with 
several  other  ministers,  being  informed  that  a  bill  was  de-* 
pending  to  empower  the  king,  with  advice  of  the  archbi-^ 
shops,  bishops,  and  such  a  number  of  the  ministry  as  his 
majesty  should  think  proper,  to  consider  and  conclude,  as 
to  matters  decent  for  the  external  policy  of  the  church, 
not  repugnant  to  the  word  of  God  ;  and  that  such  conclu- 
sions should  have  the  strength  and  power  of  ecclesiastical 
laws  :  against  this  they  protested  for  four  reasons  :   J .  Be- 
cause their  church  was  so  perfect,  that,  instead  of  needing 
reformation,  it  might  be  a  pattern  to  others.     2.  General 
assemblies,  as  now  established  by  law,  and  which  ought 
always  to  continue,  might  by  this  means  be  overthrown. 
3.  Because  it  might  be  a  means  of  creating  schism,  and 
disturb  the  tranquillity  of  the  t^hurch.     4.  Because  they 
had  received  assurances,  that  no  attempts  should  be  made 
to  bring  them  to  a  conformity  with  the  church  of  England. 
They  desired,  therefore,  that  for  these  and  other  reasons, 
all  thoughts  of  passing  any  such  law  may  be  laid  aside ;  but 
in  case  this  be  not  done,  they  protest,  for  themselves  and 
their  brethren  who  shall  adhere  to  them,  that  they  can 
yield  no  obedience  to  this  law  when  it  shall  be  enacted, 
because  it  is  destructive  of  the  liberty  of  the  church  ;  and 
therefore  shall  submit  to  such  penalties,  and  think  them* 


C  A  L  D  E  R  WO  O  D. 

selves  obUged  to  undergo  such  punishments,  as  may  be 
inflicted  for  disobeying  that  law.  This  protest  was  signed 
by  Archibald  Simpson,  on  behalf  of  the  members,  who  sub- 
scribed another  separate  roll,  which  he  kept  for  his  justi- 
fication. It  was  delivered  to  Peter  Hewet,  who  had  a  seat 
in  parliament,  in  order  to  be  presented ;  and  another  cqpy 
remained  in  Simpson^s  hands,  to  be  presented  in  case  of 
any  accident  happening  to  the  other.  The  affair  making 
a  great  noise.  Dr.  Spotswood,  archbishop  of  St.  Arjdrew's, 
asked  a  sight  of  the  protest  from  Hewet,  one  day  at  court ; 
and,  upon  some  dispute  between  them,  it  was  torn.  The 
other  copy  was  actually  presented  by  Simpson  to  the 
clerk  register,  who  refused  to  read  it  before  the  states  in 
parliament.  However,  the  protest,  though  not  read,  had 
its  effect ;  for  although  the  bill  before-mentioned,  or,  as 
the  Scottish  phrase  is,  the  article,  had  the  consent  of  par- 
liament, yet  the  .kingf  thought  fit  to  cause  it  to  be  laid 
aside ;  and  not  long  after  called  a  general  assembly  at  St. 
Andrew's.  Soon  after,  the  parliament  was  dissolved,  and 
Simpson  was  summoned  before  the  high  commission  courts 
where  the  roll  of  names  which  he  had  kept  for  his  justi- 
fication, wa3  demanded  from  him  ;  and  upon  his  declaring 
that  he  had  given  it  to  Harrison,  who  had  since  delivered 
it  to  Calderwood,  he  was  sent  prisoner  to  the  castle  of 
Edinburgh  ;  and  Calderwood  was  summoned  to  appear  be- 
fore the  high  commission  court  at  St.  Andrew's,  on  the  8th 
of  July  following,  to  exhibit  the  said  protest,  and  to  an- 
swer for  his  mutinous  and  seditious  behaviour. 

July  12,  the  king  came  to  that  city  in  person,  and  soon 
after  Hewet  and  Simpson  were  deprived  and  imprisoned. 
After  this,  Calderwood  was  called  upon,  and  refusing  to 
comply  with  what  the  king  in  person  required  of  him, 
James,  after  haranguing  at  some  length  on  his  disobe- 
dience, '  committed  him  to  prison  ;  and  afterwards  the 
privy^council,  according  to  the  power  exercised  by  them 
at  that  time,  directed  him  to  banish  himself  out  of  the 
king's  dominions  before  Michaelmas  following,  and  not  to 
.  return  w  ithout  licence  ;  and  upon  giving  security  for  this 
purpose,  be  was  discharged  out  of  prison,  and  suffered  to 
return  to  his  parish,  but  forbid  to  preach.  Having  applied 
to  the  king  for  a  prorogation  of  his  sentence  without  suc- 
cess, because  he  would  neither  acknowledge  his  offence, 
nor  pifomise  conforgaity  for  the  future,  he  retired  to  Hol- 
land in  1619,  where  his  publicatioais  were  securely  muU 


tiplied,  and  diffused  through  Scotland,   particu^iiy  one 
entitled  "  The  Perth  Assembly/*  which  was  condemned 
by  the  council.     In  1623  he  published  his  celebrated  trea- 
tise entitled  ^'  Altare  Damascenum,  seu  ecclesiae  AngU- 
canae  politia,  ecclesise  Scoticans  obtrusa  k  formalista  quo- 
dam  delineata,  iliustrata^  et  examinata."     The  writer  of 
the  preface  prefixed  to  Calderwood's  ^^  True  history  of 
the  church  of  Scotland"  tells  us,  that  ^*  the  author  of  this 
very  learned  and  celebrated  treatise  (which  is  an  answer  to 
Liuwood^s  *  Description  of  the  Policy  of  the  church  of 
England')  doth  irrefragably  and  unanswerably  demonstrate 
the  iniquity  of  designing  and  endeavouring  to  model  and 
conform  the  divinely  simple  worship,  discipline,  and  go-, 
vernment  of  the  church  of  Scotland  to  the  pattern  of  the 
pompously  prelatic  and  ceremonious  church  of  England ; 
under  some  conviction  whereof  it  seems  king  James  himself 
was,  though  implacably  displeased  with  it,  when,  being 
after  the  reading  of  it  somewhat  pensive,  and  being  asked 
the  reason  by  an  English  prelate  standing  by  and  observing 
it,  he  told  him  he  had  seen  and  read  such  a  book  ;  where- 
upon the  prelate  telling  his  majesty  not  to  suffer  that  to 
trouble  him,  for  they  would  answer  it ;  he  .replied,  not 
without  some  passion,    ^  What  would  you  answer,  man  i 
There  is  nothing  here  but  scripture,  reason,  and  the  fa- 
thers*.*' This  work  was  in  fact  an  enlargement,  in  Latin;  of 
one  which  %e  wrote  in  English,   and  published  in   1621, 
under  the  title  of  **  The  Altar  of  Damascus,"  and  which  is 
uncommonly  rare.     It  concludes  with  noticing  a  rumour 
spread  by  bishop  Spotswood,    that  Mr.  Calderwood  had 
turned  Brownist,  which  rumour  it  denies  in  strong  language, 
and  with  the  following  intemperate  and  unbecoming  threat: 
**  If  either  Spotswood,  or  his  supposed  author,  persist  in 
their  calumny  after  this  declaration,  1  shall  try  if  there  be 
any  blood  in  their  foreheads."    Calderwood  having  in  1624 
been  afflicted  with  a  long   fit  of  sickness,    and   nothing 
haying  been  heard  of  him  for  some  time,  one  Patrick  Scot 
(as  Calderwood  himself  informs  us),  took  it  for  granted 
that  he  was  dead  ;  and  thereupon  wrote  a  recantation  in 
his  name,  as  if  before  his  decease  he  had  changed  his  sen- 
timents.    This  imposture  being  detected,  Scot  went  over 
to  Holland,  and  staid  three  weeks  at  Amsterdam,  where 
he  made  diligent  search  for  the  author  of  "  Altare  Damas- 
cenum,"  with  a  design,  as  Calderwood  believed,  to  have, 
dispatched  him:  but  Calderwood  had  privately  returned 

90  C  A  L  D  E  R  W  O  O  D. 

into  his  own  country,  where  he  remained  for  several  years. 
Scot  gave  out  that  the  king  furnished  him  with  the  matter 
for  the  pretended  recantation^  and  that  he  only  put  it  in 

During  his  retirement,  Calderwood  collected  all  the 
memorials  relating  to  the  ecclesiastical  affairs  of  Scotland, 
from  the  beginning  of  the  reformation  there,  down  to  the 
death  of  king  James ;  which  collection  is  still  preserved, 
that  which  was  published  under  the  title  of  "  The  true 
History  of  Scotland,"  1680,  fol.  being  only  an  extract 
from  it.  He  probably  returned  to  Scotland  about  1636,  and 
in  1 643  we  find  him  one  of  those  who  were  appointed  to 
draw  up  the. form  of  the  "  Directory  for  the  public  worship 
of  God"  by  the  Genecal  Assembly ;  and  when  the  English 
army  lay  at  Lothian,  in  1651,  he  went  to  Jedburgh,  where, 
we  are  told,  he  sickened  and  died  ia  a  good  old  age,  but 
the  date  is  not  given. 

It.  may  be  necessary  to  say  somewhat  more  of  his  manu- 
script his^tory,  which  is  contained  in  six  large  folio  volumes, 
in  the  Glasgow  library*.  In  the  first  volume,  immediately 
after  the  title-page,  there  is  the  following  note. — "  This 

work,  comprehended  in  P^g^s,    is  collected  out  of 

Mr.  Knox's  History,  and  his  Memorials  gathered  for  the 
continuation  of  his  History,  out  of  Mr.  James  Melvil's  Ob* 
servations,  Mr.  John  Davidson  his  Diary,  the  Acts  of  the 
General  Assemblies,  and  Acts  of  Parliament,  and  out  of 
several  Proclamations,  and  Scrolls  of  diverse ;  and  com- 
prehendeth  an  History  from  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of 
king  James  V.  to  the  death  of  king  James  VI.  but  is  con- 
tracted and  digested  in  a  better  order,  in  a  work  of  three 
volumes,  bound  in  parchment,  and  is  comprehended  in 
2013  pages.  Out  of  which  work  contracted,  is  extracted 
another,  in  lesser  bounds,  but  wanting  nothing  in  sub- 
stance, and  comprehended  in  —  pages,  which  the  author 
desireth  only  to  be  communicated  to  others,  and  this  with 
the  other,  contracted  into  three  volumes,  to  serve  only  for 
the  defence  of  the  third,  and  preservation  of  the  History, 
in  case  it  be  lost.''    The  first  of  the  six  volumes  gives  a 

*  There  are  three  other  transcripts  formerlymlnister  of  Glasgow;  and  the 

of  it,  one  in  the  Advocates  library  at  third  belongs  to  the  General  Assembly 

Edinburgh  ;  another  in  the  possesfiion  of  the  church  of  Scotland,  to  whom  it 

of   general    Calderwood    Durliam   of  was   presented   by   Mr.  Wodrow,    a 

Largo,  the  representative  of  Mr.  Cal-  more  recent  ecclesiastical  historian  of 

derwood,  and  of  Mr.  James  Durham,  Scotliind.     / 


large  introduction,    in   which  the   author  undertakes  to 
inform  us  of  the  time  when,  and  the  persons  by  whom 
the  island  of  Great  Britain  was  first  inhabited ;  and  after- 
wards  brings  down    the  Scottish    Civil   History  as    well 
as  the  Ecclesiastical,   from  the   first   planting  of  Chris-* 
tianity  to  the  end  of  James  the   Fourth's   reign.     Aftec 
his  account  of  the  affairs  of  the  state   and  the   church, 
we   have  a   view  of  all  the  most  considerable  wars  and 
battles    (domestic    and   foreign)    wherein    the   people  of 
Scotland  have  been  engaged  before  the  said   period,  aa 
also  of  the  ancient  honorary  titles,  and  their  institution. 
On  thisi  last  head  he  quotes  an  old  manuscript,  sent  from 
Icolmkiil  to  Mr.  George  Buchanan,  which  testifies  that  a 
parliament  was  held  at  Forfar,  in  the  year  1061,  wherein 
surnames  are  appointed  to  be  taken,   and  several   earls, 
barons,  lords,  and  knights,  were  created.     After  this  ge« 
neral  preface  he  begins  his  proper  work.  The  History  of 
the  Scottish  Reformation.     And  in  this  volume  advances  as 
far  as  the  marriage  of  queen  Mary  with  the  lord  Darnley, 
in  1565.     In  his  story  of  Mr.  Patrick  Hamilton,  the  pro* 
tomartyr  in  this  cause,  he  gives  a  copy  of  the  sentence 
pronounced  against  him,  together  with  a  congratulatory 
letter  from  the  doctors  at  Louvaiu  to  the  archbishop  of  St. 
Andrew's,  on  the  occasion  of  his  death.     Amongst  those 
learned  men,  who  upon  the  first  persecution  fled  into  Ger- 
many, he  reckons  Mr.  George  Buchanan.     In  his  large 
account  of  the  disputes  and  sufferings  of  the  reformers, 
under  the  administration  of  cardinal  Beaton  and  the  queen 
regent,  we  have  the  particulars  of  the  contentions  at  Frank- 
furt, which  are  mostly  taken  out  of  a  book  entitled  ^'  A 
brief  discovery  of  the  Troubles  of  Mr.  John  Knox,  for  op- 
posing the  English  Service  Book,  in  1554."     After  which 
we  have  Knox's  Appeal  from  the  sentence  of  the  clergy, 
to  the  nobility,  estates,  and  community  of  Scotland,  with 
a  great  many  letters  from  the  nobility  to  the  queen-regent 
and  him,  on  the  subject  of  religion.     All  this  part  of  the 
history,  which  in  the  printed  book  makes  no  more  than 
thirteen  pages,  ends  at  page  571;  from  whence  (to  the 
end  of  the  book  at  page  902)  there  is  a  good  collection  of 
curious  letters,  remonstrances,  &c.  which  are  not  in  the 
prints,  either  of  Knox  or  Calderwood.     The   second  vo- 
lume contains  the  history  from  1565  to  the  arraignment  of 
the  earl  of  Moreton  for  treason,  in  December  1590,  aii4 
contains  614  pages,  wherein  are  mmy  valuable  discoveries 

€2  C  A  L  D  E  R  W  O  6  D. 

relating  to  thfe  practices  of  David  Rizzio,  the  king's  mur- 
der, Bothwell's  marriage   and  flight,  &c.  and  a  more  per- 
fect narrative  of  the  proceedings  in  the  general  assemblies, 
than  the  printed  history  will  afford  us.     The  third  volume 
comprehends  the  entire  history^  of  both  church  and  state, 
from  the  beginning  of  January  1581   to  July  1586,  when 
queen  Mary's  letter  to  Babington  was  intercepted.     Under 
the  year  1584,  there  is  a  severe  character  of  Mr.  Patrick 
Adamson,  archbishop  of  St.  Andrew's ;  which,  in  the  con- 
clusion, refers  us  for  a  farther  account  of  him  to  a  poem 
made  by  one  Robert  Semple,  and  entitled  "  The  Legend 
of  the  Limmer's  Life."     Here  is  also  "  An  account  of  the 
State  and  Church  of  Scotland  to  the  Church  of  Geneva,'* 
which  was  written  by  Andrew  Melvil,  in  answer  to  the  mis- 
representations of  the  Scottish  discipline  scattered  in  fo- 
reign countries,  by  the  said  archbishop  Adamson.     The 
fourth  gives  the  like  mixed  history  of  affairs,  from  July  1586 
to  the  beginning  of  1596.     Here  we  have  a  full  collection 
of  papers  relating  to  the  trial,  condemnation,  and  execu- 
tion, of  the  unfortunate  queen  Mary,  with  abundance  of 
others,  touching  the  most  remarkable  transactions  of  this 
Decennium.      In   1587  there    is  a  large  account  of  the 
coming  of  the  sieur  du  Bartas  into  Scotland  ;  of  his  being 
carried  by  king  James  to  the  university  of  St.  Andrew's,  his 
hearing  of  the  lectures  of  Mr.  A.  Melvil  there,  and  the 
great  opinion  he  had  of  the  abilities  of  that  professor,   &c. 
In  1590  there  are  some  smart  reflections  on  Dr.  Bancroft's 
sermon  at  Paul's  Cross,  censuring  the  proceedings  of  J. 
Knox,  and  others  of  the  northern  reformers,  with  the  as- 
sembly's letter  to  queen  Elizabeth  about  that  sermon.   The 
fifth  volume  reaches  from  the  beginning  of  January  1596, 
to  the  same  month  in  1607.     After  the  accounts  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  assembly  in  1596,  the  author  subjoins 
this  pathetic  epiphonema:  "  Here  end  all  the  sincere  assem- 
blies general  of  the  kirk  of  Scotland,  enjoying  the  liberty 
of  the  gospel  under  the  free  government  of  Christ."     The 
new  and  constant  Piatt  of  Planting  all  the  Kirks  of  Scotland 
(written  by  Mr.  David  Lindsay,  one  of  the  Octavians)  is 
here  inserted  at  large,  as  it  was  presented  to  the  king  and 
states  in  the  said  year  1596.    The  history  of  the  conspiracy 
of  the  Gowries,  and  the  manner  of  its  discovery,  is  likewise 
here  recorded  at  length,  in  the  same  order,  wherein  the 
king  commanded  it  to  be  published.     The  new  form  of 
nomination  to  bishoprics,  the  protestation  in  parliament 


against  the  restitution  of  episcopacy,  and  the  reasons  of- 
fered against  it  by  others,  are  the  remaining  matters  of 
consideration  in  this  book.  The  sixth  concludes  with  the 
death  of  king  James  VI. 

Besides  what  we  have  already  mentioned,  Calderwood 
was  the  author  of  many  other  works  relating  to  the  church 
discipline  of  Scotland,  which  are  now  of  rare  occurrence, 
and  prized  only  by  collectors.  These  were  printed  in 
Holland,  but  imported  into  Scotland,  notwithstanding  the 
most  severe  prohibitions.-* 

CALDWALL  (Richard),  or  Chaldwell,  an  English  phy- 
sician, was  born  in  Staffordshire  about  1513,  and  was  ad- 
mitted into  Brazeu-nose  college  in  Oxford,  of  which  he 
was  in  due  season  elected  fellow.  In  1539  he  took  his 
decnree  of  M.  A.  and  became  one  of  the  senior  students  of 
Christ  Church  in  1547,  which  was  a  little  after  its  last 
foundation  by  king  Henry  VIII.  Afterwards  he  studied 
physic  and  took  the  degrees  in  that  faculty,  and  became 
so  highly  esteemed  for  his  learning  and  skill,  that  he  was 
examined,  approved,  admitted  into,  and  elected  censor 
of,  the  college  of  physicians  at  London  in  the  same  day. 
Six  weeks  after,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  elects  of  the  said 
college,  and  in  1570  made  president  of  it.  Wood  tells 
us,  that  he  wrote  several  pieces  upon  subjects  relating  to 
his  profession ;  but  does  not  say  what  they  were.  He  men- 
tions a  book  written  by  Horatio  Moro,  a  Florentine  physi- 
cian, and  called  **  The  Tables  of  Surgery,  briefly  com* 
prehending  the  whole  art  and  practice  thereof;''  which 
Caldwall  translated  into  English,  and  published  at  London 
in  1585.  We  learn  from  Camden,  that  Caldwall  founded 
a  chirurgical  lecture  in  the  college  of  physicians,  and  en- 
dowed it  with  a  handsome  salary.  He  died  in  1585,  and 
was  buried  at  the  church  of  St.  Bennet  near  Paul's  wharf.* 

CALDWELL  (Andrew),  a  literary  gentleman  of  Ire- 
land, was  the  son  of  Charles  Caldwell,  esq.  an  eminent  so- 
licitor, and  was  born  in  Dublih,  1732.  He  received  part 
of  his  education  in  one  of  the  universities  in  Scotland,  from 
whence  he  removed  to  London ;  and  after  a  residence  of 
about  five  years  at  the  Temple,  returned  to  Dublin,  where 
he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1760 ;  but  his  father  being 
possessed  of  a  good  estate,  fully  adequate  to  his  son's  wishes^ 

1  Biog.  Brit— -Biog.  Scoticana.-^Baillie's  Letters  and  Journali.— Laing's  His- 
tory of  Scotland.— Brewster's  Ediubuifh  £ncvclop»dia. 
*  Ath.  Ox.  rol.  I.— Geo.  Diet. 


he  never  paid  much  attention  to  the  profession  of  the  law,- 
and  for  several  years  before  his  death  had  entirely  quitted 
it.  His  studious  disposition,  and  taste  for  the  fine  arts, 
always  afforded  him  sufficient  employment,  and  be  was  a 
liberal  patron  of  those  who  excelled  in  any  of  the  various 
branches  of  art.  He  had  studied  architecture  with  parti- 
cular attention  ^  and  about  the  }'ear  1770,  published,  anony- 
mously, some  very  judicious  "  Observations  on  the  pub- 
lic buildings  of  Dublin,"  and  on  some  edifices,  which  at 
that  time  were  about  to  be  erected  in  that  city  at  the  ex- 
pence  of  the  state.  The  only  other  known  production  of 
his  pen  that  has  been  published,  is  a  very  curious  ^^  Ac- 
count of  the  extraordinary  escape  of  James  Stewart,  esq* 
(commonly  called  Athenian  Stewart)  from  being  put  to 
death  by  some  Turks,  in  whose  company  he  happened  to 
be  travelling ;"  the  substance  of  which  had  been  commu- 
nicated to  Mr.  Caldwell  by  the  late  Dr.  Percy,  bishop  oif 
Dromore,  as  related  to  his  lordship  by  Stewart  himself. 
Of  this  narrative,  of  which  only  a  small  number  was  printed 
'at  Lonidon  in  1304,  for  the  use  of  the  author^s  friends,  it 
is  believed  not  more  than  a  dozen  copies  were  distributed 
in  this  country.  Mr.  Caldwell's  love  of  literature  naturally 
led  him  to  collect  an  ample  library,  which  was  particularly 
rich  in  natural  history.  His  manners  were  gentle  and 
pleasing,  and  his  benevolence,  various  knowledge,  and  cul-. 
tivated  taste,  endeared  him  to  a  very  numerous  circle  of 
friends.  He  died  at  the  house  of  his  nephew,  major-gene- 
ral Cockburn,  near  Bray  in  the  county  of  Wicklow,  July 
2,  1808,  in  the  seventy-sixth  year  of  his. age.  * 

CALENTIUS,  or  CALENZIO  (Eusius),  a  modern 
Latin  poet  of  the  fifteenth  century,  was  a  native  of  Naples, 
and  became  preceptor  to  Frederic,  the  son  of  Ferdinand  I. 
king  of  Naples,  whom  he  endeavoured  to  inspire  with  the 
love  of  those  virtues  and  principles  of  justice  which  would 
dignify  his  high  station.  He  did  not  approve  of  condemn- 
ing malefactors  *  to  death.  According  to  him,  ^^  thieves 
should  be  obliged  to  restore  what  they  had  stolen,  after 
being  beaten  for  the  theft;  homicides  should  be  made 
slaves ;  and  other  criminals  be  sent  to  the  mines  and  the 
gallies."  He  had  also  studied  and  practised  agriculture 
and  horticulture  with  great  success.  Having  come  to 
France,  he  was  a  witness  of  the  war  between  Charles  the 
hardy,  duke  of  Burgundy,  and  the  Swiss,  the  history  pf 

1  QenU  Mag.  I80S. 

CALENTIUS.    '  es 

ti4i]ch  he  was  requested  to  write,  but  declined  it,  aslie 
thought  it  did  not  become,  him  to  speak  ill  of  princes,  or  to* 
tell  what  was  not  true.  It  appears  by  his  letters  that  he 
tnarried  young,  was  extremely  fond  of  his  wife,  and  had 
many  children.  Yet  he  was  accused  of  illicit  amours, 
which  it  is  said  k^pt  him  poor.  He  is  supposed  to  have 
died  about  [503.  There  have  been  three  editions  of  his 
works,  two  at  Rome,  one  in  1 503,  fol.  *^  Opuscula  Elisii 
Calentii,  poetsB  clarissimi  ;**  and  a  third  at  Basil,  1554. 
They  consist  of  elegies,  epigrams,  epistles;  the  battle  of 
the  frogs,  imitated  from  Homer ;  satires,  fables,  &c.  &c« 
His  poem  of  the  battle  between  the  rats  and  the  frogs, 
from  Homer,  was  reprinted  in  1738  at  Rouen,  in  a  collec- 
tion, 12mo,  of  select  fables  of  la  Fontaine  put  into  Latin 
verse,  publii^ed  by  the  abb6  Saas.  Calentius  composed 
this  poem  at  eighteen  years  of  age,  and  finished  it  in  seven 
days.  * 

CALEPIN,  or  CALEPINUS  (Ambros^,  a  lexicogra- 
pher of  considerable  fame,  was  a  native  of  Calepio  near 
Bergamo  in  Italy,  from  which  lie  took  his  name,  and  lived 
in  the  fifteenth  and  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
He  took  the  habit  of  the  Augustine  order,  and  was^much 
esteemed  for  learning  and  personal  character.  His  ^'  Lex- 
icon,'* on  which  he  had  laboured  for  many  years,  appeared 
first  in  1503.  He  died  in  1510,  deprived  of  his  sight 
through  old  age,  but  had  employed  his  latter  days  in  re* 
viewing  and  correcting  his  work.  It  appears  to  have  had 
the  fate  of  Moreri^s  Dictionary,  to  have  fallen  into  the 
hands  of  editors  who  by  repeated  corrections  and  enlarge- 
ments, rendered  it  a  publication  of  some  consequence.  The 
editors  of  Stephanus*  Thesaurus  concur,  with  Erasmus^ 
Ludovicus  Vives,  Borrichius,  and  others,  in  speaking  with 
great  contempt  of  Calepin,  and,  perhaps,  with  more  than 
he  deserves.  Jacobus  Philippius  only,  of  that  age,  speaks 
respectfully  of  Calepin.  The  Lexicon,  however,  has  gone 
through  fifteen  editions,  with  successive  improvements,  the 
best  of  which  are  that  of  Chifflet,  Lyons,  1631,  2vols.  foL 
and  that  of  Facciolati,  Padua,  1758,  also  in  2  vols.  fol. 
Chrbtopher  Wase's  Latin  Dictionary,  the  second  edition 
of  which  was  published  at  Oxford  in  1675,  is  a  very  judi4 
cious  compendium  of  Calepin.  * 

»  Morcri.— Diet.  Hist. 

*  Moreri.— Fabr.  Bibl.  Med.  et  Inf.  ^at.i^Stephen's  Theiaurat.-«-6aiU«t 
Ju^mens  d«t  SaTani.— Saxii  OnoituieC. 

Vol.  VII  I.  F 


^ALETTI  (JoS£Ph),  called  II  Cremonesi:,  an  eminenr 
.arti9t  of  Ferrara,  where  he  was  born  about  1600,  studied 
and  imitated,  beyond  all  others,  the  tones  of  Titian,  and 
carried  the  illusion  to  such  a  degree,  that  his  half-figures, 
bacchanal^  and  small  histories,  entered, the  best  galleries 
of  Rome  and  Bologna  as  originals  ;  nor  is  he  easily  disco<- 
yered  by  the  be&t  eye  or  taste,  but  from  the  admission  of 
some  moce  modern  conceit,  or  carelessness  of  execution. 
That  he  possessed  talents  superior  to  what  m^re  mimickry 
can  confer,  is  evident  from  his  St.  Mark,  in  the  church  of 
S«  Benedetto  at  Ferrara,  a  majestic,  correct,  e^cpressive 
:$gare,  girt  by  a  profusion  of  volumes,  whose  picturesque 
arrangement  and  truth  of  touch  procured  him  the  name  of 
the  Bo(5k-Painter  (Pittor  da'  Libri).  Immediately  after  the 
e:s:eciition  of  this  work,  some  say  that  h6  disappeared,  and 
was  heard  of  no  more :  whilst  others,  with  tess  probability 
of  conjecture,  extend  the  date  of  his  death  to  1660. ' 

CALFHILL,  or  CALFILL  (James),  a  learned  divine  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  otherwise  named  Calfield,  Cawfield, 
Chalffaill,  or  Calfed,  was  born  in  Shropshire^  in  153G« 
Strype,  however,  says  he  was  a  Scotchman^  and  cousin  to 
Toby  Mathew,  afterwards  archbishop  of  York.  He  ^-* 
eeived  his  education  at  Eton  school,  and  from  thence  was 
sent,  in  1545,  to  King's  college  in  Cambridge,  from  which 
he  was  removed,  with  many  other  Cambridge  men,  in  1 54^S-, 
to  Christ  Ohurch  in  Oxford,  newly  founded  by  king  Henry 
VIII.  Here  1^  shewed  himself  to  be  a  person  of  quick 
wit  and  great  capacity ;  being  an  excellent  poet;  and  au- 
thor of  a  tragedy,  with  other  theatrical  performances.  In 
1549,  he  took  his  degree  of  bachelor  of  arts ;  and  that  of 
master  in  1552,  being  junior  of  the  act  celebrated  in  St 
Mary^j^  church,  July  13.  He  was  made,  in  1560,  canon  of 
the  second  canonry  in  Christ  Church  cathedral,  Oxon ;  and, 
on  the  12th  of  December  1 56 1,  took  the  degree  of  bachelor 
pf  divinity.  In  1 562  he  was  proctor  for  the  clergy  of  Lon* 
don  and  the  chapter  of  Oxford  in  the  convocation  that 
made  the  XXXIX  Articles  ;  and  on  the  16th  of  May,  the 
same  year,,  was  admitted  ro  the  rectory  of  St.  Andrew 
Wardrobe,  London.  The  4th'  of  October  following,  be 
was  presented  by  the  crown  to  the  prebend  of  St.  Pan  eras  J 
i»  the  cathe'dral  church  of  St-'-Paul;  and  May  4,  1565,  wai 
collated  by  Matthew  Parker,  archbishop  pf  Canterbury,  .to 

C  A  L  F  H  t  L  L^  6» 

tlie  tectory  of  Bocking,  in  Essex;  and  on  July  l€th'fol« 
lewing,  to  the  archdeaconry  of  Colcbestef  in  Essex,  by 
Edmund  Grindal,  bishop  <tf  London.  The  same  year,  De- 
cember 17  th^  he  took  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity.  In 
1568,  he  preached  two  sermons  in  Bristol  cathedral,  on  pur« 
pose  to  confute  Dr.  Cheney,  who  held  that  see  in  commen- 
dam,  and  who  had  spoken  disrespectfully  of  certain  opi« 
hions  of  Ltttherand  Cal?in.  In  1569  he  made  application 
to  secretary  Cecil,  chancellor  of  the  university  of  Cam- 
bridge, for  the  provostsbip^  of  king's  college^  but  Dri 
Goad's  interest  prevailed.  Upon  the  translation  of  Dr.  Ed- 
win jSandys  from  the  bishopric  of  Worcester  to  that  of 
London  in  1570^  Dn  Caifhill  was  nominated  by  queen 
f^Iizabeth  to  succeed  him  j  but  before  his  consecration  h6 
(^ied^  about  the  beginning  of  August  (having  a  little  be- 
fore resigned  his  canonry  of  Christ  Church,  and  rectory  of 
St.  Andrew  Wardrobe),  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of 
Booking  church. «  His  works  were,  1.  *'  Querela  Oxonien- 
sis  Academis  ad  Cantabrigiam/'  Lond.  1552,  4to>  a  Latin 
poem  on  the  death  of  Henry  and  Charles  Brandon,  sons  of 
Charles  duke  of  Sttff<rik,  who  died  of  the  sweating-sick-^ 
ness  in  the  bishop  of  Lincoln's  house  at  Bugden,  July 
14,  I55L  2.  ^'  Historic  de  exhumatione  Catherine  nuper 
Qxoris  Pet  Martyris ;"  or,  The  History  of  the  digging  up 
the  body  of  Catherine  late  wife  of  Peter  Martyr,  Lond^ 
1562,  8vo.  The  remains  of  this  lady  bad  been  deposited 
in  the  cathedral  of  Christ  Church,  near  to  the  relics  of  St* 
Frideswide,  and  in  queen  Mary's  reign  were  dug  up  and 
buried  in  the  dunghill  near  the  stables  belonging  to  the 
dean ;  but  on  the  accession  of  queen  Elizabeth,  an  ordet 
was  given  to  replace  them  with  suitable  solemnity.  This 
order  our  author  partly  executed,  and  the  remains  of 
Martyr's  wife  were  on  this  occasion  purposely  mixed  with, 
those  of  St.  Frideswide,  that  the  superstitious  worshippers 
pf  the  latter  might  never  be  able  to  distinguish  or  separate 
them.  3.  Answer  to  John  Martiall's  *^  Treatise  of  the  Cross^ 
gathered  out  of  the  Scriptures,  douncils^  and  ancient  Fa** 
thers  of  the  primitive  Church,"  Lond.  1565,  4to.  4. 
i^  Progne,"  a  tragedy,  in  Latin;  which  probably  was  never 
printed,  k  was  acted  before  queen  Elizabeth  at  Oxford 
in  1566,  in  Christ  Church  hall ;  but,  says  Wood,  ^*  it  did 
hot  take  half  so  well  as  the  much  admired  play  of  PalsDroon 
and  Arcyte,"  written  by  £;dwards.  5.  "  Poemata  varia.'* 
As  to  his  character^  we  are  inforiped,  tha^  he  was  in  his 

F  2 

«»  C  A  L  F  H  I  L  L. 

*  ,  .    • 

younger  days  a  noted  poet  and  comedian  ;  and  in  bis  eldei^ 
an  exact  disputant,  and  had  an  excellent  faculty  in  speak« 
ing  and  preachmg.  One  who  had  beard  him  preach,  gives 
this  account  of  him :  <'  His  exceUent  tongue,  and  rhe^ 
torical  tale,  filled  with  good  and  wholesome  doctrine,  sd^ 
ravished  the  minds  of  the  hearers,  that  they  were  all'  in 
admiration  of  his  eloquence."  One  John  Calfhili,  chap- 
lain to  Dr.  Matthew,  archbishop  of  York,  a  prebendary  of 
Durham,  &c.  who  died  in  1619,  was  probably  son  to  our 
author.  * 

CALIGNON  (SoFFREY  de),  a  native  of  Saint  Jean,  near 
Voiron  in  Dauphiny,  was  secretary  to  M.  de  Lesdiguiercsy 
and  minister  of  the  reformed  religion,  aftlerwards  chancel- 
lor of  Navarre.     Henry  IV.  had  a  particular  esteem  for 
him,  and  employed  him  in  affairs  of  the  highest  import- 
ance.    Cahgnon  and  Thuanus  together  drew  up  the  edict 
of  Nantes.    He  died  September  1606,  at  Paris,  aged  fifty- 
six,  much  lamented.     He  was  a  man  of  great  learning^r 
und   well  skilled  in  the  management  of  affairs.     A  satire 
written  by  him,  entitled  "  Le  Mepris  des  Dames,'*  has  been 
preserved  to  us  by  du  Verdier  Vauprivas.     **  L*  Histoire 
des  choses  plus  remarquables  advenues  en  France  en  Aiv^ 
pees  1587,   1538,  et  1589,  par  S.  C."  printed  1590,  Svo; 
is  also  attributed  to  him,  and  contains  much  information  Of 
importance  to  the  protestant  cause.     His  life  has  been  writ- 
ten by  Gui  Allard,  with  that  of  the  baron  des  Adrets,  and 
Dupuy  Monbrun,  Grenoble,  1675,  12mo.  *  ' 

CALIXTUS  (George),  an   eminent   Lutheran   divine, 
was  born   at  Medelbui,  in  Holstein>  Dec.  14,  1586.     His 
ifather,  who  was  also  a  minister,  intended  him  for  the  same 
profession,  and  seut  him  to  study  at  Helmstadt,  Jena,  and 
Giessen,  and  most  of  the  protestant  schools  of  Germany. 
He  travelled  also  with  Matthias  Overbeck,  a  rich  Lutherarf, 
who  resided  in  Holland,  and  conceiving  a  high  opinion  of 
Calixtus,  became  his  liberal  patron,  as  he  had  been  to  Her- 
man Conringius  and  many  othert.     After  travelling  also  in 
f  ranee  and  England,  Calixtus  returned  to  Germany,  and 
was  appointed  professor  of  theology  at  Helmstadt  in  1614^ 
and  there  he  died,  March  18,  1656,  after  a  long  theologi- 
cal warfare,  both  with  his  brethren  aitd.the  Roman  catho- 
^  lies,  excited  by  his  endeavours  to  effect  a  comprehension 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol,  1. — ^Wood's  Hist,  and  Ajitiq.  of  Oxford, — llutchlssou's  Hi^U 
•f  DurhUDa,  toL  1L  p.  1B7.  «  Mor«ri;— 'Diet.  Hiit, 

C  A  L  I  X  T  t  S.  W  • 

Wtween  the  Roman  and  the  Lutheran  and  Calv inist  churches. 
According  to  MosheiiBy  Calixtus  was  the  first  person  that* 
reduced  theology  into  a  regular  system,  and  gave  it  a  truly 
scientific  and  philosophical  form.  As  he  had  imbibed  the 
spirit  of  the  Aristotelian  school,  he  arranged  the  substance* 
of  Christianity  according  to  the  method  of  the  Stagirite  ; 
and  divided  the  whole  science  of  divinity  into  three  parts« 
viz.  the  end,  the  subject,  and  the  means.  He  was  also  the 
first  who  separated  the  objects  of  faith  from  the  duties  of 
morality,  and  exhibited  the  latter  under  the  form  of  an  in- 
dependent science.  These  innovations  rendered  him  the 
object  of  much  censure  and  opposition.  In  his  attempt  to 
reunite  the  several  bodies  of  Christians,  and  to  comprehend 
the  different  churches  in  one  profession  of  religion,  he  was 

*  9,  principal  promoter  of  that  system  which  was  called  syn- 
cretism. The  controversy  which  was  thus  occasioned,  sub- 
sisted long  after  his  death  ;  and  though  he  seemed,  in  his 
efforts  for  comprehension,  to  give  advantage  to  the  Romish 
church,  no  one  attacked  its  tyranny  and  corruption  with 

^  .greater  vigour.  Mosheim  has  entered  largely  into  his  sys- 
tem and  the  consequence  of  it,  but  it  appears  to  us  to  be 
in  sdme  parts  inconsistent ;  and  experience  has  shewn  that 
all  plans  of  comprehension  are  impracticable,  without  such 
sacrifices  as  the  respective  parties  either  cannot  or  will  not 
make*  His  writings,  which  are  extremely  numerous,  on 
various  subjects  of  controversy,  are  enumerated  by  Freher, 
but  without  the  necessary  appendages  of  size,  dates,  &c. ' 
CALLE,  or  CALLET  (John  Francis),  a  French  ma- 
thematician, was  born  on  the  25th  of  October  1744,  at 
Versailles,  where  he  received  a  good  education,  and  ac- 
quired an  early  taste  for  the  mathematics.  In  1763  he 
came  to  Paris,  where  he  had  an  opportunity  of  being  more 
thoroughly  instructed.  In  1774  he  formed  some  distm- 
guished  pupils  for  the  school  of  engineers,  where  the  ex- 
aminations were  strict,  ^nd  admission  difficult  to  be  ob- 
tained. In  1779  he  gained  the  prize  proposed  by  the  so- 
ciety of  arts  at  Geneva,  for  escapements.  In  1783  he  com- 
pleted his  edition  of  "  Gardiner's  Tables  of  Logarithms,** 
.which  were  exceedingly  convenient,  of  great  utility,  and 
very  correct;  and  which  possessed  advantages  above  all 
the  others.  In  1788  he  was  appointed  professor  of  hydro- 
graphy at  Vannes,  afterwards  at  Dunkirk  ;  and  in  1792  he 

*  Moreri.— Mosheim's  History. — Frehiri  Theatrum. — Saxii  OAomasticon,     . 

70  C  A  L  L  E, 

returned  to  Paris,  and  was  for  a  few  years  professor  cfr^  tn^ 
genieurs  geographes  at  the  dep6t  of  war.     This  place  hav- 
ing been  suppressed^  he  continued  to  teach  in  Paris^  where 
he  was  alyva^ys  considered  fts  one  of  the  beat  mathematical 
mftsters  to  whom  pupils  could  apply.  In  1795  be  published 
the  new  stereotype  edition  of  the  "  Tables  of  Logarithms," 
considerably  enlarged  with  logarithmic  tables  of  the  sines, 
ILccording  to  the  new  decimal  division  of  the  circle.  The^e 
are  the  first  which  ever  appeared.     Towards  the  end  of 
1797  he  presented  to  the  National  Institute  the  plan  of  a 
new  telegraph  and  a  telegraphic  language,  accompanied 
with  a  dictionary  of  12,000  French  words  adapted  to  it  by 
a  combination  worthy  of  so  able  a  mathematician.     These 
labours  had  injured  his  health,  and  he  had  been  a  long  time 
asthmatic,  but,  notwithstanding  his  condition,  he  published 
that  year  an  excellent  memoir  on  finding  the  longitude  at 
sea,  under  the  modest  title  of  *^  A  Supplement  to  the . 
Trigonometry  and  Navigation  of  Bezout/'     He  died  on 
the.  14th  of  November,  1798,  leaving  behind  him  a  daugh'v 
ter,  born  4t  Vannes  ia  1793.     According  to  a  tradition  ia 
the  family,  be  was  descended  from  Descartes.  ^ 

CALLIERGUS  (Zacuaiuas),  a  native  of  Crete,  became 
^  very  eminent  Gree^  printer  about  tbe.^od  of  the  fifte^intb 
eentury,  which  business  he  carried  ofi  first  at  Yeniee,  and 
^terwards  at  Ropfie.  He  had  a  principal  concern  in  the 
compil$ition  as  well  as  printing  of  the  ^'  EtymologicuiQ. 
magnum,"  printed  at  Venice  in  1499,  and  printed  in  the 
aame  year  Simp(icius*s  Commentary  on  Aristotle^s  cate- 

fories.  His  edition  of  Pindar,  with  Greek  scholia  collected 
y  himself,  appeared  at  Roipe  in  1515,  4to,  and  was:  the 
first  Gr^ek  book  printed,  in  that  city.  He  also  printed^ 
which  is  thought  to  be  the  secpnd  Greek  book  executed.  a|^ 
Rome,  an  editit)n  of  Theocritus,  1516j  8vo.  Reiske  CQn<4 
siders  it  among  the  most  accurate  and  complete,  of  the 
early  editions  of  Theocritus,  and  it  was  the  first  with  the 
scholia.  It  is  now  both  scarce  and  dear.  An  edition  of 
Phavorinus*s  Lexicon  was  also  published  by  Cailierggs,  a| 
Rome,  1523.  Of  the  personal  history  of  this  learned  an4 
ingenious  printer  we  have  no  account.  J^rasqiiis  calls  hioi 
f^  juvenis  eximie  doctus,''  and  Gyraldus  speaks  of  him  aat 
having  been  of  a  family  of  some  rank.  ^ 

*  Leland*s  History  of  Astronomy  for  1798  — "Rees's  Cyclopedia.— Diet.  Hist. 
<  Hodiui  de  Qraecis  iliustribss. — Fabric.  BibU^Grec— Dibdin's  Classic«.«^ 
^xii  Onomast. 

C  A  L  L  I  M  A  C  H  U  S.  7t 


,  CALLIMACHUSy  m  ancletu  Greek  poet,  was  bovn  at 
Cjrrene,  a  town  in  Africa,  and  flourished  under  the  Ptole- 
mies Philadelphus  and  Euergetes ;  Berenice,  queen  -of 
the  latter,  having  consecrated  her  locks  in  the  temple  of 
Venuii,  and  a  flattering  astronomer  having  translated  them 
from  thence  into  a  constellation  in  the  heavens,  gave  occa« 
sion  to  the  fine  el^y  of  this  poet,  which  we  have  now 
only  in  the  Latin  of  Catullus.  He  may  be  placed,  there* 
fore,  about  2S0  B.  C.  His  common  name  Battiades  has 
made  the  grammarians  usually  assign  one  Battus  for  bis 
father ;  but  perhaps  he  may  as  well  derive  that  name  from 
king  Battus,  the  founder  of  Cyrene,  from  whose  line,  as 
Strabo  assures  us,  he  declared  himself  to  be  descended.  But 
whoever  was  his  father^  the  poet  has  paid  all  his  duties 
and  obligations  to  him  in  a  most  delicate  epitaph,  which 
we  find  in  the  Antholpgia ;  and  which  shews  that  Martial 
bad  good  reason  to  assign  him,  as  he  has  done,  the  crown 
amcMtg  the  Grecian  writers  of  the  epigram.  He  was  edu- 
cated under  Hermocrates,  the  grammarian;  and  before 
he  was  reeommended  to  the  favour  of  the  kings  of  Egypt, 
he>  taught  a  school  at  Alexandria ;  and  had  the  honour  of 
educating  Apollonius,  the:  author  of  the  Argonautics.  But 
Apoilonius  making  an  unmteful  return  to  his  master  for 
the  pains  he  had  tdcen  wiw  him,  Callimachus  was  prpvoked 
to  revenge  himself  in  an  invective  poem,  called  Ibis^'^ 
which,  it  is  known,  furnwhed  Ovid  with  a  pattern  iand  title 
for  a  satire  of  the  same  nature.  Suidas  relates,  that  Calli-- 
macbus  wrote  above  800  pieces ;  of  which  we  have  now 
remaining  only  a  few  hymns  and  epigrams.  Quintilian  is- 
'very  justtfiable  in  having  asserted,  that  Callimachus  wds. 
the  first  of  all  the  elegiac  poets.  He  has  the  credit  of  hav- 
ing first  spoken  the  proverbial  spying,  ^^  a  great  book  is  w 
jgreat  evil,^*  which  critics  have  been  fonder  of  repeating 
than  authors. 

We  know  no  more  of  the  time  of  this  poet's  death  than 
we  do  of  ti)»t  of  his  birth ;  but  it  was  probably  in  the  reign 
of  Ptolemy  Euergetes :  for  Apollonius  Rhodius,  who  was  his 
scholar,  vtm  chosen  by  that  prince  to  the  care  of  the  Alex* 
imdrian  libraty,  and  after  dying  in  that  office  was  buried 
in  Caliunacbus's  grave.  * 

The  best  e4?tions  of  Callimachus  are  those  of  Grs^vius, 
Utrecht,  1697,  2  vols.  8vo;  Bentley,  London,  1741,  8vo ; 
Ernest,  Leyden,  176 1,  2  vols.  Bvo^  &c.  The  English  reader 
h^s  been  in  some  measure  made  acquainted  with  CalU<> 

IZ  C  A  L  L  I  M  A  C  H  U  «. 

xnachus  in  the  translation  of  >  the  unfortunate  Dr.  Dodd, 
and  more  recently  (1793)  in  that  of  Dr.  H.  W.  Tytler.  * 

CALLISTHENES,  a  Greek  philosopher  and  historian, 
tvas  a  native  of  Olintbus,  and  the  disciple  and  relation  of 
Aristotlfy  by  whose  advice  he  accompanied  Alexander  in 
his  expeditions.     Aristotle  gave  him  to  his  scholar,  that  he 
might  moderate  the  fury  of  his  passions ;  but  Callisthenes 
was  top  deficient  in  the  arts  of  a  courtier  to  render  truth  ^ 
sufficiently  palatable  to  the  prince.     Hi$  animadversions 
on  him  were  probably  conveyed  in  repulsive  language,  and 
he  is  said  to  have  placed  his  writings  far  above  the  con- 
quests of  the  king  of  Macedon,  who  ought^  said  he,   **  to 
look  for  immortality  more  from  his  books  than  from  the 
madness  of  being  the  son  of  Jupiter.'^     He  thus  coarsely 
eicpostulated  with  Alexander  on  the  absurdity  of  his  ex- 
pecting divine  honours,  and  he  became  insupportable  to 
the  youthful  hero,     Callisthenes.  being  accused,  in   the 
year  328  before  the  Christian  sera,  of  conspiring  against 
the  life  pf  Alexander^  the  prince  eageiiy  seized  that  op- 
portunity for  getting  rid  of  his  censor.  "  This  conqueror  (says  . 
the  historian  Justin),  irritated  against  the  philosopher  Callis-' 
thenes  for  boldly  disapproving  his  resolution  to  make  himself* 
adored  after  the.  manner  of  the  kings  of  Persia,  pretended  ^ 
to  believe  that  he  had  engaged  in  a  conspiracy  against 
him ;  and  made  use  of  this  pretext  for  cruelly  causing  his 
lips^  his  nose,  and  his  ears  to  be  cut  off.     In  this  mutilated 
condition  he  had  bim  drawn  in  his  retinue,  shut  up  with  a 
dog  in  an  iron  ca^e,  to  make  him  an  object  of  horror  and- 
affright  to  his  army.     Lysimachus,  a  disciple  of  this  vir^? 
tuous  man,  moved  at  beholding  him  languish  in  a  misery  be'' 
had  brought  on  himself  only  by  a  laudable  frankness,  pro- 
cured him  poison,  which  at  once  delivered  him  from  hisv 
exquisite  torments  and  such  unmerited  indignity.     Alex-^. 
ahder,  being  informed  of  it,  was  so  transported  with  rage,* 
that  he  caused  Lysimachus  to  be  exposed  to  the  fury  of 
a  hungry  lion,     The  brave  man,  on  seeing  the  beast  ap*' 
proach  to  devour  hiniy  folded  his  cloak  round  his  arm^ 
plunged  it  down  his  throat,  and,  tearing  out  his  tpngue,- 
stretched  him  dead  upon  the  sppt.    An  exploit  so  courage-' 
ous  struck  the  king  with  an  admiration  that  disarmed  hisi 
wrath,  and  made  Lysimachus  more  de^to  biga^than  ever.'^ 


t  Fabric.  Biblt  Graec— Vossius  de  Poet.  Graec. — Saxu  Onomast. — Dibdin  aQ^ 

C  A  L  L  I  S  T  H  E  N  E  S.  7« 

Them  are,  howevar,  other  accounts  of  his  di^ath,  but  all 
of  them  sufficiently  shocking.     It  is  reported  that  Alex- 
ander caused  these  words  to  be  engraved  on  the  tomb  of 
Callistbenes :  "  odi  sophistam  qui  srBi  non  sapit.**     In 
the  seventh  volume  of  Memoirs  of  the  academy  o(  belles- 
lettres  of  Paris  may  be  seen  some  curious  researches  on 
the  life  and  writings  of  this  philosopher  by  the  abb6  Sevin.' 
The  philosophers  that  succeeded  Callistbenes  thought  it 
their  duty  (says  M.  Hardion)  to  avenge  their  brother  by 
launching  out  into  furious  declamations  against  the  memory  . 
of  Alexander,  whose  criminality,  according  to  Seneca,  was 
never  to  be  effaced,  because  he  was  the  murderer  of  Callis- 

.  The  "  Life  of  Alexander,**  said  to  have  been  written  by 
Callistbenes,  often  referred  to  by  the  ancients,  has  been 
long  since  lost ;  but  a  Greek  life  of  Alexander,  under  the 
adopted  name  of  Callistbenes,  at  presetit  exists,  and  is  no 
uncommon  manuscript  in  good  libraries.     There  is  one 
copy  in  the  Bodleian,  and  another  in  the  roysl  library  at 
Paris,     It  was  written  in  Greek,  being  a  translation  from 
the  Persic  by  Simeon  Setb,  styled  magister  and  protoves- 
tiary  or  wardrobe-keeper  of  the  palace  of  Antiochus  at' 
Constantinople,  about  the  year  1070,  under  the  emperor. 
Micha^  Ducas. '  It  was  most  probably  soon  after  translated' 
from  the  Greek  into  the  Latin,  and  at  length  from  thence 
into  French,  Italian,  and  German.     But  it  is  unnecessary 
to  say  more  of  a  work  which  does  not  belong  to  our  Callis- 
tbenes.    He  is  said  to  have   written  other  works,  as  ^'A 
History  of  Greece,"  4  "History  of  the  Trojan  war,'*  &c. 
but  no  traces  of  them  are  now  to  be  found.  ^ 


CALLOT  (James),  a  famous  engraver,  son  of  John 
Callot,  herald  of  arms  in  Lorrain,  was  descended  from  an 
ancient  and  noble  family,  and  born  at  Nancy  in  1593.  *  He 
cherished  almost  from  his  infancy  a  taste  and  spirit  for  the 
belles  lettres,  as  well  as  for  the  fine  arts.  When  he  was 
only  twelve  years  old  he  set  off  for  Rome,  without  the 
knowledge  of  his  parents,  in  order  tx)  see  the  many  curiosi- 
ties there  he  had  heard  so  much  talk  of;  but  his  money 
failing,  he  joined  himself  to  a  party  of  Bohemians,  wha 
were  going  into  Italy,  and  went  with  them  to  Florence. 

*  Moreri.— Vossius. — ^Arriao. — Justin. 

74  C  A  L  L  O  T. 



Tfaene  he  was  taken  under  the  protection  of  an  officer  of 
the  great  duke,  who  placed  him  to  learn  designing  under 
Ramigio  Canta  GaUiiia,  a  skilful  painter  and  engraver. 
Afterwairds  he  got  to  Rome,  where  he  was  known  by  a 
merchant  of  Nancy,  and  sent  immediately  home  to  his 
parents*  When. he  was  about  14  years  of  age  he  left  home 
again,  atid  directed  bis  course  towards  Rome ;  but  being 
discoviered  by  his  elder' brother,  who  was  at  Turin  about 
business,  he  was  brought  back  a  second  time  to  Nancy. 
His  passion,  however,  for  seeing  Rome  being  still  ardent 
and  irresistible,  his  father  at  length  gave  him  leave  to  go 
in  the  train  of  a  gentleman  whom  the  duke  of  Lorrain 
sent  to  the  pope. 

\\{hen  he  arrived  at  Rome,  he  learned  to  design  and  en« 
grave  first  with  Giulio  Parigri,  and  afterwards  with  Philip 
Thomassin  .of  Troyes  in  Champaghe,  who  bad  fettled  in 
that  city  ;  but  this  latter  ha;iring  a  beautiful  wife,  who  paid 
some;  marked  attentions  to   Callot,    a  disagreement  took 
plage,  aqd  ouy  young  arti»t  removed  to  Florence,  where 
the  great  duke  employed  him  with  several  other  excellent 
workmen.     Callot  at  that  time  began  to  design  in  minia- 
ture, and  had  so  happy  a  genius  for  it,  that  be  became  in^ 
comparable  in  that  way.     He  quitted  his  graver^  and  used 
aquafortis^  becauae  this  was  both  the  quickest  way*  of  work- 
iug,  and  gave  more  strength  and  spirit  to  the  performance, 
Aner  the  great  duke's  death^  he  began  to  think  of  return*- 
ing  to  his  own  country  -y   and  about   that  time,    prince 
Charles,  coming  through  Florence,  and  being  uncommonly 
struck  with. some  of  his  curious  pieces,  persuaded  Callot 
to  go  along  with  him  to  Lorrain,  and  promised  him  a  good 
salary  from  his  father-in-law  Henry,  the  reigning  duke. 
Callot  attended  him,  and  had  a  considerable  pension  set- 
tled upqn  him  ;  and,  being  in  his  S2d  year^  he  took  a  wife, 
^ho  was  a  woman  of  family.      His  reputation  was  now 
spread  all. over  E^urope,  and  the  infanta  of  Spain  sent  f6r 
))im  to  Brussels,  when  the  marquis  of  Spinola  was  laying 
siege  to  Breda,  that  he  might  first  draw,  and  afterwards 
engrave,  as  he  did,  the  siege  of  that  town.     He  went  to 
France  in  1628,  when  Louis  XIIL  made  him  design  and 
engrave  the  siege  of  Rocbelle  and  the  isle  of  Rh6.     After 
he  bad  been  amply  recompensed  by  that  monarch,  he  re-, 
tumeii  to  Nancy ;  where  he  continued  to  follow  the  busi- 
ness of  engraving  so  assiduously,  that  he  is  said  to  have 
left  1500 pieces  qf  hi^  own;  au  incr^c^ible  nun^beir  for  30 

C  A  L  L  O  T.  75 

i^ort  a  life  as  bis !  When  tbe  duke  of  Orleans,  Gaston  of 
France,  withdreve  into  Lorrain,  he  made  him  engrave  seve- 
ral silver  stamps,  and  went  to  his  house  two  hours  every 
day  to  learn  to  draw.  }n  1G31,  when  the  king  of  France 
had  reduced  Nancy,  he  sent  for  Callot  to  engrave  that  new 
conquest,  as  he  had  done  Rocbelle  ;  but  Callot  begged  to 
be  excused,  because  that  being  a  Lorrainer  he  could  not 
do  any  thing  so  much  against  the  honour  of  his  prince  and 
country.  The  king  was  not  displeased  at  his  answer,  but 
said,  **  The  duke  of  Lorrain  was  very  happy  in  having 
such  faithful  and  affectionate  subjects."  Some  of  the 
courtiecs  insinuated,  that  he  ought  to  be  forced  to  do  it ;  to 
which  Callot,  when  it  was  told  him,  replied  with  great  firm- 
ness, ^'  That  he  would  sooner  disable  his  right  band  than 
be  obliged  to  do  any  thing  against  his  honour.^'  The  king 
then,  instead  of  forcing  him,  endeavoured  to  draw  faim  into 
France,  by  offering  to  settle  upon  him  a  pension  of  300D 
livres ;  to,  which  Callot  answered,  "That  he  conld  no« 
leave  his  countjy  and  birth-place,  but  that  there  he  wo«ld 
always  be  ready  to  serve  his  majesty."  Nevertheless,  when 
he  afterwards  found  the  ill  condition  Lorrain  was  reduced 
to  by  the  taking  of  Nancy,  he  projected  a  scheme  of  re- 
turning with  bis  wife  to  Florence ;  bat  was  hindered  firom 
executing  it  by  his  death,  which  happened  on  the  2Sith  of 
March,  1636,  when  he  was. only  43  years  of  age.  He  was 
buried  in  the  cloister  of  the  cordeliei*s  at  Nancy,  where  his 
ancestors  lay  ;^  and  had  an  epitaph  inscribed  upon  a  piece 
of  black  marble,  on  which  was  engraved  a  half  portrait  of 
himself.  He  left  an  excellent  moral  character  behind  him, 
and  died  with  the  universal  esteem  of  men  of  taste. 

This  artist  engraved  in  several  styles;  the  first  of  which 
w^  ah  imitation  of  his  master  Canta  Oallina.  He  after- 
wards worked  altogether  with  the  graver ;  but  without 
success.  His  next  style  was  the  mixture  of  the  point  and 
the  graver,  with  coarse  broad  hatchings  in  the  shadows. 
But  his  best  manner,  is  t^hat  which  appears  to  have  been 
executed  with  the  greatest  freedom,  by  which  he  has  ex- 
pressed^ as  we  may  say,  with  a  single  stroke,  variety  of 
character,  and  correctness  of  design.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  the  first  who  used  hard  varnish  in  etching,  which  has 
been  found  much  superior  to  that  which  was  before  adopted. 
The  fertility  of  invention,  and  the  vast  variety,  found  in 
the  works  of  this  excellent  artist,  are  astonishing.  It  could 
Jiardly  have  been  supposed  possible  to  combine  so  great  a 

19  C  A  L  L  O  T- 

number  ctf  figures  together  as  he  has  done,  and  to  vary  the 
attitudes,  without  forced  contrast,  so  that  all  of  them,  whe- 
ther single  figures  or  groupes.  may  be  easily  distinguished 
from  each  other,  even  in  the  masses   of  shadow ;    more 
especially  when  it  is  considered  that  they  are  often  ex- 
ceedingly minute.     On  a  cursory  view  of  some  of  his  most 
admired  pieces,  the  whole  appears  confused,  and  without 
harmony  ;-but  a  careful  examination  discovers  therichne^, 
the  beauty,  the  taste,  and  the  judgment  which  are  be- 
stowed on  the  disposition  of  the  figures,  the  management 
of  the  groupes,  and  the   variety  and  proprietj^  of  the  atti- 
tudes.    The  works  of  this  master  are  very  numerous  and 
various.     In  representation  of  all  the  varieties  of  human 
life,  from  beggars  and  peasants  to  knights  and  nobles,  be 
excelled  ;  characterising  all  with  the  nicest  touches  of  na>« 
tufe.     Of  his  subjects,  many  are  of  the  most  painful  and 
shocking  kind,  such  as  public  executions,  the  miseries  of 
war,  and  the  like ;  many  are  grotesque  and  fanciful,  and 
^^shibit  a  strong  imagination.     Among  his  most  admired 
prints,  Strutt  enumerates :  "  The  Murder  of' the  Inno- 
cents," of  which  that  engraved  at  Florence  is  most  rare ; 
a  fine  inapressioa  of  it  being  found  with  difficulty ;  "  The 
Marriage  of  Canain  Galilee,"  from  Paolo  Veronese ;  "The 
Passion  of  Christ,"  the  first  impressions  of  which  are  very 
scarce ;  "  St.  John  in  the  island  of  Palma ;"  "  The  Temp- 
tation of  St.  Anthony;"  "The  Punishments,"  exhibiting 
the   execution   of  several  criminals;    "  The  Miseries  of 
War ;"  "  The  great  Fair  of  Florence ;"  The  little  Fair,** 
otherwise   called   "  The    Players   at  Benti,"    one  of  the 
scarcest  of  Callot's  prints ;"  ^^  The  Tilting,  or  the  New 
Street  at  Nancy;"  The  Garden  of  Nancy;"  "  View  of 
the  Pont  Neuf;"    "View  of  the  Louvre;"  and  "Four 

CALLY  (Peter),  a  celebrated  French  philosopher,  wa^ 
ft  native  of  Mesnil-Hubert,  near  Argenton,  in  the  diocese 
of  Seez.  About  1655,  he  studied  philosophy  at  Caen, 
and  afterwards  divinity  at  Paris,  but  philosophy  was  hid 
favourite  pursuit,  and  the  foundation  of  his  fame.  In 
1660  he  taught  in  the  college  du  Bois,  in  Caen,  and  be- 
came there  acquainted  with  Huet,  afterwards  bishop  of 
Avranches,  who  acknowledged  the  assistance  he  derived 

>  Moreri.r—Strutt. — Feliblen*s  Fntreticns  gur  les  vies  deg  pemtres.~>PerrBult 
.  ks  Hommes  lUustitiii. — Evelyn's  Sculpture,  p,  87.  ^ 

C  A  L  L  y.  77 

from  Cally  in  his  studies.     Their  intimacy,  however,  was 
interrupted  by  Cally*s  avowal  of  adherence  to  the  Carte- 
sian system.     Cally  was  the  iSrst  in  France  who  had  the 
courage  to  profess  himself  a  Cartesian,  in  defiance  of  thei 
prejudices  and  numbers  of  those  who  adhered  to  the  aur 
cient  philosophy.     He  first  broached  his  Cartesianism  in 
the   way   of  hypothesis,    but  afterwards   taught  it   more 
openly,    wbiqh  procured  him  many  enemies.      Huet,  al- 
though then  very  young,  ventured  to  censure  him  \  and 
father  Valois,  the  Jesuit,  who  was  a  contemporary  prp- 
fessbr  of  philosophy,  attacked  both  Caily  and  his  opinions 
in  a  work  which  he  published  under  the  name  of  Louis  de 
la  Ville,  in  J 680,  entitled   "  Seutimens  de  M.  Descartes^ 
touchant  Tessence  et  les  p)ropri6t^s  des  corps,  opposes  a  la 
doctrine  de  Teglise,  et  conformes  aux  erreurs  de  ^alvin  sut 
reucharistie."     Cally,  not  thinking  there  was  much  in  this, 
did  not  answer  it  until  pressed  by  his  friends,  when  he 
wrote  an  aniswer  in  Latin,   which,  however,    was  not  al 
this  time  published.    When  the  duke  de  Monta\isier  was 
appointed  by  Louis  XIV.   to  provide  eminent  classical 
scholars  to  write  notes  on  the,  classics  published  for  the  use 
of  the  Dauphin,    Cally  was  selected  for   the  edition  of 
'^  fioethius  de  Consolatione,"  which  he  published,  accord* 
ingly,  in  1680,  in  4to,  now  one  of  the  scarce  quarto  Del* 
phin  editions.     In  1674  he  published  a  short  introduction 
to  philosophy,  '^^Institutio  philosophica,"  4to,  which  he 
»  afterwards  greatly  enlarged,  and  published  in  1695  under 
the  title  '^  Universal  philosophise  institutio,"  Caen,  4  vols. 
4to.     In  167S  he  was  appointed*  principal  of  the  college  of 
arts  in  Caen,  on  which  he  began  a  new  course  of  philoso-^ 
phical  lectures,  and  laid  out  ten  or  twelve  thousand  francs 
an  rebuilding  a  part  of  the  college  which  had  fallen  into 
iruin.     In  1684  he  was  appointed  curate  of  the  parish  of 
St  Martin,  in  Caen,  and  the  Protestants  who  were  then 
very  numerous  in  that  city,  flocked  to  his  sermons,  and  he, 
held  conferences  once  or  twice  a  week  in  his  vestry,  which 
they  attended  with  much  pleasure,  and  we  are  told  he  made 
many  converts  to  the  Popish  religion.     But  this  success, 
for  which  every  Catholic  ought  to  have  been  thankful,  ex- 
cited the  envy  of  those  who  had  quarrelled  with  him  befor^ 
on  account  of  his  Cartesianism,  and  by  false  accusations, 
rtey  procured  him  exiled  to  1686,  where 
he  remained  for  two  years.     Finding  on  his  return  that  the 
Protestants  w^re  stilji  numerous  in  Caen,  and  that  they  en- 

▼9  '  C  A  L  L  Y. 

tertained  the  same  resp^et  for  him  as  befofe^  he  wrote  for 
their  use  a  work  Entitled  '^Durand  comment^y  ou  Taccord 
de  la  philosophic  avec  la  theologie,  touchant  la  trarisub- 
stantiation.^*  In  this^  which  contained  part  of  his  answer 
to  father  Valois,  mentioned  above,  he  revives  the  opinion 
of  the  celebrated  Durand,  who  said,  if  the  church  decided 
that  there  was  a  transubstantiation  in  the  eucharist,  there' 
must  remain  something  of  what  was  bread,  to  make  a  dif- 
ference between  the  creatioiv  and  production  of  a  thing 
which  was  not,  and  annihilation  or  a  thing  reduced  to 
nothing.  Caily  sent  this  work  in  MS.  to  M.  Basqage,  who 
had  been  one  of  his  scholars,  but  received  no  answer.  In 
the  mean  time,  uHwilling  to  delay  a  work  which  he  hoped 
.would  contribute  to  the  conversion  of  the  Protestants^  he 
engaged  with  a  bookseller  at  Caeii  to  j^int  only  sixty 
copies,  which  he  purposed  to  send  to  his  friends  at  Paris^ 
and  iobtain  their  opinion  as  to  a  9iore  extended  publication. 
The  bookseller,  however,  having  an  eye  only  to  his  own 
interest,  undertook  to  assure  Cally  that  the  work  would  be 
approved  by  the  doctors  of  the  Sorbonne,  and  he  therefore 
would  print  eight  hundred.  Cally  unfortunately  con- 
sented, and  the  work  no  sooner  Appeared,  than  he  who 
fondly  hoped  it  would  convert  heretics,  was  himself  treated 
as  a  heretic.  M.  de  Nesmond,  then  bishop  of  Bayeuity 
condemned  the  work  in  a  pastoral  letter  March  SO,  1701^ 
and  Cally  in  April  following  made  his  retractation,,  which 
be  not  only  read  in  his  own  churchy  but  it  was  read  in  ail- 
other  churches ;  and  he  also  destroyed  the  impression, '^o 
that  it  is  now  classed  among  rare  books.  It  was  a  smatt 
vol.  12mo,  1700,  printed  at  Cologne,  under  the  name  of 
Pierre  Marteau.  Cally  also  published  some  of  his  sermons^ 
but  they  were  too  philosophical  and  dry  for  the  closet,  aK 
though  ne  had  contrived  to  give  them  a  popular  effect  in 
the  pulpit.  A  work  entitled  <^  Doctrine  heretique,  &c, 
touchant  la  primaut^  du  pape,  enseign^e  par  les  Jesuites 
dans  leureoUege  de  Caen,"  is  attributed  to  him,  but  as  it 
bears  date  1644,  he  must  have  then  been  too  young.  He 
died  Dec.  31,  1709.* 

CALMET  (Augustine),  a  learned  Benedictine  of  the 
college  of  £t  Vannes,  was  born  at  Mesnil-la-Horgue,  near 
Commercy,  Feb.  26,  1672,  arid  was^  first  educated  in  the 
priory  Qf  Breuil.     In  1687  be  went  to  study  at  the  univer- 

*  Moreri* 

C  A  L  M  E  T*  M 

slty  of  Podt-a-Mousson,  where  be  was  taught  a  bonrM  of 
rhetoric.  On  leaving  this  class,  he  entered  among*  tjfaa 
Benedictines  in  the  abbey  of  St.  Mansuy,  in  the  fauxbourg 
of  Touly  Oct  17,  1683,  and  made  profession  in  the  same 
place  Oct.  33,  1689.  He  began  bis  philosophical  course 
ia  the  abbey  of  St  Evre,  and  completed  that  and  his  theo« 
logical  studies  in  the  abbey  o^St  Munster.  At  his  leisure 
hours  be  studied  the  Hebrew  language  with  great  attention 
and  success,  and  likewise  improved  his  knowledge  of  the 
Greek.  In  1696  he  was  sent  with  some  of  his  companions 
to  the  abbey  of  Moyenmoutier,  where  they  studied  the 
Holy  Scriptures  under  P.  D.  Hyacinthe  Ailiot  Two  years 
after,  in  1698,  Calmet  was  appointed  to  teach  philosophy 
and  theology  to  the  young  religious  of  that  monastery,  an 
employment  which  he  filled  until  1704,  when  he  was  sent, 
with  the  rank  of  sub-prior,  to  the  abbey  of  Munster.  There 
he  was  at  the  head,  of  an  academy  of  eigh*t  or  ten  religious^ 
with  whom  he  pursued  his  biblical  studies,  and  having, 
while  at  Moyenmoutier  written  commentaries  and  disserta- 
tions on  various  partes  of  the  Bible,  he  here  retouched  and 
improved  these,  although  without  any  other  design,  at  this 
time,  than  his  own  instruction.  During  a  visit,  however, 
at  Paris^  in  1706,.he  was  advised  by  the  abb^  Duguet,  to 
whom  he  had  been- recommended  by  Mabillon,  to  publish 
bis  commentaries  in .  French,  and  the  first  volume  accord- 
ingly appeared  in  1707,  In  1715  he  became  prior  of  Lay, 
9nd  ia  1718  the  chapter-general  appointed  him  abb^  of 
St  Leopold,  of  Nancy,  and  the  year  following  he  was 
made  visitor  of  the  congregation.  In  1728  he  was  chosen 
abb£  .of  Senones,  on  which  occasion  he  reigned  his  priory 
of  Lay.  When  pope  Benedict  XIII.  confirmed  his  elec- 
tion, the  cardinals  proposed  to  his  holiness  that  Calmet 
should  also  have  the  title  of  bishop  in  partibus  in^^Utm^y 
with  power  to  exercise  the  episcopal  functions  in  those 
parts  of  the  province  which  are  exempt  from  the  jurisdic^^ 
tion  of  the  ordinary  ;  but  this  Calmet  refused,  and  wrote 
on  the  subject  to  Rome.  The  pope  in  Sept.  1729,  ad- 
dressed a  brief  to  him,  accepting  of  his  excuses,  and  some 
time  after  sent  •him  a  present  of  his  works,  in  3  vols.  fol. 
Calmet  took  possession  of  the  abbey  of  Senones,  January 
3,  1729,  and  continued  his  studies,  and  increased  the  )i* 
hraiy  and  museum  belonging  to  th^  abbey  with  9everal 
valuably  purchases,  particularly  of  the  medals  of  the  de- 
ceased M«  de  Corbei;on,  •  secretary  of  ^late,  and  of^  the  na- 

•O  C  A  L  M  E  T. 

tural  curiosities  of  M.  Voile,     Here  he  died  Oct.  55, 1 757, 
respected,  by  all  ranks,  Roman  cathplics  and  Protestantsy 
for  his  learning  and  candour,  and  by  his  more  particular 
friends  and  those  of  his  own  order,  for  his  amiable  temper 
and  personal  virtues.  •  His  learning,  indeed,  was  most  ex- 
tensive, as  the  greater  part  of  his  long  life  was  devoted  to 
study;  but  amidst  such  vast  accumulation  of  materials,  we 
are  not  surprised  that  he  was  sometimes  deficient  in  se-* 
lection,  and  appears  rather  as  a  collector  of  facts,  than  a» 
an  original  thinker.     His  principal  works  are^  1.  ^^  Corn- 
men  taire  litteral  sur  tons  les  livres  de  T  Ancien  et  du  Nou- 
veau  Testament,"  1707 — 1716,  2S  vols.   4to ;    reprinted 
in  26  vols.  4to,  and^  fol.  and  abridged  in  14  vols.  4to. 
Rondet  published  a  new  edition  of   this    abridgment  in 
17  vols.  4to,  Avignon,  1767 — 1773.    M.  Fourmont,  Arabic 
professor  in  the  royal  college,  had  begun  an  attack  on 
this  commentary*,  because  Calmet  had  not,  as  he  thought^ 
paid  sufficient  respect  to  the  rabbins,  but  the  king  (Louis 
XIV.)  and  the  cardinal  de  Noailles  obliged  him  to  desist* 
The  celebrated  father  Simon  wrote  some  letters  against 
Calmet)  which  were  ccmimunicated  to  him  by  Pinsonnat, 
the.  Hebrew  professor,  who  did  not  approve  of  them,  nor 
did  Anquetille,    the    librarian  of    Tellier,    archbishop  of 
Rheims,  nor  were  they  published  until  eighteen  or  twenty 
years  afterwards,    and  even  then  the  censors  expunged 
many  illiberal  passages  respecting  Calmet.     2.  The  "  Dis- 
sertations and   Prefaces"  belonging  to  his  commentary, 
published    separately    with    nineteen    new   Dissertations^ 
Paris,  1720,  2  vols.  4to.     3.  "  Histoire  de  I'Ancien  et  da 
Nouveau  Testament,"  intended  as  an  introduction  to  Fleu- 
ry's  "  Ecclesiastical  History,"  2  and  4  vols.  4to ;  and  5  and 
■'7  vols.   l2mo.      4.  "  Dictionnaire  historique,  critique,  et 
chronologique  de  la  Bible."  Paris,  1730,  4  vols.  foL    This 
work,  which  is  a  valuable  treasure  of  sacred  history  and 
criticism,  was  soon  made  known  to  the  English  public  by 
a  translation,  in  3  vols.  fol.  London,  1732,  by  Sam.D'Oyly^ 
M.  A.  vicar  of  St.  Nicholas,  Rochester,  and  John  Colson, 
F.R.S.  vicar  of  Chalk,  in  Kent,  a  work  elegantly  printed 
and  embellished  with  a  profusion  of  fine  engravings.     A 
new  edition  appeared  in  1793,  4to,  with  valuable  additions 
from  subsequent  critics,  travellers,  and  philosophers.     5« 
**  Histoire  ecclesiastique' et  civile  de  la  Lorraine,"  .3  vola» 
foL  reprinted  1745,  in  5  vols.  fol.     6.  "  Bibliotheque  des 
Ecrivains  de  Lorraine/'  fol,  1751.     7,  '^  Histoire  univer* 

C  A  1  M  tT*  il 

tellie  siBLcrie  et  pKO&t) e/'  1 5  i^ofe.  4to.  Tbis  €«1ri^  iid  not 
live  to  finisfa,  and  in  cKher  4res]p«e.ts  it  is  -not  iiis  b«8l  wotk. 
t.  ^*  Dissertatioms  sur  l<es  apparii;ions  des  AugeSjAe^  De9koiti»^ 
et  d^  Espms,  etsorles  ReveB.aM'et  Vampires  de  ftongJEie^'' 
Paris,  itr46,  l2iiio,and£iDiVdl«n9  4  74d)i2g)a,awork,$aytte  , 
FretKh  crkics,  in  wbich  tbere  are  many  sy<ftptoin6  of  old  ag^| 
aad  ha  eredi»Iou8  weakn^sse^.  it  was  how^^f%r  translated  and 
published  in  Ejngjish  in  1739)  Sv.p*  The  author  admits  «b^ 
reality  of  eppanHiiosis,  on  tke  auidiorKy«of  the  scriptu^eS) 
but  disGredit!!  oiaiiy  of  the  n]ira0uious  stories  coneeralng 
tbem  to  which  his  own  church  has  given  currency*  ^4 
^'Coiskttientairelitteral^hi^torique,  et  aaioraJ,  su'r  la lliegLe da 
St.  Benoit^"  1754,  2  vdk  fto.  10.  **  DeJaPoe$ie  et  Mu- 
aique  des  anciens  HebreuK^^'  A-npst.  '1 723,  ^vo.  Hiti  con-^ 
jectui^s  on  this  subject,  Dr.  Bumey  thinks,  ^fe  p^haps  a* 

Eobabie  as  vthose  of  any  one  of  the  nu  melius  authors  who 
iT>e -exercised  their  skill  in  ^expounding  and  defining  what 
some  bav^e  longsince  <6bougbt  involved  in  CiitMinei'iaii  dark^ 
ness.  Calrnet  also  left  a  vast  number  of  manuscripts,  ot 
father  fi>anuscript  coUeotions,  as  i,t  had  long  been  (his  prac- 
tice to  copy,  or  employ  others  to  copy,  whatever  he  found 
eufious  in  books.  In  1733,  be  deposited  in  the  royal 
libpary,  a  correct  transcript  of  the  Vedaai,  a  work  which 
the  natives  of  Hipdostan  attribute  to  their  legislator  Sraiif>a» 
who  'received  it,  a,€Gording  to  their  tradition,  from  God 
himself.  Thiscopy  came  iiHoCaln^et^spossesufion^by  meaiis 
#  z  bi^amin  <who  had  been  Gonyeyted  by  the  Jesuit  m^is-» 
tiottaries*  Calmet's  life  was  written  by  Dom  Fang^,  his 
BOphewand  successor  in  the  abbey  of  Senonos^  and  pub- 
lished in  8vo.  It  was  afterwards  traoslat-ed  into  Italian  by 
Benedetto  Passionei,  and  published  at  Rome  in  177^.^ 

CALMO  (Andrew),  who  was  born  at  Venice  about  th« 
year  1 5 10,  became  celebrated  both  as  a  comedian  and  aui 
author,  tie  composed  several  comedies  in  prose,  of  whioli 
%he  best  is  bis  Rodiaiva,  which  in  fact  belongs  to  him^ 
though  -printed  under  the  name  of  Ruzssants.  There  k 
tdso  by  bim^a  volume  of  letters,  ^entitiled  '^'Discorsi  Piace«> 
voK,*'  IMS,  Svo,  oft^en  reprinted,  and  which  had  a  great 
ttm  in  vbeir  day,  af)d  ^'^lie  Giocose  mo4erne,  e  faoefirsf 
ftme  Egloghe  Pas^orali/'  Yenioe,  1^53,  Hvo.  These  loti* 
tens,  ^.  as  Mrell  as-ahnosi  aH  his  other  woi4ss,  are  writteA 
te  the  Veiieti«a  dialect.     Calmo  died  at  Vemoe  jin  1  S^l  I A 

y  Diet.  Hist.— Haym  fiiMivteta  Italiana. 

Vol.  VIII.  G 

M  C  A  L  O  N  N  E. 

CALONNE  (Charles  Alexander  de))  an  eminent  but 
unfortunate  French  minister,  was  born  at  Douay  in  1734. 
His  father  was  president  of  the  parliaaieut  of  Fianders,  and 
descended  from  a  noble  family,  originally  of  Toarnay,  and 
well  known  in  the  history  of  that  city,  which  makes  honour- 
able mention  of  his  ancestors  in  the  remotest  times.  Hav- 
ing finished  his  studies  at  the  university  of  Paris  with  ex^ 
traordinary  success,  young  Calonne  was  appointed,  in  his 
twenty-third  year,  advocate  or  solicitor-  general  of  the  su- 
perior council  of  Artois ;  and  before  he  had  attained  the 
age  of  twenty -five,  was  promoted  to  the  office  of  procura- 
tor-general  of  the  parliament  of  Flanders,  the  duties  of 
which  he  performed  with  distinguished  ability  for  six  years. 
He  was  then  called  as  rapporteur  to  the  king's  council,  to 
report  to  his  majesty  the  most  momentous  affairs  of  admi- 
nistration, of  which  arduous  and  laborious  task  he  acquitted 
himself  in  a  manner  that  evinced  bis  profound  knowledge 
of  the  government,  constitution,  history,  and  jurisprudence 
of  France,  and  established  his  reputation  as  a  writer  of  no 
less  perspicuity  and  judgment,  than  elegance  and  energy 
of  diction* 

In  1776,  he  was  named  intendant  of  the  province  of  the 
Trois  Eveches,  and  for  four  years  fulfilled  the  duties  of 
that  important  office  with  universal  approbation,  and 
greatly  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  inhabitants,  by  whom  he 
was  much  beloved,  and  who  expressed  the  utmost  regret  at 
his  departure  when  he  quitted  that  province  in  1780,  bein^ 
appointed  intendant-general  of  Flanders  and  Artois.  The 
same  affability  and  mild  and  equitable  conduct  in  the  ad- 
ministration of  public  affairs,  which  had  procured  him  theiif 
esteem,  conciliated  no  less  the  affections  of  his  country- 
men in  Flanders,  to  whose  commercial  interests'  he  shewed 
particular  attention,  in  promoting  the  fisheries  and  every 
useful  establishment,  both  during  the  three  years  of  his 
residence  at  Dunkirk,  and  after  being  appointed  in  1783, 
comptroller-general  of  the  finances,  and  minister  of  state. 
In  this  important  office  he  continued  until  1787,  and  during 
the  period  of  his  administration  raised  and  maintained  the 
public  credit  by  a  punctuality  till  then  unknown  in  tbd 
payments  of  the  royal  treasury,  although  on  his  accession 
he  found  it  drained  to  the  lowest  ebb,  and  had  the  mortifi-* 
pation  to  perceive  that  the  annual  income  had  long  been: 
inadequate  to  the  annual  expenditure.  To^trace  the  cause 
•f  this  deficiency^  its  oiigin  and  pro^res^  was  the  sepifet 

C  A  L  O  N  N  iTi  sV 

>vork  of  many  an  hour,  supposed  by  the  public  to  be  de- 
voted to  pleasure  or  repose,  as  he  conceived  it  of  the  ut-. 
most  importance  to  conceal  the  deficiency  until  he  had 
explored  its  source,  and  provided  such  an  adequate  remedy 
for  it,  as  might  restore  the  proper  equipoise  between  the 
annual  income  and  expenditure,  and  provide  a  surplus  for 
emergencies  without  increasing  the  burthens  of  the  people 
beyond  their  ability  to  support.  For  this  purpose  he  pre* 
vailed  on  the  king  to  revive  the  ancient  usage  of  national 
assemblies,  by  calling  together  the  Notables  of  the  king- 
dpm ;  and  after  laying  before  them  a  true  state  of-  the 
l^uances,  he  boldly  proposed,  as  a  chief  remedy  for  the  de* 
ficiency,  that  the  pecuniitry  privileges  and  exemptions  of 
the  nobility,  clergy,  and  magistracy,  should  be  suppressed;, 
and  although  aware  that  a  measure  which  appeared  to  mill-' 
tate  so  much  against  the  .  immediate  interests  of  the  three 
most  powerful  ranks  of  the  community  must  meet  with  op- 
position, he  determined  to  risk  the  sacrifice  of  his  own  situ- 
ation, rather  than  longer  to  conceal  or  palliate  the  evil. 

When  this  assembly  met,  Calonne  accused  his  prede- 
cessor M.  Necker,  of  having  caused  the  deficiency  by  his 
system  of  loans,  and  of  war  y^ithout  taxation ;  and  Calonne^s 
enemies,  on  their  side,  threw  the  blame  on  his  personal  ex- 
travagance, and  his  readiness  in  yielding  to  the  unlimited' 
demands  of  the  royal  family.  The  comparative  merits  of 
those  two  ministers,  equally  unfortunate  in  the  issue,  may 
be  probably  ascertained  by  a  perusal  of  the  appeals  they 
made  to  the  public,  M.  Calonne  in  his  **  Speech  to  the  As- 
j^embly  of  Notables,''  in  his  '^Requete  au  Roi,"  and  his 
"  Reponse  a  I'Ecrit  de  M.  Necker ;"  and  M.  Necker  in  his 
**  Answer  to  Calonne's  Speech,  and  Requete,  &c."  The 
consequence,  however,  of  the  opposition  Calonne.  met  with, 
was,  that  the  king  withdrew  his  confidence  from  him,  took 
from  him  the  insignia  of  his  order,  and  banished  him  to 
Lorraine.  He  and  his  brother  presented  themselves  to  the 
assemblies  of  the  bailiwick  of  Bailleul  in  Flanders,  but  .were 
disrespectfully  received,  and  obliged  to  withdraw  into  the 
Low  Countries.  He  returned  to  France  for  a  very  short 
time,  and  in  1790  left  it  again,  and  retired  to  England.  In 
1791  the  brothers  of  Louis  XVI.  summoned  him  to  join  them 
at  Coblentz,  where  he  for  some  time  managed  their  finances, 
if  not  with  ceconomy,  at  least  wjith  integrity,  as  appeared 
by  hb  inability  two  years  afterwards  to  maintain  his  sou, 
Hdio  served  as  a  foot  soldier  in  the  corps  of  nobility  in  the  * 

e  2 

8*  C  A  L  O  N  N  £. 


BTtivy  of  CondiS.  It  was  at  that  tirtie  that  he  ptoposed  a 
plan  of  counter-tevotiition,  which  was  not  generally  ap- 
proved iu  the  royalist  party,  to  w'bom,  it  is  certaiti  that 
lAany  of  the  sentiments  he  expressed  in  his  political^  wri- 
tings, published  at  London  in  1793  and  1796,  were  not  ac« 
c^eptable.  In  1 8d2,  during  the  consular  government,  the  re- 
putation of  bis  talents,  which  no  party  has  questioned,  |>ro- 
cured  him  permission  to  return  to  'Prahce,  where  he  gave  ih 
some  memorials  on  finani^e,  which,  however,  were  not  fa- 
vourably deceived.     Me  died  in  Paris  October  29,  1802. 

In  the  course  of  his  administration  and  exile  he  {yiblished, 
1.  "  Observations  et  Jugemens  sur  plusieurs  matieres  da 
^roit  civil  et  coutumier,'*  17'8*,  4to.  2.  "  Gorrespon dance 
de  N^ckcir  avec  Calonne,*'  1787;  4to.  S.  "  Requete  an 
Koi,"  1787,  8vo.  4.  "  Reponse  de  Calohne  a  I'Ecrit  de 
Necker,"  London,  1788,  2  vols.  8vo.  5.  **  Second  Lettrie 
au  Roi/'  ibid.  1789,  8vo.  6.  "  Notes  sur  \e  Memoire  re- 
mis  par  Necker  au  comit^  des  subsistances,^'  ibid.  178^^^ 
12mo.  7.  **  De  Tetat  de  la  France,  present  et  a  venir,** 
1790,  8vo.  He  is  also  the  reputed  author  of,  1.  *'  De  Tetat 
de  la  France,  tel  quMl  peut  et  quMl  doit  6tre,^'  London, 
1790,  8\^o.  2.  "  Observations  sur  les  Finances,"  ibid.  1790, 
4to.  3.  *^  Lettres  d^un  publiciste  de  France  a  un  publi- 
diste  d'Allemagne,'*  1791,  8vo.  4.  "  Esquisse  de  Tetat  de 
la  France,'*  1791,  8vo.  5.  "  Tableau  de  TEurope  en  No- 
vembre  1795,"  1796,  8vo.  6.  "  Des  financefs  publiques 
de  la  France,'*  1797,  8vo.  7.  "  Lettre  a  I'auteur  des  Con- 
siderations sur  I'etat  des  affaires  publiques,*'  1798,  8vo.^— 
The  abb6  Calonne,  his  brother,  who  accompanied  him  to 
England,  was  for  some  time  editor  of  the  '^  Courier  de  Lon- 
dres,"  and  died  in  1799.  * 

CALOVIUS  (Abraham),  a  celebrated  Lutheran  divine, 
and  one  of  the  ablest  opponents  of  the  Socinians  of  his 
tiibe,  was  born  Aug.  16,  1612,  at  Morungen  in  the  ddchy 
of  Brunswick,  where  his  father  was  a  man  of  some  conse- 
quence. Having  finished  his  studies,  and  especially  di$« 
tinguished  himself  by  his  knowledge  in  oriental  languages, 
he  came  to  Rostock,^  where,  in  1637,  he  took  his  doctor's 
degree  in  divinity,  and  some  tim^  after  was  made  professor 
of  that  faculty.  He  was  very  rigid  in  adhering  to  the  Lu- 
theran tenets,  and  the  firmness  he  displayed  in  a  tbntro* 
tersy  with  John  Bergius,  a  protestant  divine,  on  the  sub* 

*  '  •  '  * 

1  Plot  HisL«-Blevtaphw  Modern^  kcm 



ject  of  th^  Lorfl^s  supp€r^  Qcca$ipne<l  his  being  appo|nte4 
visitor  pf  t^d  churches  and  schools  pf  the  circle  of  ^^oilandi^ 
in  Prussia^  and  counsellor  in  ^he  cpurt  of  justic^.  In  1643 
he  was  invited  to  Dantzjc^  ^nd  made  rector  of  the  college. 
Ue.cai'ried  on  several  controversies,  especially  with  Martin 
Statins,  a  Lutheran  deacon,  with  Henry  NicoUi,  professor 
of  philosophy,  and  with  John  Caesar,  a  protfstant  minister 
of  Dantzic.  In  i65p  he  w^s  appointed  professor  of  ^ivinity 
at  Witteniberg,  and  becfiipe  one  of  th^  warmest  opponent 
of  the  comprehending  systein  pfoppsed  by  palixtus  (see 
Calixi  us),  apd  the  partizans  of  the  respective  poinbatants 
were  called  Calixtins  and  Caloyians.  IThis  dispute,  con- 
ducted with  much  intemperance  on  both  sides,  tasted  until 
bis  death,  Feb.  20,^  1686.  His  principal  yyqrks,  exclusive 
of  those  he  wrote  against  Bergius,  Nicolai,  and  Calixt^s, 
were,  I.  "Metaphysica  divina,  etaliascriptaphilpsophiea.'* 
2.  **  Criticus  sacer  Bibliciis."  3.  "  Socinianismus  proflU 
gatus."  4.  "  Systema  loporum  tbeplpgicorum/'  5.  *f  Cop- 
fiider^tip  Arminianismi."  6.  ^^  ^iblia  illustrata,'*  a  Gem^ai^ 
Bible  with  Luther^s  notes.  His  "  Historia  Syncretistipa,'* 
first  published  in  1682,  W3$  suppressed  by  order  of  the; 
elector  of  $axony,  a$  calculated  to  revive  the  dispute  with 
Calixtus,  but  was  republished  in  1685.' 

CALPRENEDE  (Walter  de  Costes),  a  French  dr^* 
matic  and  romance  writer,  was  born  in  th^  chateai)  of 
Toulgon  in  P^rigord,  in  the  4iocese  6f  Cabors,  about  thci 
year  1612,  and  became  gentleman  in  ordins^ry  to  the  king. 
He  i^  said  to  have  conciliated  the  good  opinio^  pf  the  court 
by  bis  happy  talent  for  telling  agreeable  stories.  Whpn  a 
very  yoqng  man  he  wrote  several  tragedies  and  comedies 
i^bich  procured  him  some  reputation,  particularly  hia 
♦^Mithridates"  and  the  ^*  Earl  of  Essex,"  but  he  was  most 
celebrated  for  his  romances,  particularly  ^*  Cassandra," 
**  Cleopatra,"  and  **  Pharamond,"  which  gave  place,  how- 
ever, to  a  better  taste  in  the  course  of  some  years,  and  are 
now  thought  intolerable  by  their  insipidity  and  tediousness^ 
Calprenede  had  an  excellent  opinion  of  himself,  and  when 
the  cardinal  Richelieu  said  of  some  of  his  vei^ses,  th^t  they 
were  dull,  he  replied  that  ^'nothing  dull  belonged  to  tb^ 
family  of  Calprenede."     He  died  in  1663.* 

CALPURNIUS,  orCALPHURNIUS,  a  Latin  poet,  a 
nktive  of  Sicily,  lived  about  the  end  of  the  thud  centu^, 

*  Moreri.^-^xii Onomast-^I^osheiin^s  UiBtory* 

*  Diet.  Hiit,'>«^  Moferi  ia  art,  Costes. 

S6   .  C  A  L  P  U  R  N  I  U  S. 

under  the  empetors  Carus,  Carinus,  and  Numerianns. 
Seven  of  his  eclogues  are  extant,  which  were  once  in  such 
high  reputation  as  to  be  read  in  schools ;  but  they  hav€  not 
preserved  their  reputation,  and  are  generally  considered, 
notwithstanding  some  occasional  passages  of  genius,  as 
indicating  the  declining  taste  of  the  age.  Poggio  is  said 
to  have  found  them  in  England,  and  sent  them  to  his  friend 
Niccolo  Niccoli.  They  are  published  in  the  "  Poeta)  rei 
Vehaticae,"  Leyden,  1728,  4to,  and  in  the  "Poetse  Latini 
Minores ;"  but  there  are  editions  along  with  Silius  Italicus 
and  other  wjriters,  aseaCrlyas  1471,  1472,  1481,  &c.  The 
latest  edition  is  that,  of  Beck,  Leipsic,  1803,  8vo,  with 
notes  and  a  glossary.  Adelung  translated  them  into  Ger- 
man, and  published  them  in  1S05,  in  a  magnificent  man-r 
ner.  * 

CALVART  (Denis),  an  artist,  was  born  at  Antwerp  in 
1553,  and  first  painted  landscapes,  having  accustomed  him- 
self to  retire  to  groves  and  fields,  to  study  such  scenes 
and  objects  after  nature,  as  might  be  useful  to  him  in  that 
branch  of  his  profession.  But  being  desirous  to  obtain  a 
better  manner  of  designing  figures,  to  adorn  his  landscapes, 
he  determined  to  travel  to  Italy.  In  his  journey  he  stopped 
at  Bologna,  where  he  unexpectedly  met  with  many  induce^ 
ments  to  detain  him  in  that  city  for  some  time ;  and  became 
the  disciple  of  iProspero  Fontana,  who  had  every  qualifica-r' 
tion  requisite  for  th^  improvement  of  his  pupils,  as  well 
by  his  precepts  as  his  performances.  In  such  a  situation 
Calvart  applied  himself  diligently  to  his  studies,  not  only 
carefully  examining,  but  also  copying  the  works  of  Co- 
reggio  and  Parmigiano ;  and  when  he  afterwards  quitted 
the  school  of  Fontana,  he  placed  himself  with  Lorenzo 
Sabattihi,  with  whom  he  travelled  to  Rome,  where  he  per- 
fected himself  in  design,  in  perspective,  architecture,  and 
anatomy.  At  his  return  from  Rome  to  Bologna,  which 
city  he  now  considered  as  the  place  of  his  nativity,  he 
there  opened  an  academy ;  and  his  style  of  colour  pro- 
cured him  a  large  number  of  disciples,  among  whom  were 
some  of  the  first  rank  for  genius  ;  he  is  ^relebrated  as  the 
first  instructor  of  Guido,  Albano,  and  Domenichino^  as 
well  as  of  several  other  excellent  painters.  He  died  in 
l6l9.  In  the  Palazzo  Ranuzzi,  at  Bologna,  there  is  a  fine 
picture  by  Calvart,  representing  two  hermits,  which  is  cor- 

*  Moreri. — Diet.  Hift«-«Roscoe'8  Lorenzo.— -Saxii  Onomast. 

t^ALVART.  «7 

rectly  designed,  beautifully  coloured,  and  delicately  pen* 
ciiled ;  and  in  the  Pembroke  collection,  at  Wilton,  there  is 
a  Nativity  painted  by  him*  * 

CALV£RT  (George),  descended  from  the  ancient  and 
noble  house  of  Calvert,  in  the  earldom  of  Flanders,  and 
afterwards  created  lord  Baltimore,  was  born  at  Kipling  in 
Yorkshire,  about  1582.  In  1593  he  became  a  commoner 
of  Trinity  college,  Oxford,  and  in  Feb.  1597  he  took  the 
degree  of  B,  A.  At  his  return  from  his  travels  he  was  made 
secretary  to  Robert  Cecil,  one  of  the  principal  secretaries 
of  state  to  James  I.  who  continued  him  in  his  service  when 
he  was  raised  to  the  office  of  lord  high-treasurer.  On  Aug* 
30,  1 605,  when  king  James  was  entertained  by  the  univer- 
sity of  Oxford,  he  was  created  M.  A.  with  several  noble« 
men  and  gentlemen.  Afterwards  he  was  made  one  of  the 
clerks  of  the  privy  council,  and  in  1617  received  the  ho- 
nour of  knighthood,  and  in  Feb.  1619  he  was  appointed  to 
Ibe  one  of  the  principal  secretaries  of  state.  Thinking  the 
duke  of  Buckingham  had  been  the  chief  instrument,  of  his 
preferment,  he  presented  him  with  a  jewel  of  great  value ; 
but  the  duke  returned  it,  acknowledging  he  had  no  hand  in 
his  advancement,  for  that  his  majesty  alone  had  made  choice 
of  him  on  account  of  his  great  abilities.  In  May  1620  the 
king  granted  him  a  yearly  pension  of  1000/.  out  of  the 
customs.  After  having  held  the  seals  about  five  years,  he 
resigned  them  in  1624,  frankly  owning  to  the  king,  that 
he  was  become  a  Roman  catholic.  The  king,  nevertheless, 
continued  him  a  privy  counsellor  all  his  reign  ;  and  in  Feb. 
1625  created  him  (by  the  name  of  sir  George  Calvert  of 
Danbywiske  in  Yorkshire,  knight)  baron  of  Baltimore  in 
the  county  of  Longford  in  Ireland.  He  was  at  that  time  a 
representative  in  parliament  for  the  university  of  Oxford* 

While  he  was  secretary  of  state,  he  had  obtained  a  pa- 
tent for  him  and  his  heirs  to  be  absolute  lord  and  proprie- 
tor (with  the  royalties  of  a  count- palatine)  of  the  province 
of  Avalon  in  Newfoundland.  This  name  he  gave  it  from 
Avalon  in  Somersetshire,  whereon  Glastonbury  stands,  the 
first-fruits  of  Christianity  in  Britain,  as  the  other  was  in 
that  part  of  America.  He  laid  out  2500/.  in  advancing  this 
new  plantation,  and  built  a  handsome  house  in  Ferr)7land. 
After  the  death  of  king  James  he  went  twice  to  Newfound- 
land    When  M.  de  TArade,  with  three  French  men  of 

1  Pilkington.— IVAr|;eavnie. 


wsiTy  ^kt  wH^teA  th^  EngUsb  Kaberoimi  Ih6ni  to  ffeat  ew 
treoiiiy,  lard  Bakiraore,  With  tv^e  sbipi  manBed  at  bis  enrn 
expence,  drove  away  the  Fretiish,  taking  sixty  of  them 
|>hsmiers9  and  relieteid  the  English;  but  still  finding  his 
plantation  trery  much  Exposed  to  the  in&dtts  of  the  French^ 
heait  ias£  deiennined  to  abandon  it.  He  then  went  to 
Virginia ;  and  havitig  viewed  the  n^glibeufing  ooaHtry, 
teturn^d  to  Etigladd,  ^nd  obtained  ft-ona  Cbaries  h  (tvha 
had  aa  ^at  a  regaixi  for  him  as  Jam^s  bad)  a  patent  td^ 
hint  and  hh  beirs  for  Maryland  on  the  noilh  of  Ytrginim 
He  died  at  London,  April  15^  1692^  before  the  grant  wtw 
iliade  cKrt;  but  his  6oh  Oecil  Calvert,  lord  Baltimore)  wbo 
kad  been  at  Virginia,  took  it  out  in  bis  own  natne,  and  the 
patent  bears  da^e  June  bb^  1632.  He  wds  to  bold  it  of  tbn 
orbv^n  of  £t)gland  in  eomnion  soceage^  as  df  the  manor  of 
Windsdr;  paying  yearly,  on  Easter  Tuesday^  two  Indian 
ILfrbtr^  of  those  parts  at  the  castle  of  Windsor,  and  the  fift^ 
part  of  the  gold  arid  silver  ore  that  should  be  found  thereim 
King  Charles  hinsself  gave  that  p)*ovinoe  the  nUme  of  Mary^ 
lano^  in  honour  of  his  queen  Henrietta  Maria*  The  fif^f 
colbny  sent  thither  consisted  of  about  200  people,  RdiiMifl 
catholics,  th^  chief  of  Wfad^m  were  gendeoien  of  good  fa^ 
ttiilids.  The  Baltimore  family  were  in  danger  of  losin^f 
tfalEur  ph)perty  dn  acconnt  of  tbeir,.  religion,  by  the  htt 
trhiefa  reqtlir^s  all  Roman  catholic  heirs  to  profess  the  pm^n 
lestant  tehgioil,  on  pain  of  being  deprived  of  their  estatci  t 
but  this  w^  prevented  by  tlietr  professisig  the  protectant 

George^  the  fii^st  iopdl,  wi^  bwried  in  the  ehanoel  of  St, 
Bunstan's  in  the  west.  In  Fleet-stmet.  As  to  l]|is  ebaracter^ 
Lloyd  says,  **  he  was  the  only  ^taftiesaien,  tbat^  being  efi<» 
gaged  to  a  decHed  party  (the  RoMia^i  catholics),  mana^^ed 
his  business  with  that  great  respect  for  all  i^des,  that  ail 
who  knew  him  applauded  him,  aM  nen«  that  had  any 
thing  to  'do  with  hi'aft  eovnpkMYed  of  him.'*  But  arohbishop 
A'bboty  in  a  letter  to  sir  TboniaB  Roe  (Ro^'s  Letters,  p* 
S72)  seems  to  impute  his  turning  Roma«i  «atbolic  to  politic 
eal  discontent.  This  nobleman  wrote,  1 .  ^^  Carmen  fune<» 
bre  in  D.  Hen.  Untonum  ad  Galios  bis  ilegatudn^  ibit|ai» 
Duper  fatb  functum."  2.  "  Spefeefbes  in  Parliafment.*'  9« 
**  Varioxis  Letters  of  State."  4.  "  The  Answer  of  Tbiti 
Tell  Tmth."  5.  "  The  Practice  ^  Princes ;"'  and  6.  '^  iThft 
Lamentation  of  the  Kirk.''    There  ^rQ  $pme  pf  bis  letteri  ' 


Ifk  tit  Harltftan  MS  ^olleetion)  and  «pmie  in  HoiR49d> 
collection,  4to,  p.  5^—61,  * 

CALVERT  (Frebehick),  Lord  BAtTiMOHE,  adew^eiw 
daivt  of  the  preceding,  and  eldest  son  of  Charles,  the  sUih 
lord,  was  born  in  1731,  and  sueceedied  to  the  ti^l^  oa  vbf 
death  of  iiis  father  in  1751,  and  also  to  the  |>roprietorfbi|^ 
of  Maryland.  After  •returning  from  his  travels  be  Q»arrie4 
lady  Diana  Egerton,  youngest  daughter  of  the  duke  of 
Bridgwater.  In  1768  he  was  indicted  at  thie  Kiogston  aar 
ttzes  for  $1  rape,  but  aequitted*  He  went  soon  aftef  t# 
reside  on  the  continent,  and  died  at  Naples,  Sept  14,  1771, 
without  issue  by  marriage,  leaving  his  fortune  to  bis  sister^ 
Mrs.  Eden.  In  1767,  he  published  ^'  A  Tour  to  the  East 
in  tiie  years  1763  and  1764,  with  remarks  on  th^e  oity  of 
Cooataotinople  and  the  Turks.  Also  ^lect  pieces  of  Orir 
ental  wit,  poetry,  and  wisdoaa,^^  Lond.  1767.  This  book 
abounds  with  quotations  from  tljke.  Roman  classics,  many  of 
which  bis  lordship  has  translated  into  very  indifferent  pooseu 
He  also  published,  but  iu  a  confined  way,  a  collection^ 
the  tide  of  which  is  ^^  Gaudia  Poetica,  Latina,  AogUcat 
et  Gallica,  Lingua  com po^ta,  anno  1769.  Augustae  Lit* 
teris  Spaibianis,  1770.'*  It  is  dedicated,  h\  Laitm^  to  Lin^ 
9SBUS,  and  consists  of  various  piieces  in  Latio,  Fr^^ocli,  and 
Eogiiah,  prose  and  verse,  of  v^ry  little  Q»erit.  A  eopy# 
the  only  oae  said  to  be  known  in  this  country^,  was  .sold 
at  Mr.  Itttao  Reed's  sale,  who  likewiiie  h^d  another  peiH 
fonnance  of  iua  lordsliip'a,  equaiiy  rare,  and  valued  qnijr 
for  its  rarity,  entitled  ^^  Ccelestes  et  laferi,**  V^eo^trnf 
}77i,  4to.  The  foniier  was  sold  for  6i.  lOr.aiid  the  h^tef 
forbalf  a  gnini».* 

CALVERT  (James),  the  son  of  Robert  Calvert,  a  g«o« 
eer  and  sheriff  of  York,  was  born  on  the  Pavement  in  ^at 
^jfKieot  x:ity.  HeVos  educated  at  Clare*hall,  Cambridge, 
whom  hn  was  oontnmpocmry  w4th  the  famoijs  arcbbisbup 
TiUatsna.  He  was  bned  up  under  Mr.  David  Cbrikaon, 
and  was  a  graduate  ui  iihe  univei^ity.  He  bad  been  for 
several  yeans  at  Topcliff,  when  be  was  silenced  by  iJfte  act 
of  unifonnity ;  afiier  which  he  retired  to  Tork,  lavad  prif^ 
vately,  but  ataidiad  kacd ;  and  tbere  it  was  that  tie  wooto 

*  Tbif  it  qptftrlctlf  the  case.    ^  correspondent  in  the  Gent.  Mn^.  n,95, 
jrtio  datss  from  Northampton,  speaks  of  possesstng*  both  these  works. 

^  TWoj.  Brit— Ath.  Ox.  !. 

*  Park'!  ediu  of  Lord  Orford's  Royal  and  Noble  Authors. 

90  C  A  L  V  E  R  T. 

his  learned  book  concerning  the  ten  tribes,  entitled  ^  Naph* 
thali,  seu  eoUuctatio  theologica  de  reditu  decern  tribuum, 
conversione  Judeeorum  et  mens.  Ezekielis,*'  Lond.  1672, 
4to*  This  book  he  dedicated  to  bishop  Wilkins,  on  whom 
he  waited  at  Scarborough  Spaw,  together  with  Mr.  Wil« 
liams  of  York.  Bishop  Wilkins  received  him  with  much 
Respect,  and  encouraged  him  to  live  in  hopes  of  a  com- 
prehension. About  the  year  1675  he  became  chaplain  to 
sir  William  Strickland  of  Boynton,  where  he  continued 
several  years,  preaching  and  educating  his  son,  till  both 
he  and  his  lady  died ;  then  he  removed  to  Hull,  and  from 
thence  into  Northumberland,  to  sir  William  Middletou's^ 
where  he  constantly  exercised  his  function  as  chaplain, 
educated  his  only  son,  was  left  tutor  to  bim  when  his  father 
died,  and  was  very  careful  of  his  education  both  at  home 
and  in  Cambridge.     He  died  in  December  1698.  ^ 

CALVERT  (Thomas),  uncle  to  the  preceding,  was  bom 
at  York  in  1606,  and  studied  at  Sidney  college,  Cambridge. 
After  being  chaplain  for  some  time  to  sir  T.  Burdet,  in 
Derbyshire,  he  held  the  vicarage  of  Trinity  in  the  king's 
court,  York.  He  also  preached  at  Christ  Church,  and  was 
one  of  the  four  preachers  who  officiated  at  the  cathedral 
during  the  time  of  Oliver  Cromwell.  On  passing  the  act 
of  uniformity  he  was  ejected  from  AUhallows  parish  in  that 
city,  and  lived  privately.  His  studies  appear  to  have  been 
much  directed  to  the  scriptures  in  the  original  languages, 
and  to  the  Jewish  rabbins.  He  was  much  disturbed  in  mind 
and  injured  in  his' property  by  an  extravagant  son,  but  was 
greatly  comforted  in  the  excellent  character  of  his  nephew, 
the  subject  of  the  preceding  article.  He  died  March  1679, 
His  works  are,  1.  '^  Mel  Coeli,  an  exposition  of  Isaiah, 
chap.  53,''  1657,  4to.  2.  *^  The  blessed  Jew  of  Morocco : 
a  demonstration  of  the  true  Messias,  &c.  by  Rabbi  Samuel, 
a  converted  Jew,  &c."  1648,  8vo,  originally  written  in 
Arabic,  and  translated  into  English  by  our  author,  with 
notes.  He  published  also  translations  of  Fox's  <^  Christus^ 
Triumphans ;"  <<  Comqedia  Apocalyptica;"  Gerard^s  ^*  Scho-* 
la  Consolatoria,"  with  additions,  and  wrote  some  poetical 
pieces,  elegies,  and  a  practical  work  entitled  *^  Heart- 
salve  for  a  wounded  Soul,  &c."  1675,  12mo.  ^ 

CALVI  (Lazzaro),  an  artist,  remarkable  for  longevity 
as  well  as  skill,  a  native  of  Genoa,  was  a  son  of  Agostiuo 

>  Calanijr.  '   f  Ibid,  and  X<e  toof ,  Bibl,  Sacr.  fol.  p.  66% 

C  A  t  V  I.  91' 


Calvi,  one  of  the  most  tolerable  painters  and  reformers  of 
the  old  style,  and  was  with  Pantaleo  Calvi,  his  eldest  brother^ 
among  the  first  pupils  of  Perino  del  Vaga.     Pantaleo  was 
content  to  lend  his  assistance  and  his  name  to  Lazaaro, 
without  pretending  to  share  the  praise  due  to  his  numerous 
ornamental  works  at  Genova,  Monaco,  and  Napoli ;  among 
ii^hich,  none  excels  the  fagade  of  the  palace  Doria  (now 
S^pinola)  with  prisoners  in  various  attitudes,  and  stories  in 
colour  and  chiaroscuro,  considered  as  a  school  of  design 
and  models  of  taste.     In  the  palace  Pallavicini  al  Zerbino 
they  represented  the  story  commonly  called  the  Conti- 
nence of  Scipio,  and  a  variety  of  naked  figures,  which,  in 
the  opinion  of  Mengs  himself,  might  be  adjudged  to  Peri- 
no.    Whether  or  not  he  assisted  them  with  his  hand,  as  he 
had  with  his  cartoons,  is  matter  of  doubt :  certain  it  is,  that 
Lazzaro,  giddy  with  self-conceit,  fell  into  excesses  un- 
known to  other  artists,  if  we  except  Corenzio.     At  the 
least  appearance  of  rival  merit,  jealousy  and  avidity  prompt- 
ed him  to  have  recourse  to  the  blackest  arts.     Of  Giacomo 
Bargone  he  rid  himself  by  poison,  and  others  he  depressed 
by  the  clamour  of  hired  ruffians.     Such  were  his  cabals 
when  he  painted  the  Birth  of  John  the  Baptist  in  the  chapel 
Centurioni,  in  concurrence  with  Andrea  Semini  and  Luca 
Cambiaso,  which,  though  one  of  bis  best  works  and  most 
in  the  style  of  his  master,  fell  short  of  the  powers  of  Luca, 
to  whom  prince  Doria  gave  the  preference  in  the  ample 
commission  of  the  frescos  for  the  church  of  S.  Matteo.  This 
80  enraged  Calvi  that  he  turned  sailor,  and  touched  no 
brush  for  twenty  years :  he  returned  at  last  to  the  art,  and 
continued  in  practice  to  his  eighty -fifth  year,  but  with  di- 
minished powers :  his  works  of  that  period  are  cold,  la« 
boured,  and  bear  the  stamp  of  age.     The  death  of  Pantaleo 
still  ferther  depressed  him,  and  the  only  remaining  mark  of 
his  vigour  was  to  have  protracted  life  to  one  hundred  and  five 
years.     He  died  at  that  very  uncommon  age  in  1606,  or 
1607,  leaving  only  a  daughter,  whom  he  had  married  to 
an  opulent  gentleman.     Whatever  his  talents,  we  see  no- 
thing but  what  is  atrocious  in  his  personal  character. ' 

CALVIN  (John),  one  of  the  chief  reformers  of  the 
church,  was  born  at  Noyon  in  Picardy,  July  10,  1505.  He 
was  instructed  in  grammar  at  Paris  under  Maturinus  Cor*^ 
derius,  to  whom  he  afterwards  dedicated  his  Commentary 

!  Filkin^on.— ^Moreri. 

n  C  A  I,  V  I  N. 

fD  tbie  first  epi||tl«  ^f  the  Th^MatoBians,  and  atudied  pbtr 
lQ&opb3f  ^a  t\\e  coilleg^  9S  Montaigu  ^nder  a  Spanish  pr.Q^ 
fes^^qr.  Dis  father,  who  diacorered  many  mark^  of  bis 
early  pietV)  particularly  in  his  r^prehjen$ions  of  the  vices  of 
bis  cp^ipanioqsi  d^sign^  him  for  the  church,  ai^d  got  him 
presented,  Afay  21,  1521,  to  th^  chapel  of  Notre  Dame 
de  la  Ge»pe,  in  the  phurch  of  Noyon.  In  1527  he  was 
presenle^  to  the  rectory  of  Marteville,  which  he  excha&ged 
lin , i  5?9  for  th^  reptory  of  Pont  TEyeqite  »ear  Noyon,  His 
father  afterwards  chfinged  his  res&luiion,  and  would  have 
biqi  study  law;  to  which  C^^'vin,  who,  by  reaching  the 
fpriptur«s,  had  co^ce4v^d  a  dislike  to  the  superstitions  of 
papery,  readily  cpns^nted,  ajid  resigned  the  chapel  of  Ge- 
sise  ^n{\  th^  roctory  of  Pont  TEveque  in  1534.  He  had 
neyer,  it  ipqst  b^re  b^  ob^erred,  been  in  priest's  orders,  and 
b(slpi)ged  t»  the  churph  only  by  having  received  the  tonsure. 
U^  was  sent  to  study  the  law  fir9t  Hinder  Peter  de  TEtoile 
(Petr^s  Stella)  £|(  Orleani;,  and  afterwards  under  Andrew 
V^lciat  at  Bpuxg^&i  and  while  be  made  a  great  progress  in 
fhat  science,  he  impro^y^d  no  less  in  the  knowledge  of  di^ 
vinity  by  his  priv^^  studies*  At  Bourges  he  applied  to  the 
Qr(^k  tongue,  und^r  the  dire^stion  of  professor  Wolo^ar. 
Hi$  father's  dea^h  haying  called  hint  back  to  Noyon,  he 
staid  there  a  stiort  time,  and  then  went  tp  Paris,  where  be 
wrpfQ^a  cQmmentai'y  pp  Senega'^  treatis^^  '^  De  Clemeniaay^' 
b^in^g  at  this  tiqcie  abqu^  twenty-four  ye9rs  of  age.  .  Having 
put  his  name  in  Latin  tp  this  piece,  he  laid  aside  his  sur^ 
nstmie  C^ny^n,  for  that  of  CaUin,  styling  himself  in  the 
^tle-jpage.  *^^  Lucius  Caivinus  oivis  Romanus.^'  He  aooti 
P9ade  himself  kpi^^wn  at  Pai:is  to  such  &s  bad  privately  ^n« 
bracecjl  the  reformatio^,  and  by  freqtient  intercourse  with 
)khein  be^*sip^  more  cpnBrmed  in  his  principles.  A  speech 
of  Nicholas  Cop,  reptor  of  the  university  of  Paris,  of  which 
£;alvin  furiiisihed  the  materials,  having  greatly  displeased 
Ibe  S^rboniie  and  the  parliaqoeiYt^  gave  rise  to  a  peraecfi<» 
^n  i^atDist  the  protestants;  und  Calvin,  who  narrowly  es- 
caped being  taken  in  the  c^lege  of  {Torteret,  wa^  forced  to 
retire  to  Xaintonge^  after  having  bad  the  honour  to  be  intro* 
duM^efl  to  the  qoeen  of  Navarre,  who  allayed  this  first  storm 
raised  against  the  protestants^  Caivjn  returned  to  Paris  .in 
1534.  This  year  the  reformed  met  with  severe  treatinedt, 
!i^hich  determined  him  to  leave  France,  after  puhiishioga 
treatise  against  those  who  believe  that  departed  souls  are 
in  aikind  of  sleep.     He  retired  to  Basil,  where  he  studied 

CALVIN.  95 

Hebrew :  at  tins  tioie  he  published  bis  ^*  Invtittitions  of  the 
€hf istian  Rel^rion,''  a  work  weii  adapted  to  spread  his  famfe^ 
tbofQgh  be  himself  was  desirous  of  living  in  obscurity.  It 
is  dedicated  to  the  French  king^  Francis  I.  TMs  prince 
being  solicitous,  according  to  Be2»a,  -to  gain  the  friendiAi|» 
of  the  Protestants  in  Germciny,  and  knowing  that  tlhejr 
were  highly  incensed  by  the  crnel  persecations  which  tbe«^ 
brethren  buffered  in  France,  be,  by  advice  of  Williatn  de 
Beliay,  represented  to  them  that  be  had.oihly  punished 
obtain  enthusiasts,  who  substitnted  their  own  innrgrnationi 
in  the  place  of  God's  word,  and  despised  the  cipvil  •tfna^is* 
trate.  Calf^in,  stung  with  indignation  at  tibis  wicked  e"^^ 
sion,  wrote  this  work  as  an  apology  for  tbe  Protesttants  who 
were  burnt  for  their  religion  in  France.  The  dedicfation  t6 
Francis  L  is  one  of  the  three  that  <bave  been  highly  ad-' 
mired :  that  of  Thuanus  to  his  hiytory,  >and  Gasaubon*s  to 
PolybioS)  are  the  two  otfaevs.     Bat  fti^  ti»eatise,  when  first 

Published  in   1535,  was  only  a  sfcelch  of  a  larger  Wo^k. 
'he  complete  editions,  both  in  Latin  and  in  French,  With 
the  author's  last  additions  and  corrections,  tlid  not  appear 
till  1558.     After  the  publication  of  this  work,  Calvin  went 
to  Italy  to  pay  a  visit  to  tte  duchess  of  Ferrara,  a  lady  of 
eminent  piety,   by  whdm   he  was  Very  kindly  received. 
From  Italy  he  came  back  to  France^  and  having  settled  his 
private  aflatirs,  ^he  purposed  to  go  to  Strasbourg,  or  Basils 
in  company  with  his  sole  sarviving'brother  Antony  Calvin  ; 
bot  as  the  roada  were  not  safe  on  account  of  the  war,  e)t- 
<rept  through  the  duke*  of  Savoy^  territories,  he  chose  that 
fdad.     **  This  was  a  paHicalar  direction  df  Providence,'* 
aaya  Bayle;  ^it  was  his  >destiny< that  be  i^uld  settle  at 
€}eneva,  ^dnd  when  be  was  whdUy  imtent  on  going  farther^ 
be  found  himself  detained  by^  an  ord^r  from  heaven,  if  I 
may  so  itpeakJ*^    William  Fai'el,  a  mto  ^f  ia  *Wai^  entfau'* 
nastic  temper,  who  bad  in  vain  ulsed  mafty  entreaties  'to 
ptbiestt  with  Calvin  to  be  bis  fetlow-^abdtrrer  in  that  part  df 
the  Lord^s  vineyard^  at  last  sotenMtydeetared  to  him,  in 
the  name  ^of  God,  that  if 'hewould^not  stay,  the  curse  6f 
God  would^attend  him  wh«r6i^er  <be  went,  as  seeking  hhn-^ 
self  and  not  Christ.      Calvin  therefore  was  obliged  to 
comply  widi  the  choice  which  the  consistory  and  magis- 
traterof  Geneva  made  ^f  him,  with  die  consent  of  the 
people,  to  be  one  of  their  ministers,  and  professor  of  di* 
Tioity.    It  was  his  own  wish  to  undertake  only  this  last 
o£ce^  but^bie  in»  "oMig^  to  tsdce  btyth  upon  him  in  Au|^st 


C  A  L  V  IN. 

1536.  The  y^r  following  he  made  all  the  people  declare^ 
vpw  oath,  their  assent  to  a  confession  of  faith,  which  con* 
tained  a  renunciation  of  Popery ;  and  because  this  reforma- 
tion in  doctrine  did  not  put  an  entire  stop  to  the  immo-  ' 
ralities  that  prevailed  at  Geneva,  nor  banish  that  spirit  o£ 
faction  which  had  set  the  principal  families  at  variance, 
Calvin,  in  concert  with  his  colleagues,  declared  that  they^ 
could  not  celebrate  the  sacrament  whilst  they  kept  up  their 
animosities,  and  trampled  on  the  discipline  of  the  church^ 
He  also  intimated,  that  he  could  not  submit  to  the  regula* 
tion  which  the  synod  of  the  carfton  of  Berne  had  lately. 
Qiade  ^.  On  this,  the  syndics  of  Geneva  summoned  an  as*, 
sembly  of  the  people;  and  it  was  ordered  that  Calvin, 
Earel,  and  another  minister,  should  leave  the  town  in  two 
days,  for  refusing  to  administer  the  sacrament.  Calvin 
retired  to  Strasbourg,  and  established  a  French  church  in 
that  city,  of  which  he  waa.j:he  first  minister ;  he  was  ako 
appointed  to  be  professor^  of  divinity  there.  During  his 
stay  at  Strasbourg,  he  continued  tp  give  many  marks  of 
his  affection  for  the  church  of  Geneva;  as  appears,  amongst: 
other  things,  by  the  answer  which  he  wtQte  in  1539,  to  the 
beautiful  but  artful  letter  of  cardinal  Sadolet,  bishop  of 
Carp^ntras,  inviting  the  people  of  Geneva  to  .return  into 
the  bosom  of  the  Romish  church*  Two  years  kfeer,  the. 
divines  of  Strasbourg  being  very  desirous  that  he  i^ould 
assist  at  the  diet  which  the  emperor  had  appointed  to  be 
held  at  Worms  and  at  Ratisbon,  for  accommodating  reli* 
gious  differences,  he  went  thither  with  Bucer,  and  had  a 
conference  with  Melancthon.  In  the  mean  time  the  people 
of  Geneva  (the  syndics  who  promoted  his  banishment  being 
now  some  of  them  executed,  and  others  forced  to  fly  their 
country  for  their  crimes),  entreated  him  so  earnestly  ta 
return  to  them,  that  at  last  he  consented.  He  arrived  at 
Geneva,  Sept  13,  1541,  to  the  great  satisfaction  both  i  of 
the  people  and  the  magistrates ;  and  the  first  measure  hm 
adopted  after  his  arrival,  was  to  establish  a  form  of  church 
discipline,  and  a  consistorial  jurisdiction,  invested  with 
the  power  of  inflicting  censures  and  canonical  punishments. 

*  The  church  of  Genera  made  use 
of  leavened  brtead  in  the  holy  commu- 
nioQ,  had  removed  all  the  baptismal 
font!  out  of  the  churches,  and  ob- 
'lenredno  holidays  but  Sundays.  These 
three  things  were  disapproved  by  the 
^htucbes  of  tii«  «Mitem  of  Berne,  who 

made  an  act  in  a  synod  held  at  Lau- 
sanne»  that  the  church  of  Geneva 
should  be  required  to  restore  the  use 
of  unleavened  bread,  the  baptismal 
fonts,  and  the  observation  of  the  feasts. 
These  were  the  regulation!  to  which 
Calvin  refiwed  to  Buj^tti^ 

CALVIN.  95 

as  far  as  excomraunicatioi;!  inclusively*  This  step  was  ex-* 
claimed  against  by  many,  as  a  revival  of  Romish  tyranny; 
but  it  was  carried  into  execution,  the  new  canon  being 
passed  into  a  law,  in  an  assembly  of  the  whole  people^ 
held  on  Nov.  20,  1541;  and  the  clergy  and  laity  solemnly 
promised  to  conform  to  it  for  eveir.  Agreeably  to  the 
spirit  of  this  consistorial  chamber,  which  some  considered 
as  a  kind  of  inquisition,  Calvin  proceeded  to  some  of  those 
lengths  which  have  cast  a  stain  upon  his  memory  in  the 
opinion  of  even  his  warmest  admirers,  and  had  a  consider* 
able  hand  in  the  death  of  Michael  Servetus,  a  Socinian 
writer,  and  in  the  lesser  punishments  inflicted  on  Bolsec^ 
Castalio,  and  others  whose  opinions  were  <  at  variance  witk 
his  new  establishment. 

The  inflexible  rigour  with  which  Calvin  asserted,  on  all 
occasions,  the  rights  of  his  consistory,  procured  him  many 
enemies ;  but  nothing  daunted  him  ;  and  one  would  hardly 
beHeve,  if  there  were  not  unquestionable  proofs  of  it,  that 
amidst  all  the  commotions  at  home,  he  could  take  so  much 
care  as  he  did  of  the  churches  abroad,  in  France,  Germany^ 
England,  and  Poland,  and  write  so  many  books  and  letters. 
He  did  more  by  his  pen  than  his  presence ;  yet  on  some 
occasions  he  acted  in  person,  particularly  at  Francfort,  in 
1556,  whither  he  went  to  put  an  end  to  the  disputes  which 
divided  the  French  church  in  that  city.  He  was  always 
employed,  having  almost  constantly  his  pen  in  his  hand, 
even  when  sickness  coniined  him  to  his  bed  ;.  and  he  con« 
tinued  the  discharge  of  all  those  duties,  which  his  zeal  for 
the  general  good  of  the  churches  imposed  on  him,  till  the 
day  of  his  death.  May  27,  1564. 

The  character  of  Calvin,  like  that  of  Luther,  and  the 
other  more  eminent  reformers,  has  been  grossly  calumni- 
ated by  the  adherents  of  popery,  but  the  testimonies  in  its 
favour  are  too  numerous  to  permit  us  for  a  moment  to  doubt 
that  he  was  not  only  one  of  the  greatest,  but  one  of  the 
best  men  of  his  time,  and  the  deduction  which  necessarily 
must  be  made  from  this  praise,  with  respect  to  his  conduct 
towards  Servetus  and  oth^ers,  must  at  the  same  time  in  can- 
dour be  referred  to  the  age  in  which  he  lived,  and  in 
which  the  principles  of  toleration  were  not  understood  ^. 

*  Joseph  Scaliger,  a  man  not  lavish  of  the  prophets ;  and  he  particularly 

of  his. praise,  could  not  forbear  ad-,  commended  him  for  not  attempting  t9 

miring  Calvin :  none  of  the  commenia-  comment  the  book  of  the  Revelation. 

tors,  be  said,  bad'hit  sq  ffeU  the  sense  We  learn  from  Guy  Patin^  that  many 



i)n  ibe  (ntker  band  his  ufuxnnftMMi  talentt  Imve  b^iert  ae« 
kaowledged  not  only  by  tbe  m^st  etninefit  person^  ef  bis 
9^^)  bat  by  ail  who.bave  studied  bra  works,  or  have  tra^d 
tbe  vast  and  <Mrerpovi/<erkig  mfluenoe  he  posteesed  in  e^^ry 
country  in  Europe,  where  tbe  work  <»f  reformation  was 
caitying  on>  Every  society,  every  obiai>eh,  'every  district^ 
^£ry  nation  that  bad  in  any  degree  adopted  the  prinoVpies 
of  tbe  reformers,  were  glafd  to  cons»tt  and  coiH'est>ond  with 
Calvin  on  tbe  steps  they  were  to  pui^fte.  Tif>e  i;<Mirt  of 
England  in  particular,  Edward  VI.  queen  Eiizabetn,  »rob<> 
faisbop  Cranmer,  and  the  leading  prelates  and  refornaera 
here,  ex^pressed  their  high  respect  for  him,  and  freqo^ntty 
asked <and  followed  his  advice,  In  France  perhaps  he  was 
yet  more  consulted,  and  at  Geneva  be  was  an  ecclesiastical 
di^ctaior^  whose  doctrines  and  discipline  became  tbe  regu- 
lar church  establishment,  and  were  afterwards  adopted  and 
stirll  remain  in  full  force  in  Scotland.  Calvinism  was  also 
extensively  prc^agated  in  Germany,  the  United  Provinces, 
and  England.  In  France  it  was  abolished,  as  well  as  every 
other  species  of  protestantism,  by  the  revocation  qf  the 
edict  of  Nantz  in  1685.     Durinar  the  reio^n  of  Edward  VL 

<}f  the  Roman  catholics  would  do  justice 
to  Calvin's  merit,  if  they  dared  to 
t|*e«k  tfieir  minds.  One  camnot  help, 
says  Bayte,  laughing  at  those  who 
have  been  so  stupid  as  to  accuse  him 
of  ha^nK  been  a  loTer  of  wine,  good 
«heer,  monay,  kc.  Artful  <laiiderers 
would  have  owned  that  he  was  sober 
by  constitution,  and  that  he  was  not 
tolteitous  to  -heap  up  riehes.  That  a 
man  who  had  acquired  so  great  a  re- 
putation and  such  an  authority,  should 
yet  have  had  but  a  salary  of  100 
crowns,  and  refuse  to  accept  of  more ; 
and  after  living  55  years  with  the  ut- 
most frugality,  should  leave  but  300 
crowns  to  his  heirs,  including  the  valne 
of  bis  library,  which  sold  very  deat,  is 
something  so  heroical,  that  one  must 
liave  lost' all  deling  not  to  fllddiire  it« 
When  Oalvla  took  bts  leatse  of  the 
people  of  Strasbourg,  to  return  to 
Geneva,  tb^y  wanted  to  continue  to 
ImId  (1m -privilege  of  «  freem«in  '^f  their 
Iffwti,  and  the  revenues  of  a  prebend^ 
which  had  been  assigned  to  him  }  the 
former  he  accepted,  but  absolutely  re- 
lusM  the  other.  He  carried  one  of  his 
brdihers  with  him  to  Geneva,  but  he 
never  laboured  to  raise  him  to  an  ho- 
aoarable  post^  i»  any  cither  possess^ 

of  his  credit  would  have  done.  He  took 
care,  indeed,  of  the  honour  of  his  hro- 
ther*s'faraily,  by  getting  him  loosened 
from  an  adulteress,  and  obtaining  leaye 
for  him  to  marry  again  :  but  even  his 
enemies  relate,  that  he  made  him  learn 
the  trade  of  a  boOk^Nnder,  which  ht 
followed  all  his  life. 

Calvin,  when  he  was  about  thirty, 
by  the  advice  of  his  patron,  Martiii 
Bucf r,  married  at  Strasbonig,  Idolel^i 
de  Bure,  widow  of  an  anabaptist. 
Whom  he  had  converted.  She  had 
some  children  by  her  first  h^sbaridy 
and  bore  Calvin  one  son,  who  died 
soon  after  his  birth.  The  mother 
died  in  1549.  Calvin  appears  by  his 
letters,  to  have  been  extfemely  a€> 
flioted  for  the  loss  of  her,  and  never 
married  a^ain.  We  are  told  by  Beza, 
who  wrote  his  life  both  in  Latin  taut 
French,  that  he  knew  men  again,- after 
many  years,  whom  he  had  seen  bi|t 
once;  and  that  when  be  was  inlef^ 
nipted-for  several  ho«»rs  whilst,  he  m^ 
dictating  any  thing,  he  would  resunotf 
the  thread  of  his  discourse,  with^t 
being  told  where  he  broke  off;  and  never 
forgot  what  he  bad  once  committed  t^ 

CALVIN.  97 

it  entered  much  into  the  writings  of  the  eminent  divines  of 
that  period ;  in  queen  Elizabeth's  time,  although  many  of 
her  divines  were  of  the  ^me  sentiments,  it  was  discouraged 
as  far  as  it  showed  itself  in  a  dislike  of  the  ceremonies^ 
babits>  &c.  of  the  church.  In  the  early  part  of  Charles  Ts 
time  it  was  yet  more  discouraged,  Arminianism  being  the 
favourite  system  of  Laud ;  but  during  the  interregnum  it 
revived  in  Ian  uncommon  degree,  and  was  perhaps  the  per-* 
suasion  of  the  majority  of  the  divines  of  that  period,  all 
others  having  been  silenced  and  thrown  oi^t  of  their  livings 
by  the  power  of  parliament.  How  far  it  now  exists  in  the 
church  of  England,  in  her  artiples  and  hooiilies,  has  re« 
cently.been  the  subject  of  a  very  long  and  perhaps  unde-* 
cided  controversy,  into  which  it  is  not  our  inteution  to  « 
enter,  nor  could  we,  iudeed,  make  the  attempt  within  any 
moderate  compass.  One  excellent  effect  of  this  contro- 
versy has  been  to  inform  those  of  the  real  principles  of  Cal« 
vinism,  who  have  frequently  used  that  word  to  express  a 
something  which  they  did  not  understand.  Perhaps  it 
would  be  well  if  the  word  itself  were  less  used,  and  the 
thing  signified  referred  to  the  decision  of  more  than  human 
authority.  It  may  be  added,  however,  that  the  distin- 
guishing theological  tenets  ipf  Calvinism,  as  the  term  is 
now  generally  applied,  respect  the  doctrines  of  Predesti** 
nation,  or  particular  Election  and  Reprobation,  original 
Sin,  particular  Redemption,  effectual,  or,  as  some  have 
called  it,  irresistible  Grace  in  Regeneration,  Justification 
by  faith.  Perseverance,  and  the  Trinity.  Besides  the 
doctrinal  part  of  Calvin's  system,  which,  so  far  as  it  differs 
from  that  of  other  reformers  of  the  same  period,  principally 
regarded  the  absolute  decree  of  God,  whereby  the  futurei 
and  eternal  condition  of  the  human  race  was  determined 
out  of  mere  sovereign  pleasure  and  free-will ;  it  extended 
likewise  to  the  discipline  and  government  of  the  Christian 
church,  the  nature  of  the  Eucharist,  and  the  qualification 
of  those  who  were  entitled  to  the  participation  of  it.  Cal- 
vin,considered  every  church  as  a  separate  and  independent 
body,  invested  with  the  power  of  legislation  for  itself.  He 
proposed  that  it  should  be  governed  by  presbyteries  and 
synods,  composed  of  clergy  and  laity,  without  bishops,  or 
any  clerical  subordination  ;  and  maintained,  that  the  pro* 
?ince  of  the  civil  magistrate  extended  only  to  its  protec- 
tion and  outward  accommodation.  In  order  to  faciliiato 
an  union  with  the  Lutheran  churchy  he  acknowledged  a 

98  CALVIN. 

real,  though  spiritual,  presence  of  Christ  in  the  Eucfasritt ; 
that  true  Christians  were  united  to  the  man  Christ  in  this 
ordinance ; '  and  that  divine  grace  was  conferred  upon  them, 
and  sealed  to  them,  in  the  celebration  of  it :  and  be  con* 
fined  the  privilege  of  communion  to  pious  and  regenerate 
believers.  In  France  the  Calvinists  are  distinguished  by 
the  name  of  Huguenots ;  and,  among  the  commoti  people, 
by  that  of  Parpaillots,  In  Germany  they  are  confounded 
with  the  Lutherans,  under  the  general  title  Protestants ; 
only  sometimes  distinguished  by  the  name  Reformed, 

The  best  edition  of  Calvin's  whole  works  is  that  of  Am- 
sterdam, 1671,  in  9  vols.  fol.  Most  of  his  practical,  and 
many  of  his  controversial  pieces,  were  translated  into 
English,  and  much  read  here  in  the  sixteenth  century.  * 

CALVISIUS  (Sethus),  a  learned  German  chronologist, 
the  son  of  a  Lutheran  peasant,  was  born  at  Gorschleben, 
a  village  of  Thuringia,  in  1556.  Being  very  poor  in  his 
youth,  he  got  his  livelihood  by  his  skill  in  music,  which 
he  learned  very  early,  and  was  so  liberally  encouraged  at 
Magdeburgh,  that  he  was  enabled  to  study  for  some  time 
at  die  university  of  Helmstadt,  where  he  made  great  pro- 
gress in  the  learned  languages,  and  in  chronology  and 
astronomy.  He  died  at  Leipsic,  where  he  held  the  office 
of  chanter,  in  1615.  His  "Opus  Chronologicum".  «ip- 
peared  first  in  1605,  on  the  principles  of  Joseph  Scaliger, 
for  which  he  was  not  a  little  commended  by  Scaliger. 
Isaac  Casaubon,  also,  a  better  judge  in  this  case  than  Sca-% 
liger,  as  being  under  less  temptation  to  be  partial,  has  be^ 
stowed  *  high  praises  on  Calvisius.  In  1611,  Calvisius 
published  a  work  against  the  Gregorian  calendar,  under 
the  title  of  "  Elenchus  calendarii  a  papa  Gregorio  XIIL 
eomprobati  ;'*  or,  a  *^  Confutation  of  the  calendar,  ap- 
proved and  established  by  pope  Gregory  XIII."  Vossius 
tells  us,  that  he  not  only  attempts  in  this  work  to  shew  the 
errors  of  the  Gregorian  calendar,  but  offers  also  a  new  and 
more  concise,  as  well  as  truer  method  of  reforming  the  ca-^ 
lendar.  He  was  the  author  also  of  "  Enodatio  duaruna 
qoestionum,  viz.  circa  annum  Nativitatis  et  Tempus  Mi- 
nisterii  Christ,''  Erford,  1610,  4to.  His  "Chronology** 
was  often  reprinted.  Of  his  muisical  talents,  he  has  left 
ample  proofs  to  posterity  in  his  short  treatise  called 
"  MEAOnOIA,  sive  Melodioe  condendae  ratio,  quam  vulg6 

>  Gen.  Diet. — Life  by  Beza  prefixed  to  hii  Works*-— Saiui  Onomsttt, 

C  A  L  V  I  S  I  U  S.  99 

musicam  poetieam  vocant,  ex  ^eris  fundameniis  extracta 
ct  expiicata>'*  1592.  This  ingenious  tract  contains,  though 
but  a  small  duodecimo  volume,  all  that  was  known  at  the 
time  concerning  harmonics  and  practical  music ;  as  be  has 
compressed  into  his  lUtle  book  the  science  of  most  of  the 
best  writers  on  the  subject ;  to  which  he  has  added  short 
compositions  of  bis  own,  to  illustrate  their  doctrines  and 
precepts.  With  respect  to  composition,  be  not  only  gives 
examples  of  concords  and  discords,  and  their  use  in  combi- 
nation, but  little  canons  and  fugues  of  almost  every  kind 
then  knbArn.  He  composed,  in  1615,  the  iSOth  psalm  in 
twelve  parts,  for  three  choirs,  as  an  Epithalamium  on  the 
nuptials  of  his  friend  Casper  Ankelman,  a  merchant  of 
Hamburgh,  and  published  it  in  folio  at  Leipsic  the  same 
year.  Several  of  his  hymns  and  motets  appear  in  a  collec- 
tion of  Luthet*an  church  music,  published  at  Leipsic,  16 18, 
io  eight  volumes  4to,  under  the  following  title  :  **  Florile- 
giam  portens  CXV.  selectissimas  Cantiones,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8, 
voc.  praestantissimorum  Auctorum."  Some  of  these  whicb 
Dr.  Burney  had  the  curiosity  to  score,  have  the  laws  of 
harmony  and  fugue  preserved  inviolate.  * 

CAMBRIDGE  (Richard  Owen),  an  ingenious  English 
writer,  was  born  in  London,  Feb.  14,  1717,  of  ancestors 
belonging  to  the  county  of  Gloucester.  His  father,  who 
was  a  younger  brother,  had  been  bred  to  business  as  a  Tur- 
key merchant,  and  died  in  London  not  long  after  the  birth 
of  his  son,  the  care  of  whom  then  devolved  on  his  mother 
and  his  maternal  uncle  Thomas  Owen,  esq.  who  adopted 
him  as  his  future  representative.  He  was  sent  to  Etoa 
school,  where  quickness  of  parts  supplied  the  place  of  dili- 
gence ;  yet  although  he  was  averse  to  the  routine  of  stated 
tasks,  he  stored  hi^  mind  with  classical  knowledge,  and 
amused  it  by  an  eager  perusal  of  works  addressed  to  the 
imagination.  He  became  early  attached  to  the  best  Eng-^ 
lish  poets,  and  to  those  miscellaneous  writers  who  delineate 
human  life  and  character.  A  taste  likewise  for  the  beau- 
ties of  rural  nature  began  to  display  itself  at  this  period^ 
which' he  'afte;rwards  exemplified  at  his  seat  in  Gloucester- 
shire, and  that  at  Twickenham.  In  1734,  he  entered  as  at 
gentleman  commoner  of  St.  John's  college,  Oxford,  and, 
without  wishing  to  be  thought  a  laborious  scholar,  omitted 

1  Moreri. — Qoetzii  Elogia  prsBCocioin  Eruditorum,  1722,  Sro.— ^en.  DicU"M> 
JBurQey  and  Hawkins's  Hist*  of  Music. — Freheri  TheaU-ttiii.-*SAxii  OaomasU 

H  2 


no  opportunity  of  improving  his  mind  in  such  studies  a^ 
were  suitable  to  his  age  and  future  prospects.  His  first, 
or  one  of  his  first,  poetical  effusions  was  on  the  marriage  of 
the  prince  of  Wales,  which  was  published  with  the  other 
verses  composed  at  Oxford  on  the  same  occasion.  In  1737, 
be  became  a  member  of  Lincoln^ s-inn,  where  he  found  many 
^nen  of  wit  and  congenial  habits,  but  as  he  had  declined 
taking  a  degree  at  Oxford,  he  had  now  as  little  inclination 
to  pursue  the  steps  that  lead  to  the  bar;^  and  in  1741,  in 
bis  twenty-fourth  year,  he  married  Miss  Trenchard,  the 
second  daughter  of  George  Trenchard,  esq.  of  Woolverton 
in  Dorsetshire,  a  lady  who  contributed  to  his  happiness  for 
tipwards  of  half  a  century,  and  by  whom  he  had  a  family 
equally  amiable  and  affectionate.  She  died  Sept.  5,  1806, 
having  survived  her  husband  four  years. 

He  now  settled  at  his  family  seat  of  Whitminster  in  Glou- 
cestershire, for  seven  or  eight  years,  where  his  life,  though 
easy  and  independent,  was  never  idle  or  useless.  While 
he  continued  co  cultivate  polite  literature,  his  more  active 
hours  were  employed  in  heightening  the  beautieaof  the 
scenery  around  his  seat :  for  this  purpose  he  made  the  little 
river  Stroud  navigable  for  some  distance,  and  nat  only 
constructed  boats  for  pleasure  or  carriage,  but  introduced 
some  ingenious  improvements  in  that  branch  of  naval  archi-^ 
lecture,  which  were  approved  by  the  most  competent 
judges.  In  one  of  these  boats  or  barges  he  had  the  honour 
to  receive  the  prince  and  princess  of  Wales  and  other  dis-*- 
tinguished  visitors,  who  were  delighted  with  the  elegance 
of  bis  taste,  and  the  novelty  and  utility  of  his  various  plans. 
For  the  sports  of  the  field  he  had  little  relish,  not,  how- 
ever, from  a  motive  of  tenderness,  for  he  practised  the  bow 
and  arrow,  and  we  read,  but  with  lio  great  pleasure,  that 
V  the  head  of  a  duck,  swimming  in  the  river,  was  a  favourite 
mark,  which  he  seldom  missed."  As,  however,  he  ever 
endeavoured  to  unite  knowledge  with  amusement,  .he  stu- 
died the  history  of  archery,  and  became  a  connoisseur  in 
its  weapons  as  used  by  modern  and  ancient  nations.  The 
collection  he  formed  while  this  pursuit  occupied  his  s^tten-* 
tion,  he  afterwards  sent  to  sir  Ashton  Lever's  museum. 

During  bis  residence  at  Whitminster,  he  wrote  his  most 
celebrated  poem,  "  The  Scribleriad.*'  The  design  he  im- 
parted to  some  of  his  particular  friends,  and  communicated 
bi^  progress  from  time  to  time.  He  had  naturally  a  rich 
fund  of  humour,  which  he  could  restrain  within  the  bounds 


tif  delicacy,  or  expand  to  the  burlesque,  as  his  subject  re- 
quired ;  and  the  topics  which  he  introduced  had  evidently 
been  the  result  of  a  course  of  multifarious  reading:  But 
such  was  his  diffidence  in  his  own  powers,  or  in  the  since- 
rity of  his  friends  who  praised  his  labours,  that  he  laid  his 
poem  aside  for  many  years  after  it  was  completed,  until  he 
could  ascertain,  by  their  impatience,  that  they  consulted 
his  reputation  in  advising  him  to  publish  it. 

In  consequence  of  the  death  of  his  uncle  (in  1748)  to 
whom  he  was  heir,  he  added  the  name  of  Owen  to  his  own. 
He  now  took  a  house  in  London,  but  after  about  two  years' 
residence,  finding  the  air  of  London  disagree  with  himself 
and  with  Mrs.  Cambridge,  he  purchased  a  villa  at  Twicken- 
ham, immediately  opposite  Richmond-hill.  He  quitted  at 
the  same  time  his  seat  in  Gloucestershire,  and  with  it  all  de- 
sire of  farther  change,  for  he  resided  at  Twickenham  during 
the  remainder  of  his  very  long  life.  How  much  he  im- 
proved this  villa  cannot  now  be  remembered  by  many  :  two 
generations  have  admired  it  only  in  its  improved  state.-** 
His  mode  of  living  has  been  affectionately,  yet  justly,  de- 
scribed  by  his  biographer.  He  was  at  once  hospitable  and 
economical,  accessible  and  yet  retired.  By  his  knowledge 
and  manners  he  was  fitted  to  the  highest  company,  yet 
although  his  circle  was  extensive,  he  soon  learned  to  select 
his  associates,  and  visiting  became  a  pleasing  relief,  instead 
of  a  perpetual  interruption. 

The  same  year  in  which  he  commenced  his  establishment 
at  Twickenham,  he  became  known  to  the  public  as  the 
author  of  "  The  Scribleriad,"  which  was  published  in  1751. 
Some  of  his  lesser  poems  succeeded  :  *<  The  Dialogue  be- 
tween a  member  of  parliament  and  his  servant,''  in  1752  ; 
the  "Intruder,"*  in  1754;  and  "The  Fakeer,"  in  1756. 
About  the  same  time  be  appeared  as  a  writer  in  "  The 
WoaLD,''  to  which  he  contributed  twenty-one  papers, 
which  are  unquestionably  among  the  best  in  that  collection. 
Lord  Chesterfield,  who  knew  and  respected  him,  drew  the 
following  character  in  one  of  his  own  excellent  papers  : 
*^  Cantabrigius  drinks  nothing  but  water,  and  rides  more 
miles  in  a  year  than  the  keenest  sportsman ;  the  former 
keeps  his  head  clear,  the  latter  his  body  in  health  :  it  is 
not  from  himself  that  he  runs,  but  to  his  acquaintance,  a 
synonimous  term  for  his  friends.  Internally  safe,  he  seeks 
no  sanctuary  from  himself,  no  intoxication  for  his  mind. 
His  penetration  makes  him  discover  and  divert  himself  with 

lop  CAMS  R  I  D  G  E. 

the  follies  of  mankind^  which  his  wit  enables  him  to  eicpose 
with  the  truest  ridicule,  though  always  without  personal 
offence.  Cheerful  abroad  because  happy  at  home,  and 
thus  happy  because  virtuous*." 

On  the  commencement  of  the  war  with  France  in  175^, 
in  the  events  of  which  he  appears  to  have  taken  a  more 
lively  interest  than  could  have  been  expected  from  a  man 
of  his  retired  disposition,  he  was  induced  to  undertake  a 
history  of  the  rise  and  progress  of  the  British  power  in 
India,  in  order  to  enlighten  the  public  mind  in  the  nature 
and  importance  of  that  acquisition.  At  first  he  intended 
that  this  work  should  be  on  a  very  large  scale,  but  as  recent 
events  demanded  such  information  as  could  be  iinmediatelj 
procured,  and  promised  to  be  useful,  he  produced  his 
*^  History  of  the  War  upon  the  Coast  of  Coromandel," 
which  was  published  in  1761.  He  then  resumed  his  ori*- 
ginal  design,  and  obtained  permission  from  the  Edst  India 
Company  to  inspect  such  of  their  papers  as  might  be  re- 
quisite. He  had  also  a  promise  of  Mr.  Orme's  papers,  but 
that  gentleman  happening  to  return  from  India  at  this 
juncture,  with  an  intention  to  publish  himself  the  history 
which  afterwards  appeared,  Mr.  Cambridge  considered 
that  his  own  work  would  now  be  in  a  great  measure  super- 
fluous, and  therefore  relinquished  the  further  prosecution 
6f  his  plan.  What  he  had  published,  however,  was  consi- 
dered as  an  important  memoir  of  the  period  it  embraced^ 
smd  as  a  fair  and  correct  statement  of  the  French  proceed  ^ 
iugs  in  India ;  and  it  served  to  introduce  him  more  into  the 
study  of  India  affairs,  in  whickhe  ever  afterwards  delighted. 
It  led  him  also  to  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  lordClive, 
general  Carnac,  Mr.  Scrafton,  majof  Pearson,  Mr.  Varelst, 
general  Calliaud,  Mr.  Hastings,  and  others,  who  had  gained 
distinguished  reputation  by  their  sjervices  in  the  East. 

Mr.  Cambridge  survived  the  publication  of  this  work 
above  forty  years,  but  appeared  no  more  before  the  public 
as  an  author.  Many  of  the  smaller  pieces  in  his  works 
were  written  as  amusements  for  his  friends,  and  circulated 
only  in  private.  The  long  remainder  of  his  life  passed  in 
the  enjoyment  of  ail  tliat  elegant  and  polished  society  could 

*  **  This  character  stands  at   Ihe  example  of  oae,  who  did  not  reqiiirt 

close  of  a  paper  written  to  expose  the  the  exhilarating  aid  of  wine  to  eniiveii 

folly  and  ill  effects  of  hard  drinking  :  his  wit,  or  increase  his  vivacity.*'  Life 

and  lord  Cbesterfleid  names  diy  father  of  Mr.  Cambridge,  by  bis  Son>  iire<t 

who  was  a  watcr-drinJi^eri  as  a  living;  fixed  to  bis  works,  p.  44* 


yield.  Mopt  of  the  friendships  of  his  youth  were  those  of 
his  advanced  age,  and  they  were  contracted  with  such  mea 
as  are  not  often  found,  within  the  reach  of  a  stationary  indi- 
Tidual.  At  Eton  he  became  acquainted  with  Bryant,  Gray^ 
West,  Walpole,  Dr.  Barnard,  and  Dr.  Cooke ;  at  Lincoln'^ 
Inn  he  found  Mr.  Henry  Bathurst,  afterwards  lord  chan- 
cellor, the  lK>n.  Charles  Yorke,  Mr.  Wcay,  and  Mr.  Edwards. 
To  these  he  afterwards  added  lord  Ansoii,  Dr.  Atwell,  bi-^ 
shop  Benson,  sir  Charles  Williams,  Mr.  Henry  Fox,  Mr« 
William  Whitehead,  Villiers  lord  Clarendon,  lord  Gran- 
ville, lord  Lyttelton,  Mr.  Grenville,  lord  Chesterfield,  Mr, 
Pitt,  lord  Bath,  lord  Egremont,  Soame  Jenyns,  lord  Hard- 
wicke,  admiral  Boscawen,  lord  Barrington,  James  Harris, 
Andrew  Stone,  bishop  Egerton,  lord  Camel  ford,  Welbore 
Ellis,  lord  North,  Garrick,  Dr.  Johnson,  Dr.  Porteus,  late 
bishop  of  London,  and  the  illustrious  navigators  Byron^ 
Wallis,  Carteret,  Phipps,  Cook,  and  Vancouver.  In  th^ 
company  of  these,  some  of  whom  were  long  his  neighbours 
at  Twickenham,  be  delighted  to  increase  his  knowledge 
by  an  interchange  of  sentiment  on  topics  of  literature  and 
common  life.  His  conversation  was  enriched  by  various 
reading,  and  embellished  by  wit  of  the  most  delicate  and 
unobtrusive  kind.  His  temper  made  him  universally  be** 
loved.     It  wals  uniformly  cheerful,  mild,  and  benevolent. 

The  conclusion  of  his  life  is  thus  related  by  bis  biogra- 
pher :  ''  He  was  considerably  advanced  in  his  eighty-third 
year  before  he  was  sensible,  to  any  considerable  degree 
of  the  infirmities  of  age ;  but  a  difficulty  of  hearing,  which 
bad  for  some  time  gradually  increased,  now  rendered  con- 
versation troublesome^  and  frequently  disappointing  to  him. 
Agstinst  this  evil  his  books,  for  which  his  relish  was  not 
abated,  bad  hitherto  furnished  an  easy  and  acceptable  re- 
source ;  but,  unfortunately,  his  sight  also  became  so  im- 
perfect, that  there  were  few  books  he  could  read  with  com- 
fort to  himself.  His  general  health,  however,  remained  the 
same,  and  his  natural  good  spirits  and  cheerfulness  of  tern-' 
per  experienced  no  alteration.  Having  still  the  free  use 
of  his  limbs,  be  C()ntinued  to  take  his  usual  exercise,  and 
to  follow  his  customary  habits  of  life,  accepting  of  such 
amusement  as  conversation  would  afford,  from  those  friends 
who  bad  the  kindness  to  adapt  their  voices  to  his  prevail- 
ing infirdiity ;  and  that  he  still  retained  a  lively  concern  in 
all  those  great  and  interesting  events,  which  were  then 
taking  place  in  Europe,  may  be  seen  in  some  of  his  latest 

10*  C  A  M  B  R  I  D  G  E.' 


productions,  fiut  as  his  deafness  increased,  he  felt  himself 
grow  daily  more  unfit  for  the  society  of  any  but  his  omi  fa- 
mily, into  whose  care  and  protection  he  resigned  himself 
with  the  mpst  affectionate  and  endearing  confidence,  re- 
ceiving those  attentions,  which  it  was  the  first  pleasure  of 
his  children  to  pay  him,  not  as  a  debt  due  to  a  fond  and 
indulgent  parent,  but  as  a  free  and  voluntary  tribute  of 
their  affection.  In  the  contemplation  of  these  tokens  of 
esteem  and  love,  he  seemed  to  experience  a  constant  and 
unabating  pleasure,  which  supplied,  in  no  small  degree^ 
the  want  of  other  interesting  ideas. 

"  It  is  well  known,  that  among  the  many  painful  and 
humiliating  effects  that  attend  the  decline  of  life,  and  fol- 
low from  a  partial  decay  of  the  mental  powers,  we  have 
often  to  lament  the  change  it  produces  in  the  heart  and 
affections  ;  but  from  e\^ry  consequence  of  this  sort  my 
father  was  most  happily  exempt.  This  I  allow  myself  to 
say  upon  the  authority  of  the  medical  gentleman  ^  of  con- 
siderable eminence,  by  whose  skill  and  friendly  attentions 
he  was  assisted  through  the  progressive  stages  of  his  slow 
decline  ;  and  who  has  repeatedly  assured  me,  that,  in  the 
whole  course  of  his  extensive  practice,  he  had  never  seen 
a  similar  instance  of  equanimity  and'  undeviating  sweetness 
of  temper. 

^^  During  this  gradual  increase  of  feebleness,  and  with 
the  <liscouraging  prospect  of  still  greater  suffering,  which 
besaw  before  him,  his  exemplary  patience,  and  constant 
care  to  spare  the  feelings  of  bis  family,  were  eminently  con- 
spicuous :  nor  did  the  distressing  infirmities,  inseparably 
attendant  on  extreme  debility,  ever  produce  a  moroiur  of 
eomplaint,  or  even  a  hasty  or  unguarded  expression.  It 
is  somewhat  singular,  and  may  be  regarded  as  a  proof  of 
an  unusually  strong  frame,  that  no  symptom  of  disease  took 
place :  all  the  organs  of  life  continued  to  execute  their 
respective  functions,  until  nature  b^ng  wholly  exhausted, 
he  expired  without  a  sigh,  on  the  17th  of  September,  1802, 
leaving  a  widow,  ^wo  sons,  and  a  daughter.^' 

It  appears  from  the  whole  of  his  Son's  very  interesting 
narrative,  that  few  men  have  enjoyed  a  life  of  the  same 
duration  so  little  interrupted  by  vexation  or  calamity.  His 
fortune,  if  not  relatively  great,  was  rendered  ample  by  ju- 
dicious management,  and  as  he  had  been  highly  favoured^ 

^  *'  David  Dun  (lass,  csc[.  of  Richmpnd." 

C  A  M  B  K  I  D  G  E.  laf 

by  Providence  in  bis  person  and  in  bis  family,  be  felt  tbe 
importance  of  these  blessings  with  the  gratitude  of  a  Chrii- 
tian.  Such  information  as  the  following,  so  honourable  to 
the  subject  of  it,  and  to  bim  who  relates  it,  ought  not  to 
be  suppressed. 

**  At  an  early  age  be  attentively  examined  tbe  evidences 
of  Christianity,  and  was  fully  satisfied  of  its  truth.  His 
was,  in  the  truest  sense,  the  religion  of  the  heart,  and  be 
always  felt  that  a  constant  conformity  to  its  precepts  was 
the  strongest  and  best  proof  he  could  give  of  tbe  sincerity 
of  his  faith.  Of  its  prescribed  forms  and  exterior  duties 
he  was  no  less  a  strict  observer :  whatever  were  his  engage- 
ments, he  constantly  passed  his  Sundays  at  home  with  his 
family,  at  tbe  head  of  whom  he  never  failed  to  attend  tbe 
public  service  of  the  day,  until  prevented  by  a  bodily  in- 
firmity, for -some  years  before  his  death  :  but  he  still  con- 
tinued his  practice  of  reading  prayers  to  them  every  even- 
ing ;  a  usage  of  more  than  sixty  years ;  these  were  taken 
from  our  Liturgy,  of  which  he  was  a  great  admirer. 
.  '^  When  no  longer  able  to  partake  of  the  communion  at 
church,  he  continued  to  receive  it  at  home  on  the  festivals 
and  other  suitable  occasions,  to  the  latest  period,  and  his 
manner  of  joining  in  this  service  furnished  an  edifying  ex- 
ample of  the  happy  influence  of  a  mind  void  of  offence  to- 
wards God  and  man. 

**  His  devotional  exercises  were  always  expressed  in  so 
solemn  a  manner,  and  with  such  unaffected  piety,  as 
shewed  that  his  lips  spoke  the  language  of  his  heart ;  but 
his  impressive  tone  of  voice,  when  offering  prayer  and 
thanksgiving,  marked  that  to  be  tbe  branch  of  worship 
most  suited  to  his  feelings  ;  and  in  conformity  with  this 
sentiment,  he  frequently  remarked,  that  '  in  our  petitions 
we  are  liable  to  be  misled  both  as  to  their  object  and  mo- 
tive ;  but  in  expressing  our  thanksgivings  to  the  Deity  we 
can  never  err,  the  least  favoured  among  us  having  received 
sufficient  tokens  of  tbe  bounty -of  Providence,  to  excite 
emotions  of  the  sincerest  gratitude.* 

'^  This  principle  of  piety  led  him  also  to  bear  afflictions 
in  the  most  exemplary  manner.  Whatever  trials  or  depri- 
vations he  experienced  through  life,  be  always  met  with 
fortitude,  and  his  demeanour  under  the  losses  which  be 
was  ordained  to  suffer  in  bis  own  family,  was  such,  that 
those  only^  who  saw  him  near,  and  knew  bow  sacred  he 
held  the  duty  of  submission  tp  tbe  divine  wiU^  and  the  self- 

WS  C  A  M  II  R  I  D  G  E. 

conaniand  this  produced|  could  form  any  idea  liow  poig- 
nantly they  were  felt." 

Of  his  literary  character  his  Son  has  formed  a  just  esti« 
mate,  when  he  says  that  he  is  to  be  regarded  rather  as  an 
elegant  than  a  profound  scholar.  Yet,  where  he  chose  to 
apply,  his  knowledge  was  far  from  being  superficial,  and 
if  he  had  not  at  an  early  period  of  life  indulged  the  pro* 
spect  of  filling  the  station  of  a  retired  country  gentleman, 
it  is  probable  that  he  might  have  made  a  distinguished 
figure  in  any  of  the  learned  .professions.  It  is  certain  that 
the  ablest  works  on  every  subject  have  been  produced, 
With  very  few  exceptions,  by  men  who  have  been  scholars 
by  profession,  to  whom  reputation  was  necessary  as  well  as 
curnamental,  and  who  could  not  expect  to  rise  but  in  pro- 
portion, to  the  abilities  they  discovered.  Mr.  Cambridge, 
without  being  insensible  to  the  value  of  fame,  had  yet  none 
of  the  worst  perils  of  authorship  to  encounter.  As  a  writer 
be  was  better  known  to  the  world,  but  he  could  not  have 
been  more  highly  respected  by  bis  friends. 

Abodt  a  year  after  his  death,  his  son,  the  rev.  George 
Owen  Cambridge,  published  a  splendid  edition  of  all  his 
works  (except  his  History  of  the  War)  to  which  he  prefixed 
an  account  of  his  hfe  and  writings.  To  this  very  interest- 
ing narrative,  the  present  sketch  is  indebted  for  all  that  is 
valuable  in  it,  but  from  what  is  here  borrowed  the  reader 
can  have  but  a  feeble  conception  of  a  composition  which 
does  so  much  honour  to  the  moral  and  literary  reputation 
of  the  father,  and  to  the  filial  piety  and  chastened  affection 
of  the  son. 

The  Scribleriad  is  one  of  those  poems,  that,  with  great 
merits,  yet  make  their  way  very  slowly  in  the  world.  It 
was  received  so  coolly  on  the  publication  of  the  first  two 
parts,  that  he  found  it  necessary  to  write  a  preface  to  the 
second  and  complete  edition,  explaining  his  design.  He 
had  some  reason  to  apprehend  that  it  had  been  mistaken, 
and  that  the  poem  was  in  danger  of  being  neglected.  In 
this  preface  he  lays  down  certain  rules  for  the  mock  heroic, 
by  which,  if  his  own  production  be  tried,  it  must  be  con- 
fessed he  has  executed  all  that  he  intended,  with  spirit 
and  taste.  As  an  imitator  of  the  true  heroic  he  is  in  ge- 
neral faithful,  and  his  parodies  on  the  ancients  show  that 
he  had  studied  their  writings  with  somewhat  different  from 
the  ardour  of  an  admirer  of  poetry,  or  the  acuteness  of 
a  critical  lip^uisu     But  it  mav  be  doubted  whether  tb« 



rules  he  wishes  to  establish  are  sufficieotly  comprehensive, 
whether  he  has  not  been  too  faithful  to  his  models,  and 
whethec  a .  greater  and  more  original  portion  of  the  bur- 
lesque would  not  have  conferred  more  popularity  on  his 
performance.  His  preference  of  Don  Quixote,  as  a  true 
mock  heroic,  is  less  a  matter  of  dispute.  In  ail  the  attri- 
butes of  that  species  of  composition,  it  is  unquestionably 
stiperior  to  any  attempt  ever  made,  and  probably  will  ever 
remain  without  a  rival,  for  what  subject  can  the  wit  of  man 
devise  so  happily  adapted  to  the  intention  of  the  writer? 
Its  great  excellence  too  appears  from  its  continuing  to 
please  every  class  of  readers,  although  the  folly  ridiculed 
no  longer  exists,  and  can  with  some  difficulty  be  supposed 
to  have  ever  existed.  But  Cervantes  is  in  nothing  so  su- 
perior,e  as  in  the  delineation  of  his  hero,  who  throughout 
t^e  whole  narrative  creates  a  powerful  interest  in  his  fa- 
vour, and  who  excites  ridicule  and  compassion  in  such  nice 
proportions  as  never  to  be  undeserving  of  sympathy,  or 
overpowered  by  contempt. 

Mr.  Cambridge  was  not  so  fortunate  in  a  hero.  He  was 
content  to  take  up  Scriblerus  where  Pope  and  Swift,  or 
rather  Arbuthuot,  left  him,  a  modey,  ideal  being,  with^ 
out  an  exemplar,  combining  in  one  individual,  all  that  is 
found  ridiculous  in  forgotten  volumes,  or  among  the  pre- 
tenders to  science  and  the  believers  of  absurdities.  Mr. 
Cambridge's  hero,  therefore,  without  any  qualities  to  se- 
cure pur  esteem,  is  an  antiquary,  a  pedant,  an  alchymist, 
and  what  seldom  is  found  among  such  characters,  a  poet. 
In  conducting  him  through  a  series  of  adventures,  upon  the 
plan  sketched  by.  the  triumvirate  above  mentioned,  it  is 
with  great  difficulty  that  he  is  able  to  avoid  the  error  they 
fell  into,  either  of  inventing  nonsense  for  the  sake  of  laugh- 
ing at  it,  or  of  glancing  their  ridicule  at  the  enthusiasm  of 
useful  research,  and  the  ardour  of  real  science  and  justi- 
fiable curiosity.  The  composition  of  the  Scribleriad  is  in 
general  so  regular,  spirited,  and  poetical,  that  we  cannot 
but  wish  the  author  had  chosen  a  subject  of  more  perma^ 
nent  interest.  The  versification  is  elegant,  and  the  epi- 
thets ehosen  with  singular  propriety.  The  events,  al- 
though without  much  connection,  all  add  something  to 
the  character  of  the  hero,  and  the  conversations,  most 
gravely  ironical,  while  they  remind  us  of  the  serious 
epics,  are  never  unnecessarily  protracted. 

It  is  to  be  regretted,  and  perhaps  it  may  be  mentioned 


as  another  hindrance  to  the  popularity  of  the  Scribleriad, 
that  the  author  determined  tp  avoid  moral  reflections,  re* 
flections  which  he  could  have  easily  furnished.     His  pe« 
riodical  papers  exhibit  a  happy  union  of  wit  apd  sentiment, 
and  few  men  were  better  acquainted  with  local  manners 
and  the  humours  and  whims  of  interest  and  passion.    If 
such  reflections  arise  naturally  from  the  subject,  they  are 
surely  not  only  useful,  but  lead  to  many  of  the  most  strik- 
ing beauties  of  imagery.     The  Scribleriad,  however,  will 
ever  be  considered  by  impartial  judges,  with  whom  popu- 
larity is  not  an  indispensable  qualification,  as  a  poem  that 
does  honour  to  the  taste  and  imagination  of  Mr.  Cambridge^ 
and  as  deserving  a  place  with  the  most  favourite  attempts 
of  the  satirical  muse. ' 

CAMDEN  (William),  one  of  the  most  eminent  Ewglish 
antiquaries,  was  born  in  the  Old  Bailey,  London,  May  2, 
1551.  His  father,  Samson  Camden,  was  a  native  of  Lich* 
field,  whence  he  was  sent  very  young  to  London,  where 
he  practised  painting,  and  settling  in  London,  became  a 
member  of  the  company  of  Painter-stainers.  The  inscrip* 
tiou  on  the  cup  left  by  his  son  to.,  the  company  calls  him 
jPictor  LondinensiSy  which  may  refer  either  to  his  profes^ 
sion  or  to.  his  company.  His  mother  was  of  the  ancient 
family  of  the  Curwens  of  Workington  in  Cumberland* 
Their  son  received  his  first  education  at  Christ's  hospital, 
which  was  founded  the  year  after  his  birth  by  king  Edward 
VI. ;  but  the  records  of  that  house  being  destroyed  in  the 
fire  of  London,  the  date  of  his  admission  is  lost.  Bishop 
Gibson  treats  his  admission  at  Christ's  hospital  as  a  fiction, 
because  not  mentioned  by  himself;  but  as  it  is  by  Wheare, 
who  pronounced  his  funeral  oration  very  soon  after  his 
death,  it  seems  to  have  some  foundation,  especially  if  we 
consider  the  lowness  of  his  circumstances,  and  his  depen- 
dence on  Dr.  Thornton  at  Oxford.  Dr.  Smith  (his  biogva** 
pher)  says,  some  infer  from  hence,  that  he  had  lost  his  f4-« 
ther,  and  was  admitted  as  an  orphan  ;  but  it  is  certain 
Wheare  does  not  give  it  that  turn.  Being  seized  with  the 
plague  i«i  1563,  he  was  removed  to  Islington,  or  perhaps 
was  sei/.ed  with  it  there,  "  peste  correptus  Islingtoniae  v^* 
but  on  his  recovery,  he  completed  his  education  at  St. 
Paul's  school ;  where  under  Mr.  Cook  or  Mr.  Malin,  he 

1  Life  as  above. — Johnson  and  Chalmers's  English  PqcIs^  21  vols,   ISlQ^rs* 
Shtish  Essayists^  Preface  to  the  World, 

C  A  M  D  £  ^NT.  109 

made  such  progrets  in  learoing  as  laid  the  foundation  of 
his  future  fame.  ^ 

From  this  school  he  was  removed  when  about  fifteen 
years  old,  in  1566,  to  Oxford,  and  entered  as  a  servitor 
at  Magdalen  college ;  and  in  the  school  belonging  to  that 
college  perfected  himself  in  grammar  learning  under  Dr. 
Thomas  Cooper,  afterwards  bishop  of  Lincoln  and  Win- 
chester; but  being  disappointed  of  a  demi*s  place,  he  re- 
moved to  Broadgate-hali,  now  Pembroke  college,  by  the 
invitation  of  Dr.  Thomas  Thornton,  cahon  of  Christ  churchy 
his  patron  and  tutor,  and  who  had  the  honour  to  be  tutor 
both  to  Camden  and  to  sir  Philip  Sidney.  Camden  left 
behind  him  in  Broadgate-hall  a  signal  mark  of  the  respect 
paid  him  by  his  contemporaries  in  the  short  Latin  graces 
composed  by  him,  which  were  used  many  years  after  by 
the  scholars  of  this  society.  Th^ee  years  after  he  ren^o%ed 
from  hence  to  Christ  church,  on  the  promotion  of  Dr, 
Thprnton  to  a  canonry  there.  This  kind  patron  provided 
ioY  him  during  the  rest  of  his  contiouance  at  the  univer- 
sity, and  he  lived  in  his  patron^s  lodgings.  At  this  time 
his  acquaintance  commenced  with  the  two  Carews,  Richard 
and  George;  the  latter  of  whom  was  by  James  I.  created 
baron  Ciopton,  and  by  Charles  L  earl  of  Totness;  and  it 
has  been  supposed,  as  they  were  both  antiquaries,  their 
conversation  might  give  Mr.  Camden  a  turn  to  that  study^ 
which  he  himself  informs  us  he  had  strongly  imbibed  be* 
fore  he  left  school,  and  improved  at  Oxford.  He  was 
also  acquainted  with  John  Packington,  Stephen  Powel, 
and  Edward  Lucy,  knights. 

About  this  time  by  the  encouragement  of  bis  friends,  he 
stood  for  a  fellowship  at  All  Souls,  bat  met  with  a  repulse, 
through  the  interest  of  the  Popish  party,  on  account  of  his 
zeal  for  the  church  of  England.  He  met  with  a  second 
disappointment  in  his  supplication  to  be  admitted  to  the 
degree  of  bachelor  of  arts  in  1570,  and  upon  this  he 
quitted  Oxford,  and  came  up  to  London  the  next  year, 
being  now  about  twenty.  He  pursued  his  studies  under 
the  patronage  of  Dr.  Gabriel. Goodman  and  Dr.  Godfrey 
Goodman  his  brother,  who  supplied  him  both  with  money 
and  books.  In  1573,  he  applied  again  for  the  same  de-- 
gree,  and  seems  to  have  taken  it,  but  never  completed  it 
by  determinations.  In  June  158S,  we  find  him  supplica- 
ting the  convocation  by  the  name  of  William  Camden,  B.  A. 
pf  Christ  churchy  '^  that  whereas  from  the  time  he  had 

no  CAMDEN. 

taken  the  ilegree  of  bachelor,  he  had  spent  sixteen  years 
in  the  study  of  philosophy  and  the  liberal  arts,  he  might  he 
dispensed  with  far  reading  three  solemn  lectures,  and  be 
allowed  to  proceed.^'  His  supplication  was  granted  on 
condition  that  he  stood  in  the  foilowing  act,  which  it  seems 
.his  other  engagements  would  riot  permit;  for  Wood  says, 
iiis  name  is  noc  in  the  registers.  When  he  attended  the 
funeral  of  sir  Thomas  Bodhey  in  1613,  his  fame  was  so 
great,  that  the  university,  voluntarily  offered  him  the  de- 
gree of  master  of  arts,  but  whether  he  accepted  it  does  not 

Upon  leaving  the  university,  he  seems  to  have  made  the 
tour  of  great  part  of  England;  and  in  1575,  by  the  in*- 
terest  of  his  friend  Dr.  Giabriei  Gpodman,  dean  of  West* 
minster,  be  obtauned  the  place  of  second  master  of  West- 
minster school.  The  little  leisure  he  could  sparfe  from  this 
important  charge  he  devoted  to  his  favau rite  study.  He 
was  not  content  with  pursuing  it' in  his  ckxiei,  4>ut  made 
excursions  o¥er , the  kingdom  every  yacatidn."  In  1582,  for 
example,  he  took  a  journey  through  Suffdk  into  York- 
shire, and  returned  by  Lancaster.  When  4it  hom^  he 
searched  into  the  .manuscript  coUecUoifs  of  out  own  wri* 
ters,  and  the  published  writings  of  fore^ners  respecting 
us.  At  this  time  too,  he  meditated  bi^  great  work,  the 
^^  Britannia  ;^'  and  as  his  reputation  engaged  him  in  an  ex-^ 
tensive  correspondence  both  at  home  and  abroad,  Orte- 
Jius,  whom  he  terms  the  great  restorer  of  geography,  hap- 
pening to  come  over  into  England,  applied  himself  to  Mr* 
•Camden  for  information  respecting  this  country.  His  so* 
liciutions,  and  the  regard  our  author  had  for  his  native 
country,  prevailed  on  him  to  improve  and' digest  the  col- 
lections, which  he  seems  to  have  made  at  first  only  for  pri- 
vate satisfaction  and  curiosity.  He  entered  upon  this  task 
with  every  difficulty  and  disadvantage.  It  was  a  new 
science,  which  was  to  amuse  and  inform  an  age  which  had 
just  began  to  recover  itself  from  the  heat  and  perplexity  of 
philosophy  and  school  divinity.  The  study  of  geography 
bad  been  first  attended  to  in  Italy  for  the  facilitating  the 
reading  of  Roman  hisjtory.  The  names  of  places  there,  and 
even  in  the  rest  of  Europe,  where  the  Romans  had  so  long 
kept  possession,  were  not  greatly  altered  ;^but  in  Britain^ 
which  they  subdued  so  late,  and  held  so  precariously,  a 
great  degree  of  obscurity  prevailed.  The  Roman  ortho- 
graphy and. terminations  bad  obscured  in  some  instances 

CAMDEN;  111 

the  British  names;  but  the  Saxons,  who  succeeded  the 
Romans  here,  as  they  gained  a  firmer  possession,  made  an 
almost  total  change  in  these  as  in  every  thing  else.  Upon 
their  expulsion  by  the  Normans,  their  language  ceased  to 
be  a  living  one,  while  that  of  the  Britons  was  preserved  in 
a  corner  of  the  island.  Very  soon  after  the  conquest  there 
were  few  who  could  read  the  Saxon  characters.  In  tnicinisr 
the  Roman  geography  of  Britain,  Mr.  Camden  might  be 
assisted^ by  Ptolemy,  AiUoninus^s  Itinerary,  and  the  No« 
titia;  but  before  he  could  become  acquainted  with  the 
Saxon  geography,  it  was  necessary  for  him  to  make  him- 
self master  of  a  language  which  bad  ceased  for  above  400 
years.  The  few  written  remains  of  it  were  almost  divided 
between  three  collections;  that  of  archbishop  Parker,  now 
at  Bene't  college,  Cambridge.;  that  of  archbishop  Laud, 
now  at  Oxford  ;  and  that  of  sir.  Robert  Cotton,  now  in  the 
British  Museum. 

After  ten  years^  labour  Mr.  Camden  published  his  *^  Bri-« 
tannia''  in  1586,  dedicated  to  William  Cecil  lord  Burleigh, 
lord  treasurer  to  queen  Elizabeth.  What  a  favourable  re-* 
ception  it  met  with  appears  from  the  number  of  editions  it 
passed  through  ;  for  in  the  compass  of  four  years  there  were 
three  at  London,  one  at  Frankfort,  1590,  one  in  Germany, 
and  a  fourth  at  London  in  1594.  The  title  which  he  re*^ 
tained  in  all  -editions  was  *^  Britannia,  sive  florenttssimo^ 
rum  regnorum  Angliie,  Scotiae,  Hiberniee,  et  insularum 
adjacentium,  ex  intima  antiquitate,  chorographica  descrip^ 
tio.*'  The  dedication  is  dated  May  2,  1586,  so  that  he 
finished  this  great  work  precisely  at  the  age  of  thirty- five  ; 
and  yet,  as  he  informs  us  himself,  lie  devoted  to  it  only  his 
spare  hours  and  holidays,  the  duties  of  his  ofBce  ingrossing 
all  the  rest  t)f  his  time. 

As  each  new  edition  recei\'ed  large  corrections  and  im^ 
provements  from  its  author,  he  took  a  journey  into  Devon 
in  1589,  and  in  June  Ibtit  year  was,  as  he  tells  us  in  his 
diary,  at  Ilfracomb,  which  is  a  prebend  of  the  church  of 
Salisbury,  and  had  been  bestowed  on  him  that  year  by 
Dr.  John  Piers,  then  bishop  of  that  see  and  his  intimate 
friend  ;  and  he  had  been  installed  Lito  it  by  proxy  Feb.  6i 
This  preferment  he  held  till  his  death  ;  and  when  bishop 
Abbot  held  his  general  visitation  at  Whitsuntide  in  1617, 
he  excused  himself  from  attending  on  account  of  his  agei 
being  then  seventy,  and  was  allowed  to  appear  by  proxy. 
The  expence  of  this  and  other  journies  was  defrayed  by 

112  CAMDEN. 

his  friend  Mr.  Godfrey-  Goodman.  In  1 590  he  visited 
Wales  in  company  with  the  famous  Dr.  Godwin,  after-^ 
wards  bishop  of  Landaff  and  Hereford.  On  Oct.  2j$,  1592/ 
he  was  attacked  with  a  quartan  ague,  which,  for  a  long 
while,  baffled  the  help  of  physic,  and  brought  him  very, 
low.  During  this  illness.  Dr.  Edward  Grant,  who  had 
been  head  master  of  Westminster  school  upwards  of  twenty 
years  with  great  reputation,  worn  out  with  fatigue,  re- 
signed that  place  Feb.  1592-3;  and  in  March  following 
was  succeeded  by  Camden.  Mr.  Wheare,  Dr.  Smith,  and 
bishop  Gibson,  all  assign  this  vacancy  to  the  death  of  Dr* 
Grant;  and  Wood,  though  in  two  articles  he  expresses 
himself  doubtfully,  in  another  affirms  that  be  resigned 
about  February  1592,  and  was  succeeded  by  William  Cam-^ 
den.  He  adds,  that  Dr.  Grant  died  in  1601,  and  wa& 
buried  in  Westminster  abbey,  where  his  epitaph,  now  de* 
faced,  but  preserved  in  Mr.  Camden's  account  of  this  ab- 
bey-church, dates  his  death  Aug.  3,   160K 

It  was  not  till  next  year  that  Mr.  Camden  perfectly  re* 
covered  from  bis  ague;  and  soon  after  published  the  fourth 
edition  of  his  Britannia,  with  great  enlargements  and  im- 
provements by  bis  own  care,  and  that  of  his  friends.  But 
all  his  attention  could  not  defend  him  from  the  violent 
and  indecent  attack  from  Ralph  Brooke  (more  properly, 
Brookesmouth),  York  Herald,  exposing  certain  mistakes 
which  be  pretended  to  have  discovered  in  the  pedigrees  of 
the  earls  of  each  county,  and  which  he  fancied  might  be 
attended  with  circumstances  dishonourable  to  many  of  the 
most  ancient  and  noble  families  in  this  kingdom.  Brooke's 
book  did  not  appear  till  many  years  after  the  fourth  edition 
of  the  Britannia;  but  he  had  framed  his  materials  soon 
after.  Bishop  Gibson  ascribes  this  attack  to  envy  of 
Mr.  Camden's  promotion  to  the  place  of  Clarencieux  king 
at  arms,  in  1597,  which  place  Brooke  expected  for  him- 
self. But  though  the  piece  is  u^di^ted,  it  appears  by  the 
address  to  Maister  Camden  prefixed  to  it,  that  Camden 
was  not  then  king  at  arms,  and  he  was  created  Richmond 
herald  but  the  day  before.  The  truth  is,  that  Mr.  Camden 
in  his  first  editions  touched  but  lightly  on.  pedigrees,  and 
mentioned  but  few  families ;  whereas  in  the  fourth  he  en- 
larged so  much  upon  them,  that  he  has  given  a  particular 
iqdex  of  JBaranes  et  illustriores  familiar  and  recited  near 
250  noble  houses.  This  Brooke,  with  the  mean  jealousy 
of  a  man  whose  livelihood  was  connected  with  his  place^ 

C  A  M  P  E  N.  Ill 

considered  a$  an  invasion  on  the  rights  of  the  college^ 
This  put  him  on  examining  these  pedigrees,  and  on  wishing 
to  have  them  corrected,  as  Mr.  Camden  appears  to  have 
been  ever  ready  to  have  bis  mistakes  set  right.  Brooke 
tells  ns,  indeed^  that  what  he  offered  him  for  the  fifth  edi*' 
tion  did  not  meet  with  that  favourable  reception  he  ex«> 
pected  even  before  Camden  professed  himself  an  herald 
officially^  and  that  foreigners,  misled  by  his  former  edilion% 
had  blundered  egregiousiy.  He  complains  too,  that  b^ 
had  been  disturbed  in  writing,*  and  mvicfa  more  in  printing 
it,  by. Mr,  Cainden's  friendis.  That  thid  was. rather  owing 
to  a  jealousy  of  his  profession  than  of  his  promotion,  ap«> 
pears  further  from  hence,  that  though  Mr.  Camden  himself 
in  his  answer  to  Brooke  does  not  indeed,  take  notice  of  his 
promotion,  and  the  disgust  it  migbthave  gixren  him^  yet 
^is  was  after  he  had  published  his  ^^  Discoverie,'^  and  he 
shews  throughout  that  di3dain  of  his:  adversary's  abtliti^^ 
which  Brooke  complains  of,  never  once  admitting  him  ta 
be  right,  or  his  corrections  worth  regarding}  though  in  the 
fifth  edition  he  wisely  mad^  use  of  them;. and  whoever 
peruses  Brooke's  book  carefully  will  find,  that  what  siamg 
him  most  was,  that  a  schoolmaster  shouU  meddle  with 
descents  and  families,  and  at  ;the  same  time  treat  betaidi 
iritb  so  little  respept. 

>  As  soon  as  Cankden  found  his  health  re^establishi^,  h% 
made  a  journey  to  Salisbury  and  Wales,  and  xetamii^  b^ 
Oxford,  spent  some  time  in  that  city,  taking  notes  in  tb« 
churches  and  chdpels  there,  which  Wood  ^ys  he  had  neen 
in  the  author's  band-^writing  ;  and  bishop  Gibson  ;speaks  of 
fragments  of  them  as^  still  remainingv  In  1591  he  had  d 
fresh  illness^  from  which  b^  recovered  by. tbe  care  of  on# 
Mrs.  Line,  wife  of  Cuthbert  Line,  to  whose  house  he  re^ 
moved.  This  year  he  published  his  Greek  gmmmar  for 
the  use  of  Westminster*  school,  entitled  ^^  Grammaticet 
Grseooa  institutio  compendiaria  in  usum  regis^  scholse  West^ 
monasteriensis,"  London,  Svo,  which,  when  Dr.  Smith 
published  his  life^  in  1691,  had  run  through  forty  impress 
sions.  Dr.  Crrant  had  eon>posed  one  before,  bot  Mr. 
Camden  thought  it  deficient  and  inconvenient  Wood  says 
he  contracted  it, 

At  this  time  be  probably  entertained  no  thoughts  of 
quitting  a  post  in  which: he  was  universally  esteemed  and 
riespected*     He  refused  the  place  of  master  of  requests^ . 
offered  him  probably  by  lord  treasurer  Burleigh.     B«t 

Vol.  VIIL  I 

11*  CAMDEN. 

before  the  end  of  the  year  he  quitted  it  for  one  in  the  He- 
ralds' college.  Richard  Leigh,  Clarencieux  king  at  arms, 
dying  Sept.  23,  sir  Fuik  Greville,  Camden's  intimate 
friend,  solicited  that  office  for  him,  which  was  immedi- 
ately granted.  But,  because  it  was  not  usual  for  a  person 
to  rise  to  that  dignity  without  having  iirst  been  a  herald, 
he  was  Oct.  22,  created  Richmond  herald,  and  the  next 
day  Clarencieux.  Bishop  Gibson  remarks,  that  lord  Bar-* 
leigh  was  offended  with  Camden  for  obtaining  this  prefer- 
ment by  any  other  interest  than  his ;  but,  on  Mr.  Camden's 
representing  it  to  be  the  free  thought  of  sir  Fulk  Greville, 
he  was  reconciled  to  him,  and  continued  his  patronage 
during  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

Being  now  more  at  liberty,  he  travelled  in  1600  as  faf 
as  Carlisle,  with  his  intimate  friend  Mr.  (afterwards  sir) 
Robert  Cotton,  and  having  surveyed  the  northern  counties, 
returned  to  London  in  December.  Thi«  year  he  published 
his  account  of  the  monuments  in  Westminster  abbey, 
'^  Reges,  ReginsB,  Nobiles,  et  alii  in  ecclesia  collegiata 
B.  Petri  Westmonasterii  sepulti,  usque  ad  annum  reparatas 
salutis  1600,"  4to;  which,  though  no  more  than  a 'collec- 
tion of  epitaphs,  has  preserved  many  that  have  been  sined 
destroyed  or  effaced.  He  reprinted  it  with  enlargeVnentis 
in  1603,  anii  1606.  This  year  also,  c^me  out  a  fifth 
(edition  of  his  Britannia,  to  which  he  added  ^^  An  apology 
to  the  reader,"  in  answer  to  what  Rfilph  Brooke  had  pub- 
lished to  the  prejudice  of  bis  work.  The  original  difier- 
43nce  related  only  to  some  niistakes  which  Brooke  imagined 
he  had  discovered.  But  when  he  fancied  himself  under 
the  necessity  of  appealing  to  the  world  and  to  the  earl  of 
Essex,  then  earl  marshal,  and  his  patron,  he  brought  in 
other  oiatter,  foreign  to  his  purpose,  charging  Camden 
with  errors  in  the  pedigrees  of  noble  fafe^ilies,  with  not  ac- 
iLuowledgiug  the  assistance  he  derived  from  Glover's  papers 
in  lord  Burleigh'^  libraiy,  and  from'  Leland,  whom  he  pre^^ 
tends  be  had  pillaged  largely.  Camden,  in  answer,  ac-^ 
knoiwledges  himself  to  have  beien  misled  by  one  of  his 
predecessors,  Robert  Cook,  clarencieux ;  that  he  had  in- 
deed borrowed  from  Leiandy  but  not  Without  citing  him, 
and  that  where  he  says  the  same  things  on  bis  own  know^ 
ledge,  that  Leland  had  mentioned  on  his^  he  did  not  think 
himself  obliged  to  him  ;  and  xhat  whereas  Leland  had  spent 
five  years  in  this  pursuit,  he  had  ^pent  thirty  in  consulting 
author^  both  foreign  and  doiii^<^i<;,  living  and  dead.     Ht^ 

CAMDEN.  lis 

.concludes  with  rallying  his  antagonist,  as  utterly  ignorant 
of.  his  own  profession,  incapable  of  translating  or  under- 
standing the  Britannia,  and  offers  to  submit  the  disputed 
points  to  the  earl  marshal,  the  college  of  heralds,  the  so- 
ciety of  antiquaries,  or  four  persons  learned  in  these  stiji- 
dies.  This  did  not  prevent  Brooke  from  writing  *'  A  Se- 
cond Discoverie  of  Errors,"  in  which  he  sets  down  the 
passages  from  Camden,  with  his  objections  to  it  in  his  first 
book ;  then  Camden's  reply,  and  last  of  all,  his  own  an- 
swer:  and  in  the  appendix  in  two  columns,  the  objection- 
able passages  in  the  edition  of  1594,  and  the  same  as  they 
stood  in  that  of  1600.  This  was  not  printed  till  about  100 
years  after  the  death  of  its  author,  by  Mr.  Austis,  in  1723, 
4to.  The  story  which  Mr.  Camden,  in  his  Annals,  and  Pr, 
Smith  tell.of  Brooke's  dirty  treatment  of  sir  William  Segar, 
another  officer  in  the  college,  whom  he  had  a  pique  against, 
in  161u>,  will  justify  us  in  believing  hioj  capable  of  any 
thing*  .     '         .  ■       • 

In  1602,  jWr.  Camden  was  again  visited  by  a  fever,  from 
which  he  was  recovered  by  the  care  of  bis  friend  Mr. 
Heather,  afterwards  the  founder  of  the  music  lecture  at 
Oxford.  He  escaped  the  plague  in  1,603,  by  returning  to 
his  friend  Cotton's  seat  at.  Connington ;  and  this  year  a 
collection  of  .our  historians,  Asser,  Walsingham,  De  la 
More,  Gul.  Gemeticensis,  Gir.  Cambrensis,  &c.  inade  by 
him,  part  of  which  had  been  incorrectly  published  before, 
was  printed  at  Frankfort,  in  folio.  In  the  dedication  to 
sir  Fulk  Greville,  he  apologizes  for  this  publication,  as 
having  laid  aside  the  design  he  had  once  formed,  of  writing 
an  history  of  England,  Mr.  Gough  here  remarks  that 
great  stress  has  been  laid  on  a  supposed  insertion  by  Cani»- 
den,  of  a  passage  in  Asser,  ascribing  the  foundation  of  the 
university  pf  Oxford  to  Alfred,  and  Mr.  Gough  seems  in- 
clined to  acquit  Camden  of  the  crime  of  inserting  what  was 
not  in  the  original.  We  are  of  the  same  opinion,  yet, 
after  perusing  what  Mr.  Whitaker  has  advanced  on  this 
subject,  in  his  life  of  St.  Neot,  it  seems  utterly  impossible 
to  deny  that  the  passage  is  a  forgery. 

Camden's  next  publication  is  entitled  "Remainesof  a 
greater  work  concerning  Britain,  the  inhabitants  thereof, 
their  language,  names,  surnames,  empresses,  wise  speeches, 
poesies,  and  epitaphs,"  London,  1605,  4to.  In  his  dedi- 
cation to  sir  Robert  Cotton,  dated  1603,  and  signed  only 
Iby  his  initials^  he  calls  it  '^  the  outcast  rubbish  pf  a  greater 


116  CAMDEN. 

and  more  serious  work  ;*'  so  that  Dr.  Sinith  mistakes  wheii 
he  dates  its  publication  1604,  contrary  to  the  express  note 
of  its  author  in  his  Diary.  The  number  of  the  editions  it 
has  run  through  (not  less  than  seven),  and  the  additions 
made  to  it  in  1636,  or  earlier,  by  sir  John  Philipbt,  Somer- 
set herald,  and  W.  D.  gent  are  proofs  of  its  value,  not- 
withstanding the  slight  put  upon  it  by  bishop  Nicolson. 
It  is  a  kind  of  common  place  from  his  Britannia,  and  ha3 
preserved  a  number  of  curious  things.  Many  other  of  hia 
lesser  essays  have  been  printed  by  Hearne  in  bis  "  Collec- 
tion of  cunous  discourses,*'  and  more  were  added  tQ,the  se- 
cond edition  of  that  work  in  177 1 ;  which  may  be  considered 
as  the  earliest  transactions  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  of 
which  Mr.  Camden  was  a  distinguished  member. 

In  1606,  Mr.  Camden  began  a  correspondence  with  the 
celebrated  president  De  Thou,  which  was  continued  till 
the  death  of  the  latter.  Five  of  the  president's  letters,  end- 
ing 1615,  are  printed  by  Dr.  Smith  among  Camden's  Epis- 
tles, 54,  59j  71,  99,  111,  acknowledging  the  information 
he  received  from  him  relative  to  the  affairs  of  this  island. 

Upon  the  discovery  of  the  powder-plot,  the  king  think- 
ing it  proper  to  put  the  reformed  churches  abroad  on  their 
guard  against  the  enemies  of  their  religion,  as  well  as  to 
satisfy  foreign  princes  of  all  religions  of  the  justice  of  bis 
proceedings,  made  choice  of  Mr.  Camden  to  translate  the 
whole  account  of  the  trial  of  the  conspirators  into  Latin, 
which  he  performed  with  great  accuracy,  elegance,  and 
spirit  It  was  published  in  1607,  4to,  by  John  Norton  the 
king's  printer,  under  the  title  of  **  Actio  iu  Henricum 
Garnetum  societatis  Jesuiticae  in  Anglia  superiorem  et 
cseteros  qui  proditione  longe  immanissima  sereniss.  Brit. 
Mag.  regem  et  regni  Anglise  ordines  e  medio  toUere  coiia- 
bantur,"  &c.  and  presently  was  put  into  the  list  of  books 
prohibited  by  the  inquisition. 

Mr.  Camden  being  confined  many  months  in  conse- 
quence of  a  hurt  in  his  leg  by  a  fall  from  his  horse,  Sept  7, 
1607,  employed  himself  in  putting  the  last  hand  to  the 
complete  edition  of  bis  Britannia  in  folio,  considerably 
augmented,  adorned  with  maps,  and  applauded  by  a  variety 
of  poetical  compliments  from  his  friends  both  at  home  and 
abroad.  He  did  not  to  the  last  give  up  thoughts  of  re- 
vising and  enlarging  it,  for  in  1621^  we  find  him  at  Sand- 
hurst in  Kent,  searching  without  success  for  a  camp  of 
Alexander  Severus^   who  was,    without  any  foundation, 

CAMDEN.  117 

supposed  to  hare  been  killed  there  instead  of  at  Sisila  or 
Sicila  in  Gaul.  Dr.  Smith  gave  Mr.  Hearnei  who  left  it' 
to  the  Bodleian  library,  a  copy  of  the  last  edition  of  the 
Britannia,  with  notes  and  emendations  by  Mr.  Camden 
himself,  in  the  margin  and  on  little  pieces  of  paper  fixed 
in  their  proper  places ;  and  from  this  copy  Heame  onoe 
had  thoughts  of  publishing  a  new  edition  of  the  Britannia 
in  the  original  language.  Before  Camden  undertook  this 
elaborate  and  finished  work,  he  had  formed  a  design  for 
writing  a  general  history  of  this  nation  in  Latin,  of  which 
the  account  of  the  conquest  inserted  in  the  Britannia,  ar« 
tide  Normans,  is  a  part:  but  foreseeing  that  the  bate 
collecting  materials  would  take  up  a  man's  life,  he  con^ 
tented  himself  with  publishing  the  volume  of  original  histo- 
rians before  mentioned, 

.  Not,  however,  to  neglect  the  leisure  he  now  enjoyed,  he 
began  in  1608  to  digest  the  matter  which- he  had  been 
years  collecting  towards  a  history  of  the  reign  of  queea 
Elizabeth,  to  which  he  had  been  first  incited  by  his  old 
patron  the  lord  treasurer  in  1597,  ten  years  before,  and 
solicited  by  other  great  personages.  But  the  death  of 
Burleigh  next  year,  the  queen's  decease  soon  after,  and 
the  difficulty  of  the  task,  obliged  him  to  defer  it  While  he 
was  meditating  this  great  work,  he  was  seized  on  his  birth* 
day,  1609,  with  a  dangerous  illness,  and  the  plague  breaki* 
ing  out  in  bis  neighbourhood,  he  was  removed  to  his  friend 
Heather's  house,  and  by  the  care  of  his  physician  Dr.  Gif« 
fsrd,  be,  though  slowly,  recovered  bis  health,  retired  to 
Cbiselhurst  Aug.  15  of  that  year,  and  returned  Oct.  23. 
This  year  upon  the  passing  of  the  act  to  erect  a  college  at 
Chelsea,  for  a  certain  number  of  learned  men,  who  were 
to  be  employed  in  writing  against  popery,  on  a  plan  pro* 
posed  by  Dr.  SutclifFe,  dean  of  Westminster,  consistuig  of 
a  dean  or  provost,  seventeen  fellows  and  two  historians^ 
Mr.  Camden  was  appointed  one  of  the  latter.  But  this 
design  failing,  as  we  have  more  than  once  had  occasion  to 
notice,  he  received  from  it  only  the  honour  of  being 
thought  qualified  to  fill  such  a  department.  From  this  time 
his  history  of  Elizabeth  employed  his  whole  aittention,  and 
when  the  first  part  was  ready,  which  reached  to  the  year 
1589^  he  obtained  the  king's  warrant  to  sir  Robert  Cotton 
and  himself  to  print  and  publish  it.  It  was  accordingly 
pubiiafaed  iu  1615,  folio,  uiidef  the  title  oi  ^'Annalei 



rerum  Anglicarum  et  Hibernicarum  regnante  Elizabeth&  ad 
aun.  salutis  1589/'  Loud. 

His  impartiality  has  been  attacked  on  seTeral  parts  of 
this  work.     He  has  been  charged  with  being  influenced  in 
his  account  of  the  queen  of  Scots  by  complaisance  for  her 
son,  and  with  contradictions  in  the  information  given  by 
him  to  M.  deThouy  and  his  own  account  of  the  same  parti ^ 
culars.     It  is  not  to  be  wondered  if  James  made  his  own 
corrections  on  the  MS.  which  his  warrant  sets  forth  he  had 
perused  before  he  permitted  it  to  be  published.     It  was  no 
easy  matter  to  speak  the  truth  in  that  reign  of  flattery  in 
points   where  filial  piety  and  mean  ambition  divided  the 
mind  of  the  reigning  monarch.     An  English  historian  in 
such  a  reign  could  not  indulge  the  same  freedom  as  Thua- 
nus.     The  calumnies  cast  upon  him  for  his  detail  of  Irish 
affairs  were  thought  by  him  beneath  the  notice  his  friends 
wanted  to  take  of  them.     But  though  he  declined  adding 
his  own  justification  to  that  which  the  government  of  Ire- 
land thought  proper  to  publish  of  their  own  conduct,    we 
have  the  letters  he  wrote  on  the  subject  to  archbishop  Usher 
and  others  ;  and  it  had  this  effect  on  him,  that  he  declined 
publishing  in  his  life-time  the  second  part  of  his  history, 
which  he  completed  in  1617.    He  kept  the  original  by  him, 
which  was  preserved  in  the  Cottonian  library,  and  sent  an 
exact  copy  of  it  to  his  friend  Mr.  Dupuy,  who  had  given, 
him  the  strongest  assurances  that  he  would  punctually  per^ 
form  the  duty  of  this  important  trust,  and  faithfully  kept 
bis  word.     It  was  first  printed  at  Leyden,  1625,  8vo,  again 
London,   1627,   folio,    Leyden,  1639,  8vo,  &c.     But  the 
most  correct  edition  of  the  whole  is  that  by  Hearne.from 
Dr.  Smith's  copy  corrected  by  Mr.  Camden's  .  own   hand, 
collated  with  another- MS.  in  Mr.Rawlinson's  library.  Both 
parts  were  translated  into  French  by  M.  Paul  de  Belligent, 
^  advocate  in  the  parliament  of  Paris  ;  and  from  thence  into 
English  with  many  errors,  by  one  Abraham  D'Arcy,  who 
did  not  understand  English.     The  materials  whence  Cam- 
den compiled  this  history  are. most  of  them  to  be.  found  in 
the  Cottonian  library.     We  learn  from  a  MS  letter  of  Dr. 
Goodman's,  that  he   desired  them  as  a  legacy,   but  re- 
ceived   for    answer,    that   they    had   been  .  promised    to 
archbishop  Bancroft,    upon  whose   death   he  transferred 
them  to  his  successor  Abbot,   and  archbishop  Laud  said 
tbey  were  deposited  in  the  palace  at  Lambeth^  but  where" 

CAMDEN.  119 

ever  they  were  archbishop  Sancroft  could  not  find  one  of 

From  this  time  he  seems  to  have  lived  in  retirement  at 
Chiselhurst,  declining  the  solicitations  of  his  friend  Saville, 
to  make  his  house  at  Eton  his  own,  and  to  have  amused 
himself  with  entering  memoranda  of  events  as  they  hap- 
pened, which  have  been  printed  at  the  end  of  his  epistles 
by  Dr.  Smith,  and  called  "  Apparatus  annalium  regis  Ja- 
cobi  L"  These  are  called  by  Wood  **  A  skeleton  of  a  his- 
tory of  James  L  or  bare  touches  to  put  the  author  in  mind 
of  greater  matters,"  or  rather  memoranda  for  private  use. 
He  adds,  bishop  Hacket  stole,  and  Dugdale  borrowed  and 
transcribed  them,  as  did  sir  Henry  St.  George,  Clarencieux, 
both  incorrectly.  The  original  is  in  Trinity  coHege,  Cam* 
bridge,  and  Dr.  Smith  printed  these  and  parts  of  an  Eng* 
lish  Diary. 

On  Feb.  10,  1619,  he  was  seized  with  a  vomiting  of  blood, 
which  brought  on  a  deliquium,  and  continued  at  intervals 
till  August  following.  In  June  this  year,  he  had  a  dispute 
with  his  brother  kings  Garter  and  Norroy,  about  the  ap- 
pointment of  his  deputies  to  visit  for  him,  which,  though 
founded  partly  on  a  mistake,  did  not  prevent  their  com- 
plaining to  the  commissioners  for  executing  the  office  of 
earl  marshal.  He  vindicated  himself  in  his  answer  to  the 
earl  of  Arundel,  and  the  matter  seems  to  have  ended  hereii 
In  the  beginning  of  1621,  he  was  consulted  by  lord  chan* 
cellor  Bacon  on  the  ceremonies  requisite  for  creating  him 
viscount  St.  Alban's,  which  was  performed  Jan.  27  follow- 
ing. In  June  that  year,  he  Assisted  in  Westminster-hall, 
at  the  execution  of  a  very  extraordinary  sentence  of  de- 
gradation passed  in  parliament  on  sir  Francis  Mitchell,  knt. 
for  the  monopolies  which  had  oppressed  the  inn-holders: 
his  spurs  were  broken  in  pieces,  and  thrown  away  by  the 
servants  of  the  esurl  marshal,  his  sword  broken  over  his 
head,  and  himself  declared  an  arrant  knave,  as  sir  Andrew 
Harcla  had  formerly  been  treated.  The  king  at  arms  sat 
at  the  feet  of  the  lord- commissioners  during  the  whole  pro- 

On  the  last  day  of  August  the  same  year,  he  was  seized 
with  a  return  of  his  old  disorder,  but  happily  recovered. 
This,  added  to  his  advanced  age,  determined  him  to  putig; 
execution  hiis  intention  of  founding  an  history  lecture  at 
Oxford.  Accordingly  in  May  1622,  he  sent  down  his  deed 
of  gifi  by  the  bands  of  bis  friend  Mr.  William  Heather^ 

120  CAMDEN- 

dated  March  5, 1 621-2.  On  May  1 7,  Dr.  Piers,  dean  of  Pe- 
terborough, and  vice-chancellor  of  the  university,  declared 
the  foundation  in  full  convocation,  and  its  endowment  with 
the  manor  of  Bexley  in  Kent,  which  be  had  bought  of  sir 
Henry  Spilman,  jeweller  to  James  I. ;  the  rents  and  pro- 
fits of  which,  valued  at  about  4002.  per  annum,  were  to  be 
enjoyed  by  Mr.  Heather,  his  heirs  and  executors,  for 
ninety-nine  years  from  the  death  of  Mr.  Camden,  the  said 
Mr.  Heather  paying  the  professor  of  this  new  foundation 
140/.  per  annum ;  and  at  the  expiration  of  the  said  term 
the  whole  to  be  vested  in  the  university.  They  expressed 
their  acknowledgments  in  a  letter  of  thanks,  and  conferred 
the  degree  of  doctor  of  music  on  Mr.  Heather,  organist  of 
the  chapel  royal,  and  on  Mr.  Orlando  Gibbons,  another  of 
Mr.  Camdeu^s  intimate  acquaintance.  In  return  for  this 
compliment,  Mr.  Heather  founded  a  music  lecture  at  Ox- 
ford, and  endowed  it  with  the  annual  revenue  of  16/.  6s.  Sd. 
Mr.  Camden  himself,  at  the  recommendation  of  his  friend 
Thomas  Allen,  appointed  his  first  professor  Degory  Wheare, 
A.  M.  fellow  of  Exeter  college,  assigned  him  20/.  for  the 
first  year,  40/.  for  the  second,  and  after  the  third  he  was  to 
enjoy  the  full  stipend.  Thus  Camden  fulfilled  the  vow 
with  which  he  closes  his  Britannia,  to  dedicate  some  votive 
tablet  to  God  and  antiquity. 

On  August  18, 1623,  as  Mr.  Camden  was  atting  thought- 
fully in  his  chair,  he  suddenly  lost  the  use  of  his  hands  and 
feet,  and  fell  down  on  the  floor,  but  presently  recovered 
his  strength,  and  got  up  again  without  receiving  any  hurt 
This  accident  was  followed  by  a  severe  fit  of  illness,  which 
ended  in  his  death,  Nov.  9,  1623,  at  his  house  at  Chisel- 
hurst,  in  the  seventy-third  year  of  his  age. 

In  his  last  testament,  after  a  devout  introduction,  and  be- 
queathing eight  pounds  to  the  poor  of  the  parish  in  which 
he  should  happen  to  die,  he  bequeaths  to  sir  Fulke  Grevile, 
lord  Brooke,  who  preferred  him  gratis  to  his  office,  a  piece 
of  plate  of  ten  pounds ;  to  the  company  of  painter  stainers 
of  London,  he  gave  sixteen  pounds  to  buy  them  a  piece  of 
plate,  upon  which  he  directed  this  inscription,  **  GuL  Cam- 
denus  Clareneeux  fifins  Saropsonis,  Pictoris  Londinensis, 
dono  dedit  ;'*  he  bestowed  the  sum  of  twelve  pounds  on  the 
•ompany  of  cordwainers,  or  shoemakers  of  London,  to 
purchase  them  a  piece  of  plate,  on  which  the  came  inscrip* 
tion  was  to  be  »)graved.  Then  follow  the  legacies  to  his 
private  firiends.    As  to  hb  books  and  papery  lie  directi 

V»  •  ■"T'  ••■  '"• 



that  sir  Hphert  Cotton  of  Coaingtoo,  should  tftke  out  sucb^ 
as  be  had  borrowed  of  him,  and  then  he  bequeaths  to  him 
all  his  printed  books  and  manuscripts,  excepting  such  a$ 
concern  arms  and  heraldry,  which,  with  his  ancient  seals^ 
he  bequeaths  to  his  successor  in  the  of&ce  of  Clarenceux, 
provided,  because  they  cost  him  a  considerable  sum  of 
money,  he  gave  to  his  cousin  John  Wyat,  what  the  kings 
at,  arms  Garter  and  Norroy  for  the  time  being  should 
think  fit,  and  agreed  also  to  leave  them  to  his  successor* 
But  notwithstanding  this  disposition  of  his  books  and  papers^ 
Dr.  John  Williams,  then  dean  of  Westminster,  and  bishop 
of  Lincoln,  afterwards  archbishop  of  York,  procured,  all 
the  printed  books  for  the  new  library  erected  in  the  church 
of  ^Vestminster.  It  is  understood,  that  his  collections  in 
support,  of  his  History,  with  respect  to  civil  affairs^  were, 
before  this  time  deposited  in  the  Cotton  library  ;  for  as  to 
those  that  related  to  ecclesiastical  matters,  when  asked  for 
them  by  Dr.  Goodman,  son  to  his  great  benefactor,  he  de- 
clared he  stood  engaged  to  Dr.  Bancroft,  archbishop  of  Can- 
terbury. They  came  afterwardi'to  archbishop  Laud,  and  are 
supposed  to  have  been  destroyed  when  his  papers  fell  into  the 
hands  of  Mr.  Prynne,  Mr.  Scot,  and  Hugh  Peter$ ;  for  upon 
a  diligent  search  made  by  Dr.  Sancroft,  soon  after  his  pro- 
motion to  that  see,  there  was  not  a  line  of  them  to  be  found,, 
as  we  have  already  mentioned.  His  body  was  removed  to 
his  house  in  London,  and  on  the  19th  of  November,  carried 
in  g^eat  pomp  to  Westminster  abbey,  and  after  a  sermon 
preached  by  Dr.  Christopher  Sutton,  was  deposited  in  the 
south  aile,  near  the  learned  Casaubon,  and  over  against 
.Chaucer.  Near  the  spot  was  erected  a  handsome  monu-^ 
ment  of  white  marble,  with  an  inscription,  erroneous  as  to 
his  age,  which  is  stated  to  be  seventy-four,  whereas  h^ 
wanted  almost  six  months  of  seventy -three.  At  Oxford^ 
Zouch  Townley,  of  Christ  Church,  who  was  esteemed  a 
perfect  master  of  the  Latin  tongue  in  all  its  purity  and  ele-- 
gance,  was  appointed  to  pronounce  his  funeral  oration  in 
public,  which  is  printed  by  Dr.  Smith.  The  verses  written 
on  his  death  were  collected  and  pripted  in  a  thiq  quarto^ 
entitled  ^Insignia  Camdeni,"  Ox.  1624,  and  his  name 
was  enrolled  in  the  list  of  public  benefactors. 

Camden's  personal  character  is  drawn  by  lusbop  Gibson 
in  few  words :  that  he  was  ^^  easy  md  innooent  in  his  oon-^ 
versation^  and  in  his  whole  life  even  and  e:s^eiiiplary.*'    W^ 

122  CAMDEN. 

bave  seen  him  unruffled  by  the  attacks  of  envy^  which  his  me^ 
rit  and  good  fortune  drew  upon  him.  He  seems  to  have  stu- 
died that  tranquillity  of  temper  which  tlie  love  of  letters  ge- 
nerally superinduces,  and  to  which  one  may,  perhaps,  ra- 
tionally ascribe  his  extended  life.  The  point  of  view  in 
which  we  are  to  set  him,  is  as  a  writer  ;  and  here  he  stands 
foremost  among  -British  antiquaries.  Varro,  Strabo,  and 
Pausanias,  among  the  ancients,  fall  short  in  the  compari- 
son ;  and  however  we  may  be  obliged  to  the  two  latter  for 
their  descriptions  of  the  world,  or  a  small  portion  of  it,  Cam- 
den's description  of  Britain  must  be  allowed  the  pre-emi- 
nence, even  though  we  should  admit  that  Leland  marked 
out  the  pl^n,  of  which  he  filled  up  the  outlines.  A  crowd 
of  contemporaries,  all  admirable  judges  of  literary  merit, 
and  his  correspondents,  bear  testimony  to  his  merit.  Among 
these  may  be  reckoned  Ortelius,  Lipsius,  Scaliger,  Ca- 
saubon,  Merula,  De  Thou,  Du  Chesne,  Peiresc,  Bignon, 
Jaque  Godefre,  Gruter,  Hottoman,  Du  Laet,  ChytraBus, 
Gevartius,  Lindenbrogius,  Mercator,  Pontanus,  Du  Puy, 
Rutgersius,  Schottus,  Sweertius,  Limier,  with  many  others 
of  inferior  note.  Among  his  countrymen,  dean  Goodman 
and  his  brother,  lord  Burleigh,  sir  Robert  Cotton,  Dr. 
(afterwards  archbishop)  Usher,  sir  Philip  Sidney,  and  arch- 
bishop PsCrker,  were  the  patrons  of  his  literary  pursuits,  as 
the  Arst  two  had  befriended  him  in  earliest  life :  and  if 
to  these  we  add  the  names  of  Allen,  Carleton,  Savllle, 
Stradling,  Carew,  Johnston,  Lambarde,  Mathews,  Spel- 
man,  Twyne,  Wheare,  Owen,  Spenser,  Stowe,  Thomas  ' 
James,  Henry  Parry,  afterwards  bishop  of  Worcester, 
Miles  Smith,  afterwards  bishop  of  Gloucester,  Richard 
Hackluyt,  Henry  Cuff,  Albericus  Gentilis,  John  Hanmer, 
sir  William  Beecher,  Dr.  Budden,  Dr.  Case»  sir  Christo- 
pher Heydon,  bishop  Godwin,  Richard  Parker,  Thomas 
Ryves,  besides  others  whose  assistance  he  acknowledges 
in  the  course  of  his  Britannia,  we  shall  find  no  inconsi- 
derable bede-roU  of  associates,  every  one  of  them  more  or 
less  eminent  in  the  very  study  in  which  they  assisted  Mn 
Camden,  or  were  assisted  by  him. 

Mr.  Camden  possessed  no  contemptible  vein  of  poetry^ 
as  may  be  seen  by  his  Latin  poem,  entitled  ^  Sylva,''  in 
praise  of  Roger  Ascham,  written  in  compliment  to  his 
fi4end  Dr.  Grant,  and  prefixed  to  his  edition  of  Ascham's 
Letters  i)i  Latin^  1(90,  12mo9  another  entitled  <<  Hiber- 

,       CAMDEN.  123 

nia :  an  hexastich  prefixed  to  Haklnyt's  Voyages ;  another 
to  sir  Clement  Edmondes'  translation  of  Caesar's  Commen- 
taries ;  another  to  Thomas  Rogers's  *'  Anatomy  of  the  hu- 
man mind,"  1576,  12mo.  He  wrote  also  ten  epitaphs^ 
the  most  remarkable  of  .which  is  that  for  the  queen  of 
Scots.  The  marriage  of  the  Tame  and  Isis,  of  which  he 
more  than  half  confesses  himself  the  author,  does  honour 
to  his  fancy,  style,  and  numbers. 

The  first  edition  of  his  Britannia  was  in  1586,  8vo,  and 
not  4to,  as  Mr.  Gough,  probably  by  a  slip  of  the  pen,  hasf 
noted ;  and  the  sixth  and  last  was  in  1607,  fol.  This  was 
the  first  with  maps.  There  were  also  several  editions 
printed  abroad.  The  first  translation  of  it  was  in  1610,  by 
Philemon  Holland,  who  was  thought  to  have  consulted 
Mr.  Camden  himself,  and  therefot'e  great  regard  has  beeii 
paid  by  subsequent  editors  to  his  additions  and  explana- 
tions. Mr.  Camden's  MS  supplement  to  this  edition  of 
1610,  in  the  Bodleian  library,  expressly  cautions  the  rea- 
der to  hold  only  his  "  Latin  copy  for  autentiq,'*  but  this* 
bishop  Gibson  denies  ;  but  in  a  later  edition  of  his  transla* 
tion,  1637,  fol.  Holland  has  taken  unwarrantable  liberties. 
Mr.  Wanley  supposes  this  second  edition  was  published 
after  Holland's  death  in  1636,  the  title  being  like  a  book- 
seller's ;  and  that  he  made  the  translation  without  consult- 
ing Camden. 

The  Britannia  was  translated  in  1694  by  bishop  Gibson, 
and  published  in  folio,  with  large  additions  at  the  end  of 
,  each  county ;  others  are  inserted  in  the  body  of  the  book, 
distinguished  from  the  original,  and  Holland's  most  mate- 
rial notes  placed  at  the  bottom  of  each  page.  As  this  was 
grown  scarce,  and  many  improvements  were  communicated 
to  the  editor,  he  published  a  new  edition  1722,  2  vols.  fol. 
and  additions,  greatly  enlarged,  incorporated  with  the 
text,  distinguished  by  hooks.  This  edition  was  repririted 
1753,  2  vols.  fol.  and  again  in  1772, . 'with  a  few  correc- 
tions and  improvements  from  his  lordship's  MS.  in  his  own 
copy,  by  his  son-in-law,  George  Scot,  esq.  of  Wolston- 
hall,  near  Chigwell,  Essex,  who  died  .1780.  A  first  vo- 
lume of  a  translation,  by  W.  O.  (William  Oldys),  esq.  was 
printed  in  4to,  but,  as  Mr.  Gough  thinks,  was  never 
finished  or  dated.  A  manuscript  most  erroneous  transla- 
tion of  it,  without  acknowledgment,  l3y  Richard  Butcher, 
author  of  the  '^  Antiquities  of  Stamford,'*  is  in  St  John's 

124  CAMDEN. 

college  hbraiyi  Cambridge,  with  a  few  immaterial  addi^. 
tions.  The  last  and  most  complete  translation  of  the  Bri* 
tannia,  by  such  an  antiquary  as  Camden  would  have  chosen^ 
the  late  learned  and  excellent  Richard  Gougbi  esq.  wa{| 
published  in  1789,  3  vols.  fol.  of  which  we  shall  speak 
more  at  large  in  his  article.  Some  years  afterwards  he  had 
made  preparations  for  a  new  edition,  of  which  he  super- 
*intended  only  the  first  volume,  and  announced  that  fact  ii^ 
a  public  advertisement,  which  did  not,  however,  prevent 
an  attempt  to  pass  off  the  whole  of  a  recent  edition  as  his. 
Of  Mr.  Gough's  Life  of  Camden  we  have  here  availed 
ourselves,  as  far  preferable  to  the  ill-digested  cpmpilation 
in  the  Biog.  Britannica. 

It  only  remains  to  be  mentioned  that  Camden^s  house  at 
Chiselhurst  passed,  tt\rough  the  hands  of  several  possesr 
sors,  to  the  late  lord  Camden,  who  purchased  it  in  1765, 
and  enlarged  and  improved  the  mansion  and  grounds.  V 

CAMEkARIUS  (Joachim),  one  of  the  most  learned 
writers  of  his  age,  was  born  at  Bamberg  April  12,  1500. 
The  ancient  family  name  was  Leibh^rd,  but  it  was  afters- 
wards  changed  into  that  of  Cammermeister,  in  Latin  Car 
merarius,  or  Chamberlain,  from  one  of  his  ancestors  hav- 
ing held  that  ofHce  at  court.  He  was  sent  to  a  school  at 
Leipsic  when  he  was  13  years  of  age,  and  soon,  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  application  to  Greek  and  Latin  au- 
thors, which  be  read  without  ceasing.  When  Leipsic,  od 
one  occasion,  was  in  a  tumult,  Camerarius  shewed  no  con- 
cern about  any  thing  but  an  Aldus's  Herodotus,  which 
he  carried  under  his  arm ';  and  which  indeed  to  a  scholar 
at  that  time  was  of  some  consequence,  when  printing  was 
in  its  infancy,  and  Greek  books  not  easily  procured.  It  is 
yet  more  to  his  praise  that  his  Greek  pirofessor,  when 
obliged  to  be  absent,  entrusted  him  to  read  his  lecture^i 
although  at  that  time  be  was  but  sixteen  yea^rs  old.  In 
1517  he  studied  philosophy  under  Mosellanus;  and  this 
was  the  year,  when  the  indulgences  were  preached,  which 
gave  oeca&ion  to  the  reformation.  Camerarius  was  at  St. 
Paul's  church  in  Leipsic  with  Heltu%  who  was  bis  master 
in  Gr^eek  and  Latin  literature,  when  these  indulgences 
were  exposed  from  the  pulpit;  but  Heltus  was  ^o  offended 
with  the  impudence  of  the  Dominican  who  obtruded  tbem^ 


1  Lif«  in  Gouffh'ii  Camden.— Bio^.  Brit.«-Life  by  SmiOi*  1691,  4to,—AUi, 

Ox.  YOl.  I.  <IC. 

C  A  M  E  R  A  R  I  U  S.  125 

that  he  went  ont  of  the  charch  in  the  middle  of  the  sermoni 
and  ordered  Camerarius  to  follow  him.  When  he  had 
itaid  at  Leipsic  five  years,  he  went  to  Erford ;  and  three 
years  after  to  Wittemberg,  where  Luther  and  Melanctbon 
were  maintaining  and  propagating  the  reformation.  He 
knew Melancthon  before;  lived  afterwards  in  the  utmost 
intimacy  with  him ;  and,  after  Melancthon^s  death/  wrote 
a  very  copious  and  accurate  life  of  him.  He  was  also 
ioon  after  introduced  to  Erasmus,  and  his  uncommon  abi« 
lities  and  industry  made  him  known  to  all  the  eminent 
men  of  his  tttne. 

In  1525,  when  there  was  an  insurrection  among  the 
common  people  through  all  Germany,  commonly  called 
the  war  of  the  peasants,  Camerarius  went  into  Prussia,  but 
he  retiirned  very  soon,  and  was  made  professor  of  the 
belles  lettres  in  an  university  which  th^  senate  of  Nurem- 
berg had  just  founded  under  the  direction  and  superiiiten- 
dency  of  Melancthon.  In  1526,  when  the  diet  of  Spires 
was  held,  Albert  earl  of  Mansfelt  was  appointed  ambassa* 
dor  to  Charles' V.  of  Spain,  and  Camerarius  to  attend  him 
as  his  Latin  interpreter ;  but  this  embassy  being  suspended, 
Camerarius  went  no  farther  than  Eslingen,  whence  he  re- 
turned home,  and  was  married  the  year  after  to  Anne 
Truchses,  a  lady  of  an  ancient  and  noble  family,  with 
whom  he  lived  forty-six  years  very  happily,  and  had  four 
daughters  and  five  sons  by  her,  who  all  did  honour  to  their 
family.  In  1530,  the  Senate  of  Nuremberg  sent  him  with 
some  other  persons  to  the  diet  of  Augsburgh,  and  four 
years  after  offered  him  the  place  of  secretary;  but,  pre- 
ferring the  ease  and  freedom  of  a  studious  life  to  all  ad- 
vantages of  a  pecuniary  nature,  he  refused  it.  In  1538, 
Ulric  princiB  of  Wittemberg  sent  him  to  Tubingen,  to  re- 
store the  discipline  and  credit  of  that  university ;  and  in 
i54l,  Henry,  duke  of  Saxony,  and  afterwards  Maurice  his 
son,  invited  him  to  Leipsic,  to  direct  and  assist  in  found- 
ing an  university  there. 

When  Luther  w4s  dead^  and  Germany  at  war,  Came- 
rarius experienced  very  great  hardships,  Leipsic  being 
besieged  by  the  elector  of  Saxony,  on  which  account  he 
tembved  all  his  effects  with  his  Tamily  to  Nuremberg,  not 
hiiWever  without  considerable  loss,  and  did  not  return  till  tha 
war  was  at  an  end.  In  1556  he  went  with  Melancthon  to 
the  diet  of  Nuremberg ;  arid  attended  him  the  year  after  to 
that  of  Ratisbon.     After  spending  a  life  of  literary  labour 

126  C  A  M  E  R  A  R  I  U  8. 

and  fame,  be  died  at  Leipsic^  April  17,  1575,  surviving 
bis  wife  not  quite  a  year ;  and  Melcbior  Adam,  relates,  that 
he  never  recovered  this  shock.  Among  his  friends  were 
Jerome  Baumgartner,  Carlovitcb,  Melanctbou,  Petrug 
Victorius,  Turnebus,  Hieronymus  Wolfius,  apd  in  short, 
almost  all  the  great  men  of  his  time.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  to  Melanctbon,  what  Atticus  was  to  Cicero,  an  ad- 
viser, Counsellor,  assistant,  and  friend  upon  all  occasions ; 
SiuSi  that,  when  Melanctbon* s  wife  died  during  bis  absence 
at  the  diet  of  Worms,  Camerarius  quitted  all  bis  concerns 
at  home,  however  necessary  and  requiring  his  presence, 
and  immediately  set  off  on  purpose  to  comfort  him. 

Bis  labours  in  the  li|terary  republic  were  prodigious. 
He  wrote  a  vast  number  of  book^,  among  which  are  the 
lives  of  Melanctbon  and  Hessius,  and  ^^  Commentaries  on 
the  New  Testament,  grammatical  and  critical,'*  printed  with 
Beza's  Greek  Testament,  Cambridge,  1642,  fol.  He  like- 
wise published  a  catalogue  of  the  bishops  of  the  principal 
sees ;  Greek  epistles ;  itineraries  in  Latin  verse ;  epigrams 
of  the  ancient  Greek  poets ;  a  commentary  oh  Plautus, 
&c.  But  he  was  perhaps  a  greater  benefactor  to  the  stu* 
dents  of  his  time  by  the  translations  be  made  from  many  of 
the  anci^eht  authors.  Greek  was  but  little  understood,  and 
to  facilitate  the  learning  of  that  language,  he  translated 
Herodotus,  Demosthenes,  Xenophon,  Euclid,  Homer, 
Theocritus,  Sophocles,  Lucian,.  Theodoret,  Nicepborus, 
&c.  Melcbior  Adam  says,  that  "  be  studied  incessantly, 
within  doors  and  without,  up  and  in  bed,  on  a  journey,  and 
in  hours  even  of  recreation ;  that  he  learned  French  and 
Italian  when  he  was  old ;  that  be  had  but  a  smattering  of 
Hebrew ;  that  he  understood  Greek  well ;  and  that  in  Latin 
he  was  inferior  to  none."  Turnebus,  Henry  Stephens, 
Lipsius,  Beza,  Scaliger,  Thuanus,  and  Vossius,  all  speak 
of  him  in  the  highest  terms. .  Erasmus  only  said  he  owed 
more  to  industry  than  to  nature,  which  might,  however, 
apply  to  the  uncommon  care  he  took  in  remedying  her 
defects;  but  this  opinion  does  not  correspond  with  that 
of  any  of  his  contemporaries.  In  private  character  he  was  a 
man  of  great  goodness  of  disposition,  great  humanity,  can* 
dour,  and  sincerity  in  his  searches  after  truth.  ^ 

CAMERARIUS  (Joachim),  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
born  at  Nuremberg,  in   1534,   and  there  first  educated. 

^  Gen*  Dict.-^NiceroD>  who  gives  a  catalogue  of  bis  works. — Saxi?  Onomast. 

C  A  M  E  R  A  R  I  U  S.  127 

As  bis  mind  was  early  turned  to  the  study  of  botany  and 
medicine,  wttb  tbe  view  of  improying  himself  he  visited 
the  principal  seminaries  in  Germany,  and  thence  went  to 
Padua,  and  afterwards  to  Bologna,  where  he  took  the  degree 
of  doctor  in  1 562.  Two  years  after  he  returned  to  Nu- 
lemberg,  and  by  his  superior  skill  and  ability,  seemed  the 
legitimate  inheritor  of  his  father's  fame.  In  1592,  be 
founded  a  medical  college,  of  which  he  was  appointed  dean 
or  president,  and  continued  to  direct  its  affairs  for  tbe  re« 
mainder  of  his  life.  He  formed  an  extensive  garden,  stored 
with  tbe  choicest  plants,  the  cultivation  of  which  be  su^ 
perintended  with  great  assiduity,  and  assisted  the  land* 
grave  of  Hesse  in  forming. a  botanical  garden  ;  and  with:a 
view  of  disseminating  the  knowledge  of  plants,  he  pur* 
chased  the  collections  of  Gesner  and  Wolfe,  which  he 
methodised)  and  corrected,  and  with  considerable  addi^ 
tions  frpm  his  own  stores,  together  with  the  works  of 
Matthiolus,  he  published  them  in  1586,  under  the  title  of 
^^  De  Plantis  Epitome  utilissima  Petri  Andreas  Mattbioli 
noyis  Iconibus  et  Descriptionibus  plurimis  diligenter 
aucta,''  4to.  <<  Hortus  Medicus  et  Philosopbicus,  in  quo 
plurimarum  Stirpium  braves*  Descriptiones,  novee  Icones 
non  paucas,  continentur,"  1^88,  4to.  "  Opercula  de  Re 
Rustioa^  quibus,  pcseter  alia,  Catalogus  Rei  BotanicsD  et 
Rustics^  Scriptorum  veterum  et  recentiorum  insertu^  est,*' 
1577,  4to.  Also  ^*  De  recta  et  necessaria  Ratione  presort 
vandi  a  Pestis  Contagion e,"  1583,  with  other  small  tracts 
on  the  same  subject,  and  three  centuries,  of  emblems.  On 
his  death,  which  happened  October  11,  1598,  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  his  son  Joachim  in  his  practice,  and  in  tbe  ho« 
nour  of  being  dean  of  the  college.— Euas  Rodolphus  Ca.- 
MEHARiifs,  and  bis  son  of  the  same  names,  appear  likewise 
to  have  been  of  the  same  femily,  and  were  physicians  of 
considerable  fame,  although  their  works  are  now  in  little 

CAMERON  (John),  one  of  the  most  famous  divines  of 
the  -seventeenth  century,  among  the  French  Protestants^ 
was  born  at  Glasgow,  ia  Scotland,  about  the  year  1530, 
and  educated  at  the  university  of  his  native  city.  After 
reading  lectures  on  the  Greek  language  for  a  year,  he  be* 
gan  his  travels  in  1 600,  and  at  Bourdeaux  evinced  so  much 

^  Gen.  Diet.— Niceron.  <-tedi  Onomast.— Halldr  Bibl.  Botan.-**R0es'fl  Cf- 


ability  and  erudition,  that  the  ministers  of  thab  city  ap- 
pointed him  master  of  a  college  which  they  bad  established 
at  Bergerac,  fov  teaching  Greek  and.  Latin ;  and  from  this 
the  duke  de  Bouillon  removed  him  to  the  philosophical 
professorship  at  Sedan,  where  he  remained  for  two  years. 
He  then  went  to  Paris,  and  from  Paris  to  Bourdeausr, 
where  he  arrived  in  1604,  and  began  his  divinity  stu- 
dies, and  in  1608  was  appointed  one  of  the  ministerit 
of  Bourdeanx,  and  officiated  there  with  snch  increasing 
r^utation,  that  the  university  of  Saumur  judged  him  wor-. 
thy  to  succeed  Gomarus  in  the  divinity  chair.  Having 
accepted  this  offer,  he  gave  his  lectures  until  1 620,  when 
the  university  was  almost  dispersed  by  the  civil  war*  He 
now  came  over  to  England  with  his  family,  and  was  re- 
commended to  king  James,  who  appointed  him  professor 
of  divinity  at  Glasgow,  in  the  room  of  Robert  Boyd,  of 
Trochrig,  (whom  Bayle  and  his  translators  call  Trochore- 
gius)y  because  he  was  supposed  to  be  more  attached  to  the 
episcopal  forni  of  church  government.  This  situation, 
however^  not  suiting  his  taste,  be  returned  to  Saumur  in 
less  than  a  year ;  but  even  there  he  met  with  opposition, 
and  the  court  having  prohibited  bis  public  teaching,  he  wa$ 
obliged  to  read  leetnres  in  private.  After  a  year  passed  in 
this  precarious  state  of  toleration,  he  went  in  1624  to  Mon- 
tanban,  where  he  was  chosen  professor  of  divinity,  but 
having  declared  himself  too  openly  against  the  party  which 
preached  up  the  civil  war,  he  created  many  enemies,  and 
among  the  rest  an  unknown  miscreant  who  assaulted  him 
in  the  street,  and  wounded  him  so  desperately  as  to  occa- 
sion his  death,  which  took  place^  after  he  bad  knguished  a 
considerable  time,  in  1625.  Bayle  says,  he  was  a  man  of 
a  great  deal  of  wit  and  judgment,  had  a  happy  memory, 
was  very  learne<l,  a  good  philosopher,  of  a  cfaearfnl  temper, 
and  ready  to  communicate  not  only  his  knowledge,  but 
even  his  money :  he  was  a  great  talker,  a  long  preacher; 
little  acquainted  with  the  wOrks  of  the  fathers,  obstinate 
in  his  opinions,  and  somew^t  troublesome^  He  frankly 
owned  to  his  friends,  that  he  found  several  things  stil!  to 
reform  in  the  refofmed  chtrrcbes.  He  took  a  delight  in 
publishing  particular  opinions,  and  in  going  out  of  tb<$ 
beaten  road  ;  and  he  gave  instances  of  this  when  he  wa«  a 
youth,  in  his  theses  "  De  Tribus  Foederibus,"  which  he 
published  and  maintained  at  Heidelberg,  although  yet 
but  a  proposant,  or  candidate  for  the  ministry.     He  also 

C  A  M  E  Jl  O  N.  129 

torixed  some  novelties  in  all  the  theological  questions 
which  he  examined  ;  and  when  in  explaining  some  pas- 
sages of  the  holy  scripture,  he  met  with  great  difficulties, 
he  took  all  opportunities  to  contradict  the  other  divines, 
and  especially  Beza;  for  he  pretended  that  they  had  not 
penetrated  into  the  very  marrow  of  that  science.  It  was 
irom  him  that  monsieur  Amyraut  adopted  the  doctrine  of 
universal  grace,  which  occasioned  so  many  disputes  in 
France,  and  will  always  be  found,  at  least  upon  Amyraut's 
principles,  to  be  too  inconsistent  for  general  belief.  Ca- 
meron's works  are  his  "  Theological  Lectures,"  Saumur, 
1 626-— 1628,  3  vols.  4to,  published  by  Lewis  Capellus, 
with  a  life  of  the  author,  and  afterwards  at  Geneva  in  one 
vol.  folio,  with  additions,  by  Frederick  Spanheim.  Ca« 
pellus  also  published,  in  1632,  Cameron's  ^'  Myrothecium 


CAMOENS  (Luis  de,  or  Lewis),    a  very  celebrated 
Portuguese  poet,   and  from  his  much-admired  poem  the 
**  Lusiadas,"  called  the  Virgil  of  Portugal,  was  descended 
from  an  illustrious,  and  originally,  Spanish  family,  and  was 
born  at  Lisbon  about  the  year  1524.     His  father  Simon 
Vaz  de  Camoens  is  said  to  have  perished  by  shipwreck  in 
the  year  which  gave  being  to  his  son,  although  this  is  some- 
what doubtful.     It  appears,  however,  that  our  poet  was 
sent  to  the  university  of  Coimbra,  and  maintained  there 
by  his  surviving  parent.     On  his  arrival  in  Lisbon,  he  be- 
came enamoured  of  Donna  Catarina  de  Ataide,  whom  he 
addressed  with  all  the  romantic  ardour  of  youth  and  poetry, 
but  according  to  the  prescribed  reserve,  or  prudery  of  the 
age,  obtained  no  higher  mark  of  her  favour,  after  many 
months  of  adoration,  than  one  of  the  silken  fillets  which 
encircled  her  head.     His  impatience,  however,  hurried  him 
into   some  breaches  of  decorum,  while  pursuing  his  coy 
mistress,  who  was  one  of  the  queen^s  ladies,  and  her  pa- 
rents took  this  opportunity  to  terminate  an  intercourse 
which  worldly  considerations  rendered,  on  her  part,  of  the 
highest  imprudence.     This  interference  produced  its  usual 
effect.     Camoens    was  banished^  the  court,    and  on  the 
morning  of  his  departure,  Catarina  confessed  to  him  the 
secret  of  her  long-concealed  affection.  Thus  comforted,  hm 
removed  to  Santarem,  the  place  of  his  banishment,  but  if 

I  Geoi  Dict,«-Mosbeim'8  Eccl.  Hisii 

Vol.  VIII.  .  K 

no  G  A  M  O  E  N  S. 

si^id  to  have  speedily  retarned  to  LisboDi  where  be  was 
agaiQ  detected,  and  again  sent  into  exile. 

He  now  sougbt  and  obtained  permission  to  accompany 
king  John  III.  in  an  expedition  concerted  against  the  Moori 
in  Africa.  His  conduct  in  this  campaign  was  so  heroicy 
that  he  obtained  permission  to  return  booiey  where  he  found 
that  his  mistress  was  dead.  To  aggravate  his  sorrows,  he 
obtaioed  no  reward  for  his  services,  after  much  application  ^ 
and  stung  with  the  ingratitude  of  his  country,  he  deter* 
mined  to  leave  it.  Mr.  Mickle,  but  without  quoting  his^ 
authority,  attributes  this  event  to  the  discovery  of  an  in-* 
trieue  which  he  carried  on  with  the  wife  of  a  Portuguese 
^opleman,  a  circumstance  not  very  improbable,  as  all  his 
biographers  allow  that  be  was  not  very  correct  in  bis  morals. 
He  sailed^  bowever,  for  India,  ^nd  ppntributed,  in  no  small 
measure,  to  the  success  of  an  expedition  against  the  Pi-- 
menta  Isles,  carried  on  by  the  king  of  Cochin  and  his  allies 
1)he  Portuguese.  In  the  following ^year  (1555),  Manuel  de 
Vasconcelos  conducted  an  armament  to  the  Red  Sea.  Our 
poet  accompanied  him,, and  with  the  intrepid  curiosity  of 
genius,  explored  the  wild  regions  of  Africa  by  which  Mount 
Felix  is  surrounded.  Here  his  mind  was  stored  with 
^ketches  of  scenery,  which  afterwards  formed  some  of  th^ 
most  finished  pictures  in  his  Lusiad,  and  in  his  other  com-* 

The  mal-administratipn  of  affairs  in  India  was  at  thia 
time  notorious ;  and  Camoens,  with  more  justice  than  pru-^ 
dence,  took  an  opportunity  of  expressing  his  disgust  in  a 
satirical  account  of  some  amusements  exhibited  before  the 
governor  of  Goa,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was  banished 
to  China.  His  adventures,  while  in  China,  are  amply  de- 
tailed by  Mr.  Mickle.  After  an  absence  of  sixteen  years, 
be  returned  to  Portugal,  poor  and  friendless  as  when  ho 
departed*.  His  Lusiad,  after  being  delayed  for  sosne  time 
by  the  raging  of  the  plague  in  Lisbon,  was  published  in  the 
summer  of  1572.  From  this  display  of  uncommon  genius, 
the  author  derived  much  honour,  but  little  emoluments 
King  Sebastian,  it  is  said,  rewarded  him  with  a  pension  of 
375  reis,  a  sum  so  small  (for  20  reis  make  only  one  penny )y 
that  we  know  not  how  to  reconcile  it.  with  the  lowest  com* 
putation  of  maintenan<^e,  yet  even  this  be  lost  on  Sebas>*> 

*Id  hitf'passage  homeward,  hewaa     he  if  laid  to  have  held  wiUi  his  left 
shipwrecked  by  a  storm,  aod  lost  all     ImimI,  while  he  swam  with  his  righU 
his  effectiy  except  his  Lasiadi  which 

C  A  M  O  E  N  a  ISl 

tian's  death,  and  his  latter  years  present  a  mouriifal  picture. 
Dot  merely  of  individual  calamity,  but  uf  national  ingrati<» 
tude*  ''  He,"  says  lord  Strangtord,  '^  whose  best  years 
bad  been  devoted  to  the  service  of  his  country,  he,  who 
bad  taught  her  literary  fame  to  rival  the  proudest  efforts  of 
Italy  itself,  and  who  aeemed  born  to  revive  the  remem* 
brance  of  ancient  gentility  and  Lusian  heroism,  was  corn** 
pelled  in  age  to  wander  through  the  streets,  a  wretched 
dependent  on  casual  contribution.  One  friend  alone  re<^ 
Hudned  to  soiooth  his  downward  path,  and  guide  his  steps 
to  the  grave  with  gentleness  and  consolation.  It  was  An-* 
tonio,  his  slave,  a  native  of  Java,  who  had  accompanied  Ca* 
moens  to  Europe,  after  having  rescued  him  from  the  waves^ 
when  shipwrecked  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mecon.  This  faiths 
fol  attendant  was  wont  to  seek  alms  throughout  Lisbon,  and 
at  night  shared  the  produce  of  the  day  with  his  poor  and 
broken-hearted  master.  But  his  friendship  was  employed 
in  vain  cCamoens/Sunk  beneath  the  pressure  of  penury  and 
disease,  and  died  in  an  almshouse  early  in  11^79,  and  was 
boried  in  the  church  of  St.  Anne  of  the  Franciscans.  Over 
bis  grat^e,  Oon9i^  Coutinho  placed  the  following  inscrip- 
tion, wltich,  for  comprehensive  simplicity,  the  translator 
ventorea  lo  prefer  to  almo&t  every  production  of  a  similai 

Here  ues  Luis  de  Camoens  : 

He  excelled  all  the  Poets  op  his  time. 

He  uved  poor  and  miserable  ; 

And  he  died  so, 

Some  years  afterwards,  Don  Gonf9alves  Camera  caused  a 
l»iig  aiid  pompous  epitaph  to  be  engraved  on  the  same 
tomb*    But  tbis  posthumous  panegyric  only  added  deeper 
disgrace  to  the  ficts  recorded  in  the  former  inscription. 

Camoens  wrote  a  variety  of  poetical  compositions,  some 
of  which  have  been  lately  very  elegantly  translated  into 
Engiish  by  lord  viscount  Strangford,  who  has  also  prefixed 
a  life  of  the  author,  from  which  we  have  extracted  some 
femarfcs.  According  to  the  researches  his  lordship  has 
■mde  into  the  character  of  Camoens,  he  appears  to  have 
possessed  a  lofty  and  independent  .spirit,  with  a  disposi^ 
laon  to  gallantry  which  may  probably  have  involved  him  in 
difficaities.  His  genius,  however,  appears  principally  in 
the  ^'  Lusiad,"  the  subject  of  which  is  the  first  discovery  of 
the  East  Indies  by  Vasco  de  Gsuna :  the  poem  is  conducted 

^  K2 

13t  C  A  M  O  E  N  S. 

according  to  the  epic  plan  :  both  the  subject  and  the  in« 
cidents  are  magnificent,  but  the  machinery  is  perfettly 
extravagant     Not  only,  says  Blair,  is  it  formed  of  a  sin- 
gular mixture   of  Christian  ideas  and  pagan  mythology, 
but  it  is  so  conducted,  that  the  pagan  gods  appear  to  be 
the  true  deities,  and  Christ  and  the  blessed  Virgin,  to  be 
«ubordinate  agents.     One  great  scope  of  the  Portuguese 
expedition,  our  author  informs  us,    is  to  propagate  the 
Christian  faith,  and  to  extirpate  Mahometanism.     In  this 
religious  undertaking,  the  great  protector  of  the  Portu-* 
guese   is  Venus,  and  their   great  adversary  is  Bacchus, 
whose  displeasure  is  excited  by  Vasco's  attempting  to  rivaA 
his  fame  in  the  Indies.     Councils  of  the  gods  are  held,  in 
"which  Jupiter  is  introduced,  as  foretelling  the  downfall  of 
Mahometanism,  and  the  propagation  of  the  gospel.    Vasco, 
in  a  great  distress  from  a  storm,  prays  most  seriously  to 
God ;  implores  the  aid  of  Christ  and  the  Virgin ;  and  begs 
for  such  assistance  as  was  given  to  the  Israelites,  when  they 
were  passing  through  the  Red  Sea;  and  to  the  apostle 
Paul,  when  he  was  in  hazard  of'  shipwreck.     In  return  to 
this  prayer,  Venus  appears,  who,  discerning  the  storm  to 
be  the  work  of  Bacchus,  complains  to  Jupiter,  ctnd  pro** 
cures  the  winds  to  be  calmed.     Such  strange  and  prepos- 
terous machinery,   shews  how  much  authors  have  heea 
misled  by  the  absurd  opinion,  that  there  could  be  no  epic 
poetry  without  the  gods  of  Homer.    Towards  the  end  of 
the  work,  indeed,  the  author  gives  us  an  awkward  salvo  for 
his  whole  mythology :  making  the  goddess  Thetis  inform 
Vasco,  that  she,  and  the  rest  of  the  heathen  deities,  are  no 
more  than  names  to  describe  the  operations  of  Providence. 
There  is,  however,  says  the  same  judicious  critic,  some 
fine  machinery  of  a  different  kind  in  the  Lusiad^    The  ge- 
nius of  the  river  Gauges,  appearing  to  Emanuel  king  of 
Portugal,  in  a  dream,  inviting  that  prince  to  discover  his 
sepret  springs,  and  acquainting  him  that  he  was  the  de- 
stined monarch  for  whom  the  treasures  of  the  East  were 
reserved,  is  a  happy  idea.     But  the  noblest  conception  of 
this  sort  is  in  the  fifth  canto,  where  Vasco  is  recounting  to 
the  king  of  M^iinda  all  the  wonders  which  he  met  with  in 
bis  navigation,     He  tells  him,  that  when  the  fleet  arrived 
at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  which  never  before  had  been 
doubled  by  any  navigator,  there  appeared  to  them  on  a 
sudden,  a  huge  and  monstrous  phantom  rising  out  of  the 
tea^  in  the  midst  oi  tempests  and  thunders^  with  i^  head 

C  A  M  O  £  N  S.  133 


ti^at  reached  the  cloQds^  and  a  countenance  that  filled  them; 
with  terror.  This  was  the  genius,  or  guardian,  of  that 
liitherto  unknown  ocean.  It  spoke  to  them  with  a  voice 
like  thunder  :  menaced  them  for  invading  those  seas  which 
he  had  so  long  possessed  undisturbed,  and  for  daring  to 
explore  those  secrets  of  the  deep,  which  never  had  been 
revealed  to  the  eye  of  mortals  ;  required  them  to  proceed 
no  farther :  if  they  should  proceed,  foretold  all  the  sue** 
cessive  calamities  that  were  to  befall  them  t  and  then,  with 
a  mighty  noise,  disappeared^  This  is  one  of  the  most  so- 
lemn and  striking  pieces  of  machinery  that  ever  was  em« 
ployed,  and  is  sufficient  to  show  that  Camoens  is  a  poet^ 
though  of  an  irregular,  yet  of  a  bold  and  lofty  imagination. 
The  critical  student  will  find  a  more  severe  censure  of  Ca-* 
moens  in  Rapin,  Dryden)  and  Voltaire.  But  the  Lusiad 
has  generally  been  considered  as  a  poem  of  very  superior 
merit,  and  has  been  often  reprinted  and  translated  into 
several  languages,  once  into  French,  twice  into  Italian, 
four  times  into  Spanish ;  and  lately,  with  uncommon  ex- 
cellence, into  English,  by  Mr.  Mickle ;  but  it  had  been 
translated  in  the  17th  century  by  sir  Richard  Fanshaw. 
Mickle's  translation  will  be  considered  in  his  life.  It  was 
translated  into  Latin  by  Thomas  de  Faria,  bishop  of  Targa 
in  Africa ;  who,  concealing  his  name,  and  saying  nothing 
of  its  being  a  translation,  made  some  believe  that  the  Lu- 
Biadas  was  originally  in  Latin.  Lafge  commentaries  have 
been  written  upon  the  Lusiadas ;  the  most  considerable  of 
which  are  those  bf  Emanuel  Faria  de  Sousa,  in  2  vols,  folio, 
Madrid,  1639.  These  commentaries  were  followed  the 
year  after  with  the  publication  of  another  volume  in  folio, 
written. to  defend  them ;  besides  eight  volumes  of  observa- 
tions upon  the  miscellaneous  poems  of  Camoens,  which 
this  commentator  left  behind  him  in  manuscript.  ^ 

CAMP  AN  ELLA  (Thomas),  a  celebrated  Italian  philo- 
sopher, was  born  at  Stilo,  a  small  village  in  Calabria,  Sept. 
5,  1568.  At  thirteen  he  understood  the  ancient  orators 
and  poets,  and  wrote  discpurses  and  verses  on  various  sub- 
jects ;  and  the  year  after,  his  father  purposed  to  send  him 
to  Naples  to  study  law  :  but  young  Campanella,  having 
othe\  views,  entered  himself  into  the  order  of  the  Domi- 
nicans. Whilst  he  was  studying  philosophy  at  San  Giorgio, 

.  1  Mickle*!  Lusiad. — Lord  Strangford    ubi  supra.— 43#ii.  JOicft.— Moreii'-* 
Blair's  l«e«tttrt>.-^Antonio  Bibl.  Hispf 

134  C  A  M  P  A  N  E  L  L  A. 

bis  professor  was  invited  to  dispute  upon  some  theses  which 
were  to  be  maintained  by  the  Franpiscans;  but  findinj^ 
himself  indisposed,  he  sent  Cainpanella  in  his  rooni|  who 
argued  with  so  much  subtilty  and  force,  as  to  charm  his> 
auditory.  When  his  course  of  philosophy  was  finished,  he 
was  sent  to  Cosen^a^  to  sti;vdy  divinity  :  but  his  inclination 
led  him  to  philosophy.  Having  conceived  a  notion  that 
the  truth  was  not  to  be  found  in  the  peripatetic  phiioso-^ 
phy>  he  anxiously  examined  aU  the  Greek,  Latin,  and 
Arabian  commentators  upon  Aristotle,  and  began  to  hesi- 
tate more  and  more  with  regard  to  the  doctrines  of  that 
sect.  His  doubts  still  remaining,  he' determined  to  peruse 
the  writings  of  Plato,  Pliny,  Galen,  the  Stoics,  the  foU 
lowers  of  Democritus,  and  especially  those  of  Telesius ; 
and  he  found  the  doctrine  of  his  masters  to  be  false  in  so 
many  points,  that  he  be^an  to  doubt  even  of  uncontro-' 
verted  matters  of  fact  At  the  age  of  twenty-two  he  be-, 
gan  to  commit  his  new  system  to  writing,  and  in  1590  be 
went  to  Naples  to  get  it  printed.  Some  time  after  he  was 
present  at  a  disputation  in  divinity,  and  took  occasion  to 
commend  what  wa^  spoken  by  an  ancient  professor  of  hitf 
order,  as  very  judicious ;  but  the  old  man,  jealous,  per- 
haps, of  the  gliory  which  Campanella  had  gained,  bade 
him,  in  a  very  contemptuous  manner,  be  silent,  since  it 
did  not  belong  to  a  young  man,  as  he  was,  to.  interpose  in 
questions  of  divinity.  Campanella  fired  at  this,  andsaid^ 
that,  young  as  he  was,  he  was  able  to  teach  him  ;  and  im- 
mediately confuted  what  the  professor  had  advanced,  to 
the  satisfaction  of  the  audience.  The  professor  conceived 
a  mortal  hatred  to  him  on  this  account,  and  accused  hioir 
to  the  inquisition,  as  if  he  had  gained  by  magic  that  vast 
extent  of  learning  which  he  had  acquired  without  a  master.. 
His  writings  now  made  ^  great  noise  in  the  world,  and  the 
novelty  of  his  opinions  birring  up  many  enemies  against 
him  at  Naples,  he  removed  to  Rome;  but  not  meeting  with 
H  better  reception  in  that  city,  he  proceeded  to  Florence^ 
and  presented  some  of  his  works  to  the  grand  duke,  Fer« 
dinan4  L  the  patron' of  learned,  men.  After  a  short  stay 
there,  as  be  was  passing  through  Bologna,  in  his  way 
to  Padua,  his  writings  were  seized,  and  carried  to  th^  ia- 
quisition  at  Rome,  which,  however,  gave  him  little  distur- 
bance, and  he  continued  his  journey.  At  Padua,  he  was 
employed  in  instructing  some  young  Venetians  in  his  doc- 
trines, and  composing  some  pieces.     Returning  afterward^. 


to  Rome,  he  ixiet  with  a  better  reception  than  before,  and 
was  honoured  with  the  friendship  of  several  cardinals.     la 
159S  he  went  to  Naples,  where  be  staid  but  a  short  time^ 
then  visited  his  own  country.     Some  expressions  which  he 
dropped,  with  regard  to  the  government  of  the  Spaniards^ 
and  the  project  of  an  insurrection,  being  reported  to  the 
Spaniards,  be  was  seized  and  carried  to  Naples  in  1599^  as 
a  criminal  against  the  state,  and  put  seven  times  to  the 
rack,  and  afterwards  condemned  to  perpetual  imprison* 
ment.     At  first  he  was  not  permitted  to  see  any  person, 
and  denied  the  use  of  pen,  ink,  and  paper  j  but,  being  ilf* 
terwards  indulged  with  these  implements,  he  wrote  several 
of  his  pieces  in  prison  ;  some  of  which  Tobias  Adamus  of 
Saxony  procured  from  hita,  and  published  in  Germany. 
Pope  Urban  VIII.  who  knew  him  from  his  writings,  having 
obtained  his  liberty  from  Philip  IV.  of  Spain  in  May  1626, 
Campanella  went  immediately  to  Rome,  where  he  con- 
tinued some  years  in  the  prisons  of  the  inquisition^  but  w^ 
a  prisoner  only  in  name.     In  1629  he  was  discharged,  but 
the  resentment  of  tbd  Spaniards  was  not  abated.    The 
friendship  inhewn  him  by  the  pope,  who  settled  a  consi* 
derable  pension,  and  conferred  many  other  favours  on  him, 
excited  their  jesilodsy;  and  bis  correspondence  with  some 
of  the  French  nation,  gave  them  new  suspicions  of  him. 
Being  informed  of  their  designs  against  him,  he  Went  odt 
of  Rome,  disguised  like  a  minim,  in  tlie  French  ambassii* 
dor^s  coach,  and,  embarking  for  France,  landed  at  Mar« 
seilles  in  1634.     Mr.  Peireso,  being  informed  6t  his  arrival, 
sent  a  letter  to  bring  him  to  Aix,  where  be  entertained  him 
some  months.    The  year  following  he  went  td  Paris,  and 
was  graciotisly  received  by  Lewis  XIII.  and  cardinal  Ridhe* 
lied ;  the  latter  procured  him  a  pension  of  2000  livres,  and 
often  consulted  him  on  thd  affairs  of  Italy.     He  passed  th^ 
remainder  of  his  days  in  a  monastery  df  the  Doniinicans  af 
Paris,  and  died  March  21,  1639. 

Campanella,  says  Bfticker,  wsts  oonfefis^Iy  a  man  of 
genius,  but  his  itnaginsliiob  predominated  over  his  jtidg« 
ment.  Innumerable  proofs  of  this  may  be  found  in  hi^ 
astrological  writings,  in  his  book  '^  De  sensu  ref um/*  and 
in  many  other  parts  of  his  Works.  There  seeihs  indeed  much 
reason  to  think  that  his  mind  iiiras  not  sound,  although  he  had 
his  lucid  intervals,  in  which  he  could  reason  soberly.  He  is 
chiefly  worthy  of  praise  for  ^e  freedom  with  which  he  ex- 
posed the  futility  of  thff  Aristotj^lian  pbilosopbyi  and  for  th« 


pains  which  lie  took  to  deduce  natural  science  from  obsefta^' 
tion  and  experience.  Of  the  numerous  writings  which  hit 
fertile  imagination  produced,  the  most  celebrated  are, 
!•  •*  Prodomus  Philosophise  Instaurandse,''  Francfort,  i6l7, 
4to.  2.  "  Atheismus  triumphatus."  3.  "  De  Gentilismo 
non  retinendo,"  Paris,  1636,  4to.  4.  "  A^trologica,"  Ley- 
den,  1629,  4to.  5.  "  Philosophia  rationalist'  6.  *«  Civl- 
tas  soils,"  Utrecht,  1643,  12mo.  7.  "  Universalis  Philo- 
Sophia."  8^,  ".De  libris  propriis,"  et  "  De  recta  ratione 
studendi,"  Paris,  1642,  8vo.  9.  "  Apologia  pro  Galileo/* 
Franc.  1622,  4to.  10.  **  De  sensu  rerum  et  magia,"  ibid* 
1620,  4to.  Jl.  "  De  reformatione  scientiarum,"  Venice, 
1633,  4to.  12.  "  De  Monarchia  Hispanica,"  Harderv. 
tran^ated  into  English,  Lond.  1654,  4to.  13.  "  Poetica 
idea  Reipublicee  Philosophic^,"  Utrecht,  1643,  12mo; 
Brucker  has  given,  we  doubt  not,  a  very  accurate,  but  not 
perhaps,  in  our  times,  a  very  interesting  sketch  of  Campa- 
nella's  opinions ;  and  concludes  with  remarking  that  as  far 
as  any  idea  can  be  formed  from  the  confused  mass  of  opi- 
nions, so  diffusely,  but  obscurely  expressed  in  his  volumi* 
nous  writings,  we  must  conclude  that  notwithstanding  the 
censures  which  have  often  been  passed  upon  him  for  im- 
piety, he  is  rather  to  be  ranked  among  enthusiasts  than 
atheists ;  and  that,  as  in  his  other  undertakings,  so  also  in 
his  attempts  to  reform  philosophy,  he  was  unsuccessful.  * 

.  CAMPANUS  (John  Anthony),  an  Italian  poet  and 
prelate,  was  born  in  1427  at  Cavelli,  a  village  of  Campa- 
nia,  of  parents  so  obscure  that  he  bore  no  name  but  that  of 
his  country,  and  was  employed  in  his  early  years  as  a 
shepherd,  in  which  situation  an  ecclesiastic  discovering 
«ome  promise  of  talents  in  him,  sent  him  to  Naples,  where 
he  studied  under  Laurentius  Valla.  He  went  afterwards 
to  Perugia,  where  he  rose  to  be  professor  of  eloquence, 
and  filled  that  chair  with  so  much  reputation,  that  wheji, 
in  1459,  pope  Pius  II.  happened  to  pass  through  Perugia 
in  his  way  to  the  council  of  Mantua,  he  bestowed  his  pa- 
tronage on  him,  and  made  him  bishop  of  Crotona,  and  se- 
condly of  Teramo.  Enjoying  the  same  favour  under  pope 
Paul  II.  this  pontiff  sent  him  to  the  congress  of  Ratisbon, 
which  assembled  for  the  purpose  of  consulting  on  a  leagne 
of  the  Christian  princes  against  the  Turks.  Sixtus  IV.  who 

»  Gen.  Diet— Morcri.— Brucker.— Life  by  Era.  Sal.  Cyprian,  Amst  172i^ 
12mo.  See  Bibl.  Anc.  et  Moderne,  vol.  XVlII.— Erytbnei  Tiwco^btetugm 
BWunt'g  Ceasurii.— Baillet /u|;eiBeDs.*-^3di  OilomiU 

C  A  M  P  A  N  U  &  iS7 

had  been  one  of  his  scholars  at  Perugia,  made  him  sacf 
cessively  governor  of  Todi,  of  Foligno,  and  of  Citta  di 
,CasteIlq ;  but  the  pope  having  thought  proper  to  beslega 
this  last  named  city,  because  the  inhabitants  made  some 
scruple  about  receiving  his  troops,  Campano,  touched 
with  the  hardships  they  were  likely  to  suffer,  wrote  to  the 
pope  with  so  much  freedom  and  spirit  as  to  enrage  his  ho^ 
liness,  and  provoke  him  to  deprive  him  of  his  government, 
and  banish  him  from  the  ecclesiastical  states.  Campano 
on  this  went  to  Ns^ples,  but  not  finding  the  reception  he 
expected,  he  retired  to  his  bishopric  at  Teramo,  where 
lie  died  July  15,  1477,  of  chagrin  and  disappointment. 
His  works,  which  were  first  printed  at  Rome  in  1495,  fol. 
consist  of  several  treatises  on  moral  philosophy,  dis-, 
courses,  and  funeral  orations,  and  nine  books  of  letters,  in 
;  which  tbeire  is  some  curious  information  with  respect  both 
to  the  political  and  literary  history  of  hb  times.  This  vo« 
lume  contains  likewise,  the  life  of  pope  Pius  II.  and  of. 
Braccio  of  Perugia,  a  famous  military  character,  and  lastly, 
of  eight  book  of  elegies  and  ^igrams,  some  of  which  are 
rather  of  too  licentious  a  nature  to  accord  with  the  gravity 
of  his  profession.  These,  or  part  of  them,  were  reprinted 
at  Leipsic  in  1707,  and  in  1734.  Campano  was  at  one 
time  a  corrector  of  the  press  to  Udalric,  called  Gallus,  the 
first  printer  of  Rome,  and  wrote  prefaces  to  Livy,  Justin, 
Plutarch,  and  some  other  of  the  works  which  issued  from 
that  press. ' 

CAMPBELL  (G£ORO£),  a  very  learned  divine  of  the 
church  of  Scotland,  and  principal  and  professor  of  divinity 
of  the  Marischal  college,  Aberdeen,  was  born  in  that  city 
Dec.  25,  1719.  His  father,  the  rev.  Colin  Campbell,  who 
was  one  of  the  ministers  of  Aberdeen,  and  a  man  of  pri* 
mitive  piety  and  worth,  died  in  1728.  George,  the  sub- 
ject of  this  article,  who  was  his  youngest  son,  was  edu* 
cated  in  the  grammar-school  of  his  native  city,  and  after-^ 
wards  in  Marischal  college,  but  appears  to  have  originally 
intended  to  follow  the  profession  of  the  law,  and  for  that 
purpose  served  an  apprenticeship  to  a  writer  of  the  sig- 
net in  Edinburgh.  By  what  inducements  he  was  made  to 
alter  his  purpose  we  are  not  told ;  but  in  1741  he  began  to 
study  divinity  at  the  university  of  Edinburgh,  and  con* 
(inued  the  same  pursuit  both  in  King's  college  and  M^- 

l  Otn.  Diet.— Moreri.— QJBgtt«n4  Hift.  Litt.  datolit .-»rrtb«ri  Thtatruni, 


rischal  coUegei  Aberdeen  ;  and  here  he  delivered,  with 
great  approbation^  those  discourses,  whi^h  are  usually  pre- 
jMsribed  to  students  of  divinity  in  the  Seotch  universities; 
After  studying  the  usual  number  of  years  at  the  divinity 
hMj  be  was,  according  to  the  practice  of  the  Scotch 
church,  proposed  €o  the  Synod;  and  having  undergone^ 
the  ordinary  trials  before  the  presbytery  of  Aberdeen,  was 
licensed  as  a  probationer,  or  preacher  of  the  gospel,  on 
the  11th  of  June,  1746.  In  Ibis  rank  h^  remained  two 
years,  before  he  obtained  a  settlement  in  the  church  of 
Scotland,  but  at  the  end  of  that  period  was  pNresented  tor 
the  church  of  Banchory  Ternan,  about  seventeen  miles 
west  from  Aberdeen,  and  was  ordaihed  June  2,  1748. 

While  be  held' this  charge,-  the  powers  of  his  mind  be- 
ganmore  fully  to  unfold  themc^lves,  and  his  character  rose 
in  the  opinion  of  men  of  learnings  Here  he  prosecuted 
the  study  of  the  holy  scriptures^  and  instructed  others  mAi 
great  success.  In  the  church  of  Scotland^  it  is  the  ptzc^ 
tice  to  explain  a  chapter,  or  large  poition  of  scripture, 
every  Lord's  day,  oi"  at  lea^t  every  other  Sui^day.  Mr. 
Campbell  paid  so  much  aiteiitioi^  to  this,  and  was  so  mticfar 
master  of  it,  that  bis  character  as  a*  scripture  critic,  and 
lecturer  of-  holy  writ,  was  deservedly  very  high.  It  was 
while  explaining  thd  New  Testament  to  his  parishidtiefs, 
that  he  first  fortned  a  plan  of  translating  that  part  of  it, 
vis.  tbe  four  gospelsy  which  he  afterwards  published.  And 
it  was  in  this  country  parish,  long  before  any  attention  was 
paid,  in  the  porth  of  Scotland,  to  the  niceties  of  grammar, 
that  he  composed  a  paft  of  the  philosophy  of  rhetoric. 

After  reltiaining  nine  years  ii>  this  country  parish,  he 
was  chosen  oneof  the  miinisiers  of  Aberdeen  in  June,  1757, 
where  his  various  and  extensive  talents  were  appreciated 
by  those  who  knew  best  their  worth,  and  where  bis  fame 
was  most  likely  to  be  rewarded.  Accordingly  in  1759",  he 
was  presented  by  his  majesty  to^  the  office  of  principal  of 
Mariscbal  college,  afid  soon  made  it  appear  that  he  was 
worthy  of  this  digrtity.  Home  hlid  recently  published  hia 
<<  Essay  on  Miracles,^  and  despiseci  his  opponents  until 
priimptA  Camfpbell  poblisbed  his  celebrated  <<  I>isserta<* 
tion  on  Miracles,"  whteb  deservedly  raised  bis  character  is- 
an<  acute  metaphysician  and  an  tMe  polemical  writer.  Tbi^ 
^^  Dissertation"  was  origina^Hy  drawn  up  in  the  form  of  a 
sermon,  which  he  preached  before  the  provinc^ial  synod  of 
Abcfrdeen,  Oct.  9,  1760,  and  whicb,  Dn  their  requesting 


htm  to  publish  ity  be  afterwards  enlarged  into  its  present^ 
form.     Some  circumstances  attended  the  publication  which 
are  rather  singular^  and  which  we  shall  relate  in  the  words 
of  his  biographer.     '^  Before  it  was  pubHshed,  be  sent  a 
copy  of  his  manuscript  to  Dr.  Blair  of  Kdinburgh,  with  a 
request  that„  after  perusing  it,  he  would  communicate  th<t 
performance  to  Mr.  Hume.     The  learned  and  judiciotm 
Blair  read  the  dissertation  both  as  a  friend,  and  as  a  critic^ 
then  showed  it  to  his  opponent,  and  afterwards  wrote  to 
Mr.  Campbell  both  wlmt  had  occurred  to  himself,   and 
what  Mr.  Hume  chose  at  first  to  write  on  the  subject.     It 
•oon  appeared,  that  this  sceptical  philosopher,  with  all  his* 
affected  equanimity,   felt  very  senisiibiy,    on  reading  so 
acute,  so  learned,  and  so  complete  an  answer  to  his  essay 
en  miracles.     He  complained  of  some  harsh  expressions, 
and  stated  a  few  objections  to  what  Mr.  Campbell  had  ad- 
vanced, shewing,  in  some  cases,  where  his  meaning  had 
been  misunderstood.     Instead  of  being  displeased,  his  ge- 
D^rou^s  adversary  instantly  expunged,  or  softened,  every 
expression  that  either  was  severe,  or  was  only  supposed  to 
be  offensive,  removed  every  objection  that  bad  been  made 
to  his  arguments,  and  availed  himself  of  the  remarks  both 
of  his  friend,  and  of  his  opponent,  in  rendering  his  disser^ 
tation  a  complete  and  unanswerable  performance.     Thtis^ 
corrected  and  improved,  it  was  put  to  the  press,  and  a 
copy  of  it  sent  to  Mr.  Hara&      That  philosopher  wair 
charmed  with  the  gentlemanly  conduct  of  Mr.  Campbell, 
confessed  that  he  felt  a  great  desire  to  answer  the  disserta* 
tion,  and  declared  that  he  would  have  attempted  to  dor 
something  in  this  way,  if  he  had  not  laid  it  down  as  a  rule, 
in  early  life,  never  to  rcturii  am  answer  to  any  of  his  op-* 
ponents.     Thus  principal  Campbell,  from  a  manly  and 
well-bred  treatment  of  his  adversary,   rendered  his  own 
work  more  correct,  gained  the  esteem  of  his  opponent, 
and  left  an  example  worthy  to  be  imiizated  by  alt  polemicat 
writers."     How  far  such  an  example  i«  worthy  to  be  igii« 
tated,  may  surely  be  questioned ;  in  Mr.  Campbells  con* 
duct  we  see  somewfaeit  of  timidity  and  irresolution,  nor 
does  he  seem  to  have  been  aware  of  the  impropriety  o£ 
gratifying  Hume  by  personal  vespect ;  and  after  all  no 
good  was  produced^  for  Hume  reprinted  his  essay  again 
and  again  without  any  notice  of  Campbell  or  any  other  of 
his.  opponents>  a  decisive  proo£  that  in  this  respect  he  had 
BO  titlje  to  the  character  of  ptulosopber.  . 


:  The  '^  Dissertation  on  Miracles'V  was  published  in  176^/ 
previously  to  which  the  authcnr  received  the  degree  of  D.D. 
from  King's  college.  Old  Aberdeen.  The  sale  of  the  work 
was  in  proportion  to  its  merit,  most  extensive  in  Great 
Britain,  and  being  translated  into  the  French,  Dutch,  and 
German  languages,  the  name  of  Dr.  Campbell  was  from 
this  time  always  mentioned  with  the  highest  respect  among 
the  learned  men  of  Europe. 

Dr.  Campbell  continued  for  twelve  years  to  discharge! 
the  oflSices  of  principal  of  Marischal  college^  and  of  one  of 
the  ministers  of  Aberdeen.  In  the  former  capacity  he  was 
equally  esteemed  by  the  professors  and  students;  as  he 
united  great  learning  to  a  conduct  strictly  virtuous,  and  to 
manners  equally  gentle  aiid  pleasant.  In  the  latter  office 
he  lived  in  the  greatest  harmony  with  his  colleagues,  over- 
whom  he  affected  no  superiority ;  and  by  all  his  hearers 
was  esteemed  as  a  worthy  man,  a  good  preacher,  and  one 
of  the  best  lecturers  they  had  ever  heard.  In  lecturing^ 
indeed,  he  excelled,  while  he  rarely  composed  ser- 
mons, but  preached  from  a  few,  and  sometimes  without 
any  notes.  Yet  his ,  discourses  on  particular  occasions^ 
were  such  as  maintained  his  reputation.  In  June  1771, 
he  was,  on  a  vacancy  by  resignation,  elected  professor  of 
divinity  in  Marischal  college.  This  appointment  was  at- 
tended  with  the  resignation  of  his  pastoral  charge,  as  one 
of  the  ministers  of  Aberdeen;  but  as  minister  of  Gray 
Friars,  an  office  conjoined  to  the  professorship,  he  had  to 
preach  once  every  Sunday  in  one  of  the  churches,  and 
besides  this,  had  the  offices  both  of  principal  and  profes-^ 
sor  of  divinity  to  discharge.  In  the  latter  office  he  in- 
creased the  times  of  instructing  his  pupils,  so  that  they 
heard  nearly  double  the  number  of  lectures  which  were 
Vsual  with  his  predecessors,  and  he  so  arranged  his  sub* 
jects,  that  every  student  who.chose  to  attend  regularly 
during  the  shortest  period  prescribed  by  the  Idws  of  the' 
^hurcb,  might  hear  a  complete  course  of  lectures  on  ^the- 
ology, embracing,  under  the  theoretical  part,  every  thing 
that  the  student  of  divinity  should  know ;  and  under  the 
practical  branch,  every  thing  that  he  should  do,  as  a 
reader  of  sacred  or  church  history,  a  biblical  critic,  a  po- 
lemic divine,  a  pulpit  orator,  a  minister  of  a  parish,  and  a. 
member  of  the  church  courts  on  the  Scotch  establishment. 
Some  idea  may  be  formed  of  the  value  of  his  labours,  by 
the  canons  of  scripture  criticism,  and  a  few  other  prelect 

>3  A  M  P  B  ELL.  Ul 

tions  on  the  same  subject,  which  are  included  in  prelimi- 
nary dissertations,tprinted  along  with  his  <*  Translation  of  the 
Gospels^"  and  by  the  *<  Lectures"  published  after  his  death; 
•    In   1776  Dr.  Campbell  published  his  <^  Philosophy  of 
Rhetoric,"  which  established  his  reputation  as  an  excellent 
grammarian,  an  accurate  and  judicious  critic,  a  scholar  of 
delicate  imagination  and  taste,  and  a  philosopher  of  great 
acuteness  and  deep  penetration.      Our  author  also  pub- 
lished a  few  occasional  sermons,  which  were  much  ad- 
mired, but  not  equally.  That  ^  On  the  Spirit  of  the  Gospel," 
vl771,  placed  him  at  variance  with  many  members  of  his 
own  church,  who  adhered  more  closely  to  the  Calvinistic 
creed  than  the  doctor.     That  in  1776,  a  Fast  Sermon  on 
account  of  the  American  war,  inculcating  the  duty  of  alle- 
giance, was  circulated  in  an  edition  of  six  thousand,  in 
America,  but  it  had  no  effect,  at  that  period  of  irritation 
among  the  colonies,  in  persuading  the  Americans  that  they 
had  no  right  to  throw  off  their  allegiance.     In  1779,  when 
a  considerable  alarm,  followed  by  riots  in  Scotland,  took 
place  in  consequence  of  a  bill  introduced  into  parliament 
for  the  relief  of  the  Roman  catholics.  Dr.  Campbell  pub- 
lished an  address  well  calculated  to  quiet  the  public  mind, 
at  the  same  time  that  he  took  occasion  to  express  hig  ab- 
horrence of  the  tenets  of  Popery.     The  same  year  he  pub- 
lished a  sermon  en  the  happy  influences  of  religion  on  civil 
society.     It  has  already  been  noticed  that  he  did  not  often 
write  sermons,  but  the  few  which  he  did  compose,  were  in 
general  highly  finished. 

The  last  work  which  he  lived  to  publish,  was  his  ^  Trans- 
lation of  the  Gospels,",  with  preliminary  dissertations  and 
explanatory  notes,  2  vols.  4to.  It  is,  we  believe,  univer- 
sally acknowledged  that  this  work  places  him  vei^  high  in 
the  rank  of  biblical  critics,  and  is  that  which  will  probably 
hand  down  his  name  to  a  late  posterity. 

In  his  seventy-second  year,  he  was  seized  with  a  severe 
illness,  from  which  he  unexpectedly  recovered,  and  though 
his  bodily  strength  was  impaired,  resumed  his  former  voc- 
cupations.  Some  years  before  his  death,  he  made  a  dis« 
interested  and  unsolicited  offer  of  resigning  his  professor- 
ship of  divinity,  provided  that  anyone  of  three  gentlemen  named,  and  to  whom  he  applied  for  their  consent, 
should  succeed  him  ;  but  this^  offer  not  being  accepted  by 
the  patrons  of  the  professorship,  he  continued  to  hold  his 
office,  lest  an  improper  person  should  in  his  life-time  be 
x^hoaen  as  his  suecessor.  But  afterwards  application  was  made 

tia    '  CAMP  BELL. 

to  him,  and  Ant  to  tbe  patrontf  of  the  professonhipy  in  behalf 
<»f  Dr.  William  Laurence  Brown^late  minister  of  the  English 
church,  and  professor  of  moral  philosophy,  &c.  in  the  uni« 
tersity  of  Utrecht,    This  gentleman  had  been  driven  from 
these  offices  by  the  French  invasion  of  Holland,  on  account 
4»f  bis  attachment  to  the  house  of  Orange,  and  his  native 
country;   and  because,  in  some  of  his  writings,  be  had 
opposed  the  progress  of  jf  rench  principles,  and  maintained 
the  cause  of  religion.     Dr.  Campbell,  knowing  tbe  excel- 
lence of  bis  character,  instantly  resigned  the  offices  of 
professor  of  divinity,  and  minister  of  Gfay  Friars  church, 
which  wei^  worth  160/.  a  jwar,  and  scoo  after  hisrr^igna^ 
tion,  government,,  desirous  of  testifying  in  a  public  man* 
ner,  the  high  respect  so  justly  entertained  of  bis  abilities 
sind  services,  offered  him,  on  condition  of  resigning  the 
principalship  of  Marischal  college,  a  pensioiB  of  300^  a 
yewc.     Dr>  Campbell  accepted  this  token  of  his  majesty's 
munificence,  and  was  succeeded  in  the  office  of  principal 
also  by  Dr.  Brown.     This  -  pension,  however,  be  did  not 
long  live  to  enjoy,  though  be  continued  writing  till  within 
a  week  of  his  death ;  an  event  which  he  expected  with 
great  tranquillity  and  composure.     On  the  31st  of  Maxvfa, 
1796,  aftec  some  previous  symptoms  of  uneasiness,  he  wa« 
struck  with  the  palsy,  which  deprived  him  of  speech,  and 
under  which  be  languished  for  a  few  days  till  he  jdied. 
He  bad  long  accustomed  himself  to  prepare  fot  death ;  and 
in  a  former  illn^s  he  had  given  the  testimony  of  a  dying 
man  in  favour  of  religion.     A  funeral  sermon  was  preached 
on  occasion  of  his  death,  by  Dr.  Brown,  in  which  he  has 
given  a  sketch  of  his  character  as  a  pubhc  teacher,  as  the 
head  of ,  a  public  seminary  of  learning,  and  as  a  priva)» 
Christian.'    His  character  is  thois  summed  up  in  a  few  sen« 
tenees  by  lus  btograpber.  Dr.  Keith :  f^  His  imagination 
was  lively  and  fertile-— his  understanding  equally  acute  and 
vigorous — and  his  erudition  was  at  onoe  very  deep  and 
wonderfully  diversified;      His  piety  was   unfeigned — his 
morals  unimpeached — his  temper  cfaearfQl'«--aud  his  man-» 
ners  gentle  and  unassuming.     His  love  of  truth  was  even 
more  remarkable  than  the  uncommon  success  with  which 
he  sought  after  it*     Where  intuitive  fitculties  could  be  of 
service  to  any  man,  be  saw  at  once  if  he  saw  at  all.     But 
bis  deep  perspicacity  was  not  satisfied  with  a  superficial 
view  of  any  thing ;  his  piercing  eye  darted  to  the  bottom 
of  eveiy  subject  to  which  disoernment  couki  be  applied;  ^ 
Where  study  and  reflection  were  necessary,  be  could  be« 


turn  as  mucb  dme  on  putient  thinking^  as  tf  be  had  been 
possessed  of  no  genius  at  all,  and  had  acquired  only  a 
small  share  of  erudition.  And  when  once  he  began  to  ex-^ 
aoiine  any  subject,  be  was  never  satisfied  till  hehad  viewed 
it  in  every  light  in  which  it  could  be  seen.  He  always 
sought  for  truth  in  the  love  of  truth,  but  be  could  not  bear 
to  he  suspected  of  deviating  from  it ;  for  he  neither  courted 
those  who  might  support,  nor  feared  those  who  did  oppose 
bim.  The  tone  of  bis  mind  was  high,  and  he  would  not 
let  it  down  from  the  elevation  of  truth  and  of  virtue.  Whe- 
ther engaged  in  conversation,  or  employed  in  study,  he 
<;ould  pa3S  easily  from  the  lightest  subject  to  the  most  se* 
rious  one.  And  the  reach  of  his  mind  was  so  great,  as  to 
comprehend  a  great  variety  of  subjects.  He  could  explore 
the  causes  of  that  pleasure  which  arises  iti  the  mind  from 
dramatic  entertainment^,  and  lay  down  the  rules  of  Scrip** 
ture  criticism.  He  could  iUustrato  the  whole  theory  of 
evidence,  or  detect  the  fal«e  reasonings  of  Mr.  Hume.  He 
could  explain  the  spirit  of  the  Gospel,  marking  the  ex<- 
tremes  of  superstition  and  enthusiasm ;  and  both  as  a  phi* 
losopher  and  a  divine,  declare  the  nature,  extent,  and 
importance  of  the  duty  of  allegiance.  While  he  zealously 
contended  for  the  faith,  he  could  warn  the  Christian  against 
imbibing  a  persecuting  spirit,  and  yet  shew  the  influence 
of  religion  upon  civil  society,  warning  bis  countrymen 
against  inGdelity,  befoi^e  they  had  seen  its  dreadful  effects. 
He  could  with  manly  eloquence  describe  the  success  of  the 
fishermen  of  Galilee,  while  preacbii^  the  doctrine  of  the 
cross  to.  prejudiced  Jews,  learned  Greeks,  and  ambitious 
Romans;  and  at  the  same  time,  with  well >ap plied  enidi^ 
ttoo,  be  could  delineate  the  characters  of  the  pretended 
successors  of  the  apostles,  and  trace  the  progress  of  the 
l^ierarcby  through  all  the  dark  and  middle  ages,  until  the 
reformation  of  religion.  As  the  principal  of  a  college,  a 
professor  of  divinity,  or  a  minister  of  the  Gospel,-— as  m 
true  patriot,  a  good  man,  and  a.  sincere  Christian^  quanda 
uttum  invenies  pareMP^ 

Tbis  character  may  be  seen  enlai^ed,  with  many  in- 
teresting and  instructive  partieulars  of  the  private. and 
public  Me  of  Dr.  Campbell^  in  an  excellent  acoount  of  him 
written  by  the  rev.  Dr.  George  Skene  Keith,  and  prefixed 
to  Dr«  Campbell's  ^^  Lectures  on  Ecclesiastical  History,'^ 
published  in  1800,  2  vols.  9vo.  These  lectures  have  since 
been  the  subject  of  much  ingenious  criticism,  particularly 


in  the  British  Critic,  vol.  XX.  As  their  object  is  to  give 
a  preference  to  the  church  government  of  Scotland,  it  wa^ 
thought  necessary  by  the  advocates  for  the  church  of 
England  to  bestow  particular  notice  on  an  attack  on  the 
latter  coming  from  a  man  of  so  high  talents  and  literary 
fame.  In  Scotland  Dr.  Campbell's  opinions  were  opposed 
by  Dr.  Skinner,  a  prelate  of  the  Scotch  episcopal  church, 
in  a  volume  entitled  "  Primitive  Truth  and  Order  vindi- 
cated," and  in  England,  by  archdeacon  Danbeny,  in  his 
•*  Eight  Discourses,"  &c.  Dr.  Campbeirs  "  Lectures  on 
Systematic  Theology,"  and  on  "  The  Pastoral  character," 
have  also  been  recently  published,  which,  if  inferior  'in 
popularity,  are  yet  worthy  of  the  pen  which  produced  the 
^  Essay  on  Miracles,"  the  "  Philosophy  of  Rhetoric,"  and 
the  "  Translation  of  the  Gospels."* 

CAMPBELL  (John),  second  duke  of  Argyle,  and  duke 
of  Greenwich  and  baron  of  Chatham,  grandson  to  the  un-» 
fortunate  earl  of  Argyle,  was  born  on  the  IQth  of  October, 
1678.  He  was  son  to  Archibald,  duke  of  Argyle,  by  Eli- 
zabeth, daughter  of  sir  Lionel  Talmash,  of  Helmingham^ 
in  the  county  of  Suffolk.  He  very  early  gave  signs  of  spi- 
rit and  capacity,  and  at  the  age  of  fifteen^  made  consider- 
able progress  in  classical  learning,  and  in  some  branches  of 
philosophy,  under  the  tuition  of  Mr.  Walter  Campbell, 
afterwards  minister,  of  Dunoon,  in  Argyleshire.  .  It  soon, 
however,  appeared,  that  his  disposition  was  towards  a  mili-> 
tary  life  ;  and  being  introduced  at  the  court  of  king  Wil- 
liam, under  the  title  of  Lord  Lorn,  he  wzs  preferred  by 
that  prince  to  the  command  of  a  regiment  of  foot  ifi  1694^ 
when  he  was  not  quite  seventeen  years  of  age ;  and  in  that 
station  he  gave  signal  proofs  of  courage  and  military 
capacity  during  the  remainder  of  king  William's  reign^ 
and  till  the  death  of  his  father,  the  first  duke  of  Argyle, 
28th  of  September,  1703,  whom  he  succeeded  in  his  ho-^ 
nours  and  estate ;  and  was  soon  after  sworn  of  queen  Anne's 
privy  council,  appointed  captain  of  the  Scotch  horse- 
guards,  and  one  of  the  extraordinary  lords  of  session.  He 
was  likewise  made  one  of  the  knights  of  the  order  of  the 
thistle  the  following  year,  on  the  restoration  of  that  order. 

In  1705,  he  was  nominated  her  majesty's  lord  high  com« 
missioner  to  the  Scottish  parliament,  though  he  was  then 
only  twenty<othree  years  of  age,  an  appointment  which  gave 

1  Xiife  by  Dr.  Keith,  ubi  fuprft. 


much  satisfaction  to  that  nation,  where,  on  his  arrival,  he 
was  received   with  unusual  ceremony.     On   the  28th  of 
June,  his  grace  opened  the  parliament  by  a  speech,  and 
was  so  well  convinced  of  the  advantages  which  w6uld  re- 
sult to  both  kingdoms  from  an  union  between  England  and 
Scotland,  that  he  employed  his  whole  interest  in  the  pro** 
motion  of  that  measure ;  for  which,  on  his  arrival  in  Eng- 
land, her  majesty  created  him  a  peer  of  England,  by  the 
.title  of  Baron  of  Chatham,  and  Earl  of  Greenwich.     In 
1706,  he  made  a  campaign  under  the  duke  of  Marlborough; . 
and  greatly  distinguished  himself  by  his  courage  and  con- 
duct in  the  battle  of  Ramillies,  in  which  he  acted  as  a  bri- 
gadier-general ;  and  also  at  the  siege  of  Ostend,  and  in  the 
attack  of  Menin,  of  which  his  grace  took  possession  on  the 
25th  of  August.     After  that  event,  he  returned  to  Scot- 
land, in  order  to  be  present  in  the  parliament  of  that  king*-, 
dom,  when  the  treaty  for  the  union  was  agitated  ;  and  was, 
as  before,  very  active  in  the  promotion  of  it,  though  he 
declined  being  one  of  the  commissioners.     When  a  riotous 
multitude  came  to  the  parliament-close,  demanding,  with 
loud  clamours,  ^^  That  the  treaty  of  union  should  be  re- 
jected,*' his  grace  went  out  of  the  house,  and  appeased  the 
people  who  were  assembled,  by  the  calmuess  and  streiigth 
of  reason  with  which  he  addressed  them;  but  his  zeal  in. 
this  affair  diminished  his  popularity,  though  even  his  ene- 
mies did  justice  to   the  rectitude   of  his  intentions.     In 
1708,  he    commanded  twenty  battalions  afr  the  battle  of 
Oudenarde ;  and  the  tropps  under  his  command  were  the 
first   of  the  infantry  that  engaged  the  enemy,  and  they 
maintained  their  post  against  unequal  numbers.     He  Uke-> 
wise  assisted  at  the  siege   of  Lisle;  and  commanded  as 
major-general  at  the  siege  of  Ghent,  taking  possession  of 
the  town  and  citadel  on  the  3d  of  January,  1708-9.     He 
was  afterwards  raised  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant-general,  and 
commanded  in  chief  under  general  Schuylemberg,  at  die 
attack  of  Tournay.     He  had  also  a  considerable  share,  on 
the  11th  of  September,   1709,   in  the  victory  at  Malpla^ 
quet,  where  he  was  much  exposed,  and  gained  great  ho- 
nour.    On  the  20th  of  December,  1710,  he  was  installed  a 
knight  of  the  garter;  and  about  this  timetpok  some  part 
in  the  debates  in  paiiiament,  relative  to  the  inquiry  wbioh 
was  set  on  foot  concerning  the  management  of  affcurs  in 
Spain^  when  he  spoke  and  voted  with  the  tones,  fuid  joine4 
Vol.  VIIL  L  ' 


in  the  censure  that  was  passed  on  the  conduct  of  the  late 
whig  ministry. 

On  the  l8th  of  January,  1710-1 1,  he  was  appointed  am- 
hasssdor  extraordinary  and  plenipotentiary  to  Charles  the 
Third,  king   of  Spain,  and  commander  in  chief  of  her 
majt;sty*s  forces  in  that  kingdom.     Dr.  Smollett  observes^ 
that  his  grace  ^^  had  long  been  at  variance  with  the  duke  of 
Marlborough,  a  circumstance  which  recommended  him  the 
more  strongly  to  the  ministry .''     But  it  is  intimated,  that 
some  of  his  friends  were  averse  to  his  acceptance  of  these 
employments,  being  sensible,  from  the  state  of  our  affairs 
in  Spain,  how  extremely  difficult  it  would  be  for  him  to 
gain  any  ground  in  that  kingdom.     However,  be  set  out 
for  Barcelona,  and  in  his  way  thither  arrived  at  the  Hague 
on  the  4th  of  April.     He  made  a  visit  to  the  grand  pen- 
^onary,  and  another  to  lord  Townshend,  the  British  pleni- 
potentiary at  the  Hague :  but  though  the  duke  of  Marl* 
borough  was  there  at  that  time,  he  did   not  visit  him. 
When  he  arrived  at  Barcelona,  on  the  29th  of  May,  he 
found  the  troops  in  so  wretched  a  condition,  and  the  affairs 
of  the  allies  at  so  low  an  ebb,  by  the  losses  sustained  the 
preceding  yesiv  at  the  battle  of'  Almanza,  and  in  otlier 
actions,'  that  he  was  not  able  to  undertake  any  thing  of  con- 
sequence.    The  British  troops  wer.e  in  the  utmost  distress 
for  want  of  subsistence,  though  the  ministry  had  promised 
to  supply  him  liberally,  and  the  parliament  had  granted 
1,500,000/.  for  that  service.     The  duke  of  Argyle  wrote 
presaiDg  letters  to  the  ministry,  and  loudly  complained 
that  he  was  altogether  unsupported :  but  no  remittances 
arrived,  and  he  was  obliged  to  raise  money  on  his  own 
credit,  to  defray  part  of  the  subsistence  of  the  troops.    He 
had  the  misfortuQe  also  to  be  seized  with  a  violent  fever, 
which  rendered  it  necessary  for  him  to  quit  the  camp,  and 
iretire  to  the  town  of  Barcelona ;  but  his  health  being  re* 
^    established^  he  quitted  Spain,  without  having  been  able 
to  attempt  any  enterprise  of  importance.     Before  his  re- 
turn to  England,  he  went  to  Minorca,  of  which  he  had 
been  appointed  governor ;  but  made  no  long  stay  there. 
,  In  June  1712,   the  queen  appointed  him  general. find 
eommander  in  chief  of  all  the  land  forces  in  Scotlan^l,  and- 
captain  of  the  company  of  foot  in  Edinburgh  castle«     But 
he  did  not  long  continue  upon  good  terms  with  the  minia^ 
try  9  and  spoke  a]gainst  a  bill  which  was  bcougbt  inhj^  thi^ 


lidmifiistration,  appointing  commissioners  to  examine  the 
value  of  all  the  grants  of  crown  lands  made  since  the  revo* 
lution,  by  which  a  general  resumption  was  intended  to 
have  been  made.  In  17 14^  when  it  Was  debated  in  thq 
house  of  peers,  whether  it  should  be  resolved,  that  the 
ppotestant  succession  was  in  danger  under  the  then  adofii- 
nistration,  the  duke  of  Argyle  maintained  the  affirmative  y 
and  also  declared  his  disapprobation  of  the  proceedings  of 
the  ministry,  relative  to  the  peace  of  Utrecht.  His  grace 
likewise  zealously  opposed  the  extension  of  the  malt-tax  to 
Scotland ;  and  was  appointed  with  the  earl  of  Mar,  and 
two  Scotch  members  of  the  house'  of  commons,  to  attend 
the  queen,  and  make  a  remonstrance  to  her  majesty  on  this 
subject.  He  also  supported  the  motion  that  was  made  by 
the  earl  of  Seafield,  for  leave  to  bring  in  a  bill  for  dissolv- 
ing the  union.  In  his  speech  in  parliament  upon  this  sub- 
ject, he  admitted,  ^^  that  he  had  a  great  hand  in  making 
the  union,  and  that  the  chief  reason  that  'moved  him  to  it 
was  the  securing  the  protestant  succession;  but  that  he 
was  satisfied  that  might  be  done  as  well  now>  if  the  union 
were  dissolved.'*  He  added,  "  that  he  believed  in  his  con-.- 
science,  it  was  as  much  for  the  interest  of  England,  as  of 
Scotland,  to  have  it  dissolved :  and  if  it  were  not,  he  did 
not  expect  long  to  have  either  property*  left  in  Scotland, 
or  liberty  in  England.''  This  conduct,  which  was  certainly 
not  very  consistent,  having  given  great  offence  to  the 
ministry,  he  was  about  this  time  deprived  of  all  the  em- 
ployments he  held  under  the  crown ;  and  continued  to  op-f 
pose  the  administration  to  the  end  of  this  reigu.  But  wheii 
queen  Anne's  life  was  despaired  of^  he  attended  the 
council -chamber  at  Kensingtons  without  being  summoned ; 
and  bis  attendance  on  -  this  occasion,  was  considered  as 
highly  serviceable  to  the  interests  of  the  house  of  Hanover. 
On  the  demise  of  the  queen,  the  duke  of  Argyle  was^ 
appointed  one  of  the  lords  justices  for  the  government  of 
the  kingdom,  till  George  I.  should  arrive  in  England,  and 
on  the  27th  of  September,  1714,  he  was  again  constituted 
general  and  commander  in  chief  of  the  forces  In  Scotland ; 
and,  on  the  1st  of  October  following,  he  was  sworn  a  mem* 
ber  of  tlie  new  privy  council.  On  the  ^th  of  the  same 
month,  be  was  appointed  governor  of  Minorca;  and  oh 
the  i5th  of  June,  1715,  made  colonel  of  the  royal  regi* 
ment  of  hocse^guards  in  England.  He  was  also  one  of  thd 
t:ommissioaers  for  establishing  the  household  of  the  prinM 

L  2 


find  princess  of  Wales^  and  was  made  groom  of  the  stole 
to  the  prince. 

When  the  rebellion  of  1715  was  raised  in  Scotland  in 
favour  of  the  pretender,  the  duke  of  Argyle  was  sent  to 
take  the  command  of  the  forces  there,  and  on  the  13th  of 
November  he  engaged  the  rebel  army,  commanded  by  the 
earl  of  Mar,  at  Dumblain.  The  duke's  troops  did  not  con- 
sist of  more  than  three  thousand  five  hundred,  while  those 
of  the  earl  of  Mar  ambunted  to  nine  thousand.  Notwith- 
standing this  inequality  of  numbers,  the  rebels  were  worsted, 
though  the  victory  was  not  complete,  and  was,  indeed, 
claimed  by  both  sides.  His  grace  behaved  in  the  action 
with  great  gallantry ;  and  was  congratulated,  on  account  of 
the -advantage  that  he  had  obtained,  in  a  letter  from  the 
town-couneit  of  Edinburgh.  Soon  after,  the  duke  was 
joined  by  some  dragoons  from  England,  and  by  six  thou- 
sand Dutch  troops  under  general  Cadogan  ;  and  being 
thus  reinforced,  he  compelled  the  rebels  to  abandon  Perth, 
on  the  30th  of  January,  1716  ;  and  the  pretender  was  soon 
afterwards  obliged  to  retire  to  France  with  the  utmost  pre- 
cipitation. The  duke  of  Argyle  now  repaired  to  Edin- 
burgh, where  he  arrived  on  the  'J7tb  of  February,  and 
after  being  magnificently^entertained  by  the  magistrates  of 
Edinburgh,  in  gratitude  for  the  signal  services  he  had 
rendered  to  that  city  and  kingdom  in  the  suppression  of 
the  rebellion,  set  out  for  England,  and  arrived  on  the 
6th  of  March  in  London,  where  he  was  very  graciously 
received  by  his  majesty. 

On  the  10th  and  16th  of  April  he  spoke  in  the  house  of 
peers  in  defence  of  the  bill  for  repealing  the  triennial  act, 
and  rendering  parliaments  septennial.  But  soon  after  this 
his  grace  seems  to  have  conceived  some  disgust  against  the 
court,  or  some  dislike  was  taken  at  his  conduct  there,  for 
in  June  following  he  resigned  all  his  places.  The  parti- 
cular grounds  of  his  dissatisfaction,  or  of  his  being  removed 
from  his  offices,  are  not  mentioned ;  but  we  now  find  him 
in  several  instances  voting  against  the  ministr}^  In  Fe- 
bruary 1717-18,  he  spoke  against  the  mutiny-bill,  arid 
endeavoured  to  shew,  by  several  instances  drawn  from  the 
history  of  Great  Britain,  that  ^*  a  standing  army,  in  the 
time  of  peace,  was  ever  fatal,  either  to  the  prince  or  the 
fjation."  Bui  on  the  6th  of  February  1718-19,  he  was 
made  lord-steward  of  the  household ;  and,  after  that  events 
tr^  again  find  his  lordship   voting  with  administration ; 


which  he  generally  continued  to  do  for  many  years  after- 
wards. On  the  30th  of  April,  1718,  he  was  advanced  to 
the  dignity  of  a  duke  of  Great  Britain,  by  the  title  of  duke 
of  Greenwich.  His  grace  opposed,  in  1722,  the  bill  "fojr 
securing  tlie  Freedom  of  election  of  Members  to  serve  for 
the  Commons  in  Parliament :"  and  promoted  the  resolu- 
tion of  the  house  for  expunging  the  reasons  that  were 
urged  by  some  of  the  lords  in  their  protest  against  the  re- 
jection of  the  bill.  He  also  supported  a  motion  made  by 
$he  earl  of  Sunderland,  for  limiting  the  time  for  entering 
protests  :  and  he  spoke  in  favour  of  the  bill  for  suspending 
the  habeas  corpus  act  for  a  year,  on  occasion  of  the  disco- 
very of  Layer^s  plot ;  as  he  did  likewise,  with  great  zeal 
and  warmth,  for  the  bill  of  pains  and  penalties  against 
bishop  Atterbury.  In  1724,  he  defended  the  mutiny-bill  ^ 
and,  it  appears,  that  his  grace  had  not  the  same  fears  of  a 
standing  army  now,  as  when  he  was  out  of  place  a  few  ' 
years  before. 

On  resigning  his  place  of  lord>« steward  of  his  majesty ^s 
household,  he  was  constituted  master-general  of  the  ord- 
nance ;  and  by'  king  George  U.  he  was  appointed  colonel 
of  her  majesty's  own  regiment  of  horse,  and  governor  and 
captain  of  the  town  and  isle  of  Portsmouth,  and  of  South- 
Sea  castle*  He  spoke  against  the  bill  for  disabling  pen- 
sioners from  sitting  in  the  house  of  commons ;  and  on  the 
first  of  Mayi  1731,  against  lord  Bathurst's  motion  for  an 
address  to  the  king  to  discharge  the  Hessian  troops  in  the 

Eay  of  Great  Britain.  In  1733  he  made  a  long  and  elab- 
orate speech  against  any  reduction  of  the  army ;  and  en- 
deavoured to  prove,  in  direct  contradiction  to  the  senti*- 
ments  he  had  formerly  advanced,  *^  that  a  standing  army 
never  had  in  any  country  the  chief  hand  in  destroying  the 
liberties  of  their  country  ;*'  and  that  it  could  not  be  sup- 
*posed  they  ever  would.  He  also  opposed  the  efforts  tbat 
were  made  by  some  of  the  minority  lords  to  prevent  the 
influence  of  the  crown  in  the  election  of  the  sixteen  peers 
for  Scotland,  And  on  the  14th  of  January,  1735-6,  he 
was  constituted  field-marshal  of  all  his  majesty's  forces. 

.  When  the  case  of  the  city  of  Edinburgh,  relative  to  the 
a^air  of  Porteus,  came  to  be  agitated  in  parliament  in 
1737,  the  duke  of  Argyle  exerted  himself  vigorously  in 
favour  of  that  city;  and  in  1739,  from  whatever  cause  it 
proceeded,  he  repeatedly,  voted  against  administration.  He 
spoke  against  the  Spanish  convention  with  great  spirit,  a^d 


against  the  tnotidn  made  by  the  duke  of  Newcastle,  for  atf 
/iinlimited  vote  of  credit.  About  ^  this  time  he  was  removed 
from  all  his  places,  and  engaged  vigorously  in  the  oppo-f 
sitioh  against  sir  Robert  Walpole.  After  the  removal  of 
that  minister  in  1741,  he  was  again  made  master-general  of 
the  ordnance,  colonel  of  his  majesty^s  royal  regiment  of 
horse-guards,  and  fteld  marshal  and  commander  in  chief  of 
all  the  forces  in  England.  But  in  less  than  a  month  he 
resigned  his  employments  for  the  last  time,  beings  probably, 
dissatisfied  with  some  of  the  political  arrangements  that 
took  place  after  the  removal  of  Walpole.  '  About  this  time 
he  is'  said  to  have  received  a  letter  from  the  pretender, 
which  some  of  his  enemies  are  supposed  to  have  procured 
to  be  written  to  him,  with  a  view  of  injuring  hiin ;  but  he 
prevented  any  ill  effects  from  it,  by  immediately  commu^ 
nicating  it  to  his  majesty's  ministers.  He  had  been  for 
some  years  afflicted  with  a  paralytic  disorder,  which  tiow 
bejgan  to  increase  ;  and  towards  the  close  of  his  life  he  was 
somewhat  melancholy  and  reserved.  He  died  on  the  3d 
of  September,  4743, '  and  was  interred  in  Westminster-ab« 
"bey,  lyhere  one  of  the  finest-  monuments  in  that  place,  by 
Roubilliac,  was  afterwards  erected  to  his  memory.  The 
titles  of  duke  and  earl  of  Greenwich,  and  baron  of  Chat* 
ham,  became  extinct  at  his  death ;  but  in  his  other  titles 
he  was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Archibald  earl  of  Ila. 

His  biographer,  Dr.  Campbell,  says  of  him,  that  he  was 
f^  a  nobleman  of  great  political  abilities,  an  eloquent  and 
distinguished  senator,  of  high  spirit,  undaunted  courage, 
and  eminent  military  talents.  But  he  has  been  accused 
of  being  much  actuated  by  motives  of  avarice  and  ambition ; 
and,  indeed,  the  uniformity  with  which  he  supported  alt 
'  the  measures  of  government  at  one  period,  and  opposed 
them  at  another,  cannot  be  reconciled  to  principlesof  real 
patriotism.  He  had,  however,  the  honour  to  be  celebrated 
in  very  high  terms  both  by  Pope  and  Thomson.  In  private 
life  his  conduct  is  said  to  have  been  very  respectable.  He 
was  an  affectionate  husband,  and  an  indulgent  master.  He 
seldom  parted  with  his  servants  till  age  had  rendered  them 
incapable  of  their  employments  ;  and  then  he  made  pro- 
vision for  their  subsistence.  He  lyas  liberal  to  the  pooi^, 
and  particularly  to  persons  of  merit  in  distress  :  but  though 
he  was  ready  to  patronize  deserving  persons,  he  was  ex- 
tremely cautious  not  to  deceive  any  by  lavish  promises,  or 
leading  them  io  form  vain  expectations.     He  wa^  a  strict 


tsconoxmst,  and  paid  his  tradesmen  punctually  every  month; 
^nd  though  he  maintained  the  dignity  of  his  rank,  he  took 
care  that  no  part  of  his  income  should  be  wasted  in  empty  ' 
pomp,  or  unnecessary  expences.^'  Mr.  Macpherson's  cha- 
racter of  him,  as  a  public  character,  is  less  favourable,  but 
the  reader,  may  consult,  with  more  confidence,  the  judi- 
cious and  impartial  sketches  in  Coxe's  Life  of  Walpole.  ^ 

CAMPBELL  (John),  an  eminent  historical,  biographi- 
cal, and  political  writer,  was  born  at  Edinburgh,  March  8, 
170S.  His  father  was  Robert  Campbell,  of  Glenlyon,  esq. 
end  captain  of  horse  in  a  regiment  commanded  by  the  then 
earl  of  Hyndford  ;  and  his  mother,  Elizabeth,  the  daughter 

of r-  Smith,    esq.  of  Windsor,  in  Berkshire,    had  the 

honour  of  claiming  a  descent  from  the  poet  Waller.     Our 
antbor  was  their  fourth  sou ;  and  at  the  age  of  five  yearsy 
was  brought  to  Windsor  from  Scotland,  which  country  he 
never  saw  afterwards.     At  a  proper  age  he  was  placed  out 
as  clerk  to  an  attorney,  being  intended  for  the  law;  but 
whether  it  was  that  his  genius  could  not  be  confined  to  that 
dry  study,  or  to  whatever  causes  besides  it  might  be  owiug, 
it  is  certain  that  he  did  not  pursue  his  original  desfgnation : 
neither  did  be  engage  in  any  other  profession,  unless  that 
of  an  author,  in  which  he  did  not  spend  his  time  in  idleness 
and  dissipation,  but  in  such  a  close  application  to  the  ac- 
quisition of  knowledge  of  vajrious  kinds,  as  soon  enabled 
him  to  appear  with  great  advantage  in  the  literary  world. 
What  smaller  pieces  might  be  written  by  Mr.  Campbell  in 
the  early  part  of  his  life,  we  are  not  capable  of  ascertaining, 
but,  in  1736,  before  he  had  completed*  his  thirtieth  year^ 
be  gave  to  the  publick,  in  2  vols,  folio,  "  The  military 
history  of  prince  Eugene,  and  the  duke  of  Marlborough ; 
compreheoding  the  history  of  both  those  illustrioos  per- 
sons to  the  time  of  their  decease."  ^  This  performance  was 
enriched  with  maps,  plans,  and  cuts,  by  the  best  hands^    ^ 
.;and  particularly  by  the  ingenious  Claude  de  Bosc.     The 
reputation  hence  acquired  by  our  author,  occasioned  him 
9oon  after  to  be  solicited  to  take  a  part  in  the  '^Ancient 
Universal  History.''     In  this  work  Dr.  Kippis  saj's  he  wrote 
on  the  Cosmogony ;  but  Dr.  Johnson  assigns  him  the  his- 
tory of  the  Persians,  and  of  the  Constantinopolitan  empire. 
Whilst  employed  in  this  capital  work,  Mr.  Campbell  found 
)^isure  tq  entertain  the  world  with  other  productions.     In 

I  Biog.  Brit 

Us  ,  C  A  M  IP  B  K  L  L. 

llrS9  be  pnblithed  die  ^*  Travels  and  adventures  of  Edv 
ward  BrowB^  esq/'  dvo.  In  the  same  year  appeared  his 
**  Memoirs  of  the  bashaw  duke  de  Ripperda,*'  Svo^  re- 
printed, with  improvements,  in  1740.  These  memoin» 
were  followed,  in  1741,  by  the  **  Concise  history  of  Spa- 
nish America,''  8vo.  In  1742  he  was  the  author  of  *^  A 
letter  to  a  friend  in  the  country,  on  the  publication  of 
Thurloe's  State  papers ;"  giving  an  account  of  their  dis« 
covery,  importance,  and  utility.  The  same  year  was  dis^ 
ttnguished  by  the  appearance  of  the  1st  and  2d  volumes  of 
his  <'  Lives  of  the  English  Admirals,  and  other  eminent 
British  seamen."  The  two  remaining  volumes  were  com« 
pleted  in  1744;  and  the  whole,  not  long  after,  was  trans- 
lated into  German.  This,  we  believe,  was  the  first  of  Mr* 
Campbell's  works  to  which  he  prefixed  his  name ;  and  it  ^ 
a  performance  of  great  and  acknowledged  merit  The 
good  reception  it  met  with  was  evidenced  in  its  passing 
through  three  editions*  in  his  own  life-time ;  and  a  fourth 
was  afterwards  given  to  the  public,  under  the  inspection  of 
Dr.  Berkenhout.  In  1743  he  published  **  Hermippus  Re- 
vived ;"  a  second  edition  of  which,  much  improved  and 
enlarged,  came  out  in  1749,  under  the  following  title  t 
^*  Hermippus  Redivivus ;  or,  the  sage's  triumph  over  old 
age  and  the  grave.  Wherein  a  method  is  laid  down  foif 
prolonging  the  life  and  vigour  of  man.  Including  a  com*^ 
mentary  upon  an  ancient  inscription,  in  which  this  great 
secret*  is  revealed  ;  supported  by  numerous  authorities. 
The  whole  interspersed  with  a  great  variety  of  remarkable 
and  well-attested  relations."  This  extraordinary  tract  had 
its  origin  in  a  foreign  publication,  under  the  title  of  "  Her* 
xnippus  Redivivus,"  Coblentz,  1743,  but  it  was  much 
improved  by  our  author,  and  is  a  singular  mixture  of  gra- 
vity and  irony.  The  "  great  secret"  is  no  other  than 
inhaling  the  breath  of  young  females,  by  which,  we  learn 
from  an  inscription  in  Reinesius's  Supplement  to  Gruter, 
one  Hermippus  prolonged  his  life  to  the  age  of  115.  Mn 
Campbell,  in  1744,  gave  to  the  public  in  2  vols.  foL  his 
**  Voyages  and  Travels,"   on  Dr.  Harris's  plan,  being  a 

*.  When  our  antbor  had'flnisbed  the  cost  me  a  great  deal  of  trouble ;  and 
third  edition,  which  is  more  correct  I  can  with  great  veracity  affirm  that 
and  complete  than  the  former  ones,  they  contain  nothing  but  my  real  sen- 
be  thus  wrote  to  his  ingenious  and  timents,  arising  from  as  strict  an  in- 
worthy  friend,  the  rev.  Mr.  Hall :  **  I  quiry  into  the  matterij  which  they  re- 
am certain  the  lA\es  of  the  Admirals  late,  as  was  in  my  power.*' 


very  dislingui^ed  improvement  of  that  collection,  wbich 
had  appeared  in  1705.  The  wor|f:  contains  all  the  circTrnt- 
navigators  from  the  time  of  Columbus  to  lord  Anson ;  a 
complete  history  of  the  East  Indies ;  historical  details  of 
the  several  attempts  made  for  the  discovery  of  the  north- 
east and  north-west  passages ;  the  coo^mercial  history  of 
Gorea  and  Japan ;  the  Russian  discoveries  by  land  and 
sea;  a  distnct  account  of  the  Spanish,  Portuguese^ 
British,  French,  Dutch,  and  Danish  settlements  in  Ame- 
rica; with  other  pieces  not  to  be  found  in  any  former 
collection.  The  whole  was^  conducted  with  eminent  skill 
and  judgment,  and  the  preface  is  acknowledged  to  be  a 
master-piece  of  composition  and  information.  The  time 
and  care  employed  by  Mr.  Campbell  in  this  important  un- 
dertaking did  not  prevent  his  engaging  iiv  another  great 
work,  the  Biographia  Britannica,  which~hegan  to  be  pub<- 
lished  in  weekly  numbers  in  1745,  and  the  first  volume 
of  which  was  completed  in  1746,  as  was  the  second  in 

When  the  late  Mn  Dodsley  formed  the  design  of  ^'  The 
Preceptor,'^  which  appeared  in  1748,  IVlr.  Campbell  was 
requested  to  assist  in  the  undertaking,  and  the  parts  writ^ 
ten  by  him  were,  the  Introduction  to  chronology,  and  the 
Discourse  on  trade  and  commerce,  both  of  which  displayed 
an  eictensive  fund  of  knowledge  upon  these  subjects.  In 
1750  he  published  the  first  separate  edition  of  his  ^^  Present 
state  df  £urope  ;"  a  work  which  had  been  originally  begun 
in  1746,  in  the  ^'  Museum,"  a  very  valuable  periodical  per* 
formance,  printed  for  Dodsley.  There  is  no  production 
of  our  author's  that  has  met  with  a  better  reception.  It 
has  gone  through  six  editions,  and  fully  deserved  this  en^ 
couragement.     The  next  great  undertaking  which  called 


*  '*  By  one  of  thote  revolutions  *to  to  assert,  that  bis  articles  constitat* 
vhich  the  best  designs  are  subject,  the  the  prime  merit  of  the  four  voluqoies 
pnblic  attention  to  the  Biographia  /throagh  which  they  extend.  He  was 
seemed  toflag  when  about  two  volumes  not  satisfied  with  giving  a  cold  nanra* 
had  been  printed ',  but  this  attention  tion  of  the  personal  circumstances  rer 
was  soon  revived  by  the  very  high  en-  lative  to  the  eminent  men  whose  lives 
eomium  that  was  passed  upon  it  by  be  drew  up,  but  was  ambitious  of  en- 
Mr.  Gilbert  West,  at  the  close  of  his  tering  into  such  a  copious  and  critical 
poem  on  Education;  from  which  time  discussion  of  their  actions  or  writings, 
the  undertaking  was  carried  on  with  as  should  render  the  Biographia  Bri* 
inereasing  reputation  and  success*  tannica  a  most  valuable  repository  of 
We  need  not  say,  that  its  reputatiDn  historical  and  literary  knowledge.  This 
and  success  were  greatly  owing  to  our  end  h'e  has  admirably  accomplished, 
author.  It  is  no  disparagement  to  the^  and  herein  has  left  an  excellent  ex*, 
abilities  and  learning  of  his  coadjutori  ample  to  his  successors."      Dr.  Kirm^ 



for  the  exertion  of  oar  author^s  abilities  and  learning,  waa 
**  The  modern  Universal  History."  This  extensive  work 
•  was  published  from  time  to  time  in  detached  parts,  till  it 
amounted  to  16  vols.  fol.  and  a  2d  edition  of  it  in  Svo, 
began  to  make  its  appearance  in  1759.  The  parts  of  it 
written  by  Campbell,  were  the  histories  of  the  Portuguese, 
Dutch,  Spanish,  French,  Swedish,  Danish,  and  Osteiid 
settlements  in  the  East  Indies ;  and  the  histories  of  the 
kingdoms  of  Spain,  Portugal,  Algarve,  Navarre,  and  that 
of  France,  from  Clovis  to  1656.  As  our  author  had  thus 
distinguished  himself  in  the  literary  world,  the  degree  of 
LL.  D.  was  very  properly  and  honourably  conferred  upon 
bim,  June  18,  1754,  by  the  university  of  Glasgow.  With 
regard  to  his  smaller  publications,  tiaere  are  several.  Dr. 
Kippis  apprehends,  that  have  eluded  his  most  diligent  in- 
quiry; but  the  following  account,  we  believe,  is  tolerably 
accurate : — In  early  life,  he  wrote  :  1 .  '*  A  Discourse  on 
Providence,''  8vo,  the  third  edition  of  which  was  printed 
in  174a.  In  1742  he  published  2,  "The  Case  of  the  Op- 
position impartially  stated,''  8vo.  Mr.  Reed  had  a  copy 
of  this  pamphlet,  with  various  corrections  and  additions  in 
Dr.  Campbell's  own  hand,  evidently  written  with  a  view  to 
a  second  impression.  He  published  in  1746,  3.  ^^  The 
Sentiments  of  a  Dutch  patriot;  being  the  speech  of  Mr^ 
y.  H*^^n,  in  an  august  assembly,  on  the  present  .stale 
of  affairs,  and  the  resolution  necessary  at  this  juncture  to 
be  taken  for  the  safety  of  the  republic,"  8vo.  The  history 
of  this  little  tract,  the  design  of  which  was  to  expose  the 
temporising  policy  of  the  states  of  Holland,  is  somewhat 
amusing.  His  amanuensis,  when  he  was  going  to  write 
the  pamphlet,  having  disappointed  him,  he  requested,  afte^ 
tea  in  the  afternoon,  that  Mrs.  Campbell,  when  she  had 
ordered  a  good  fire  to  be  made,  would  retire  to  bed  as 
soon  as  possible,  with  the  servailts ;  and,  at  the  same  time, 
l^ave  him  four  ounces  of  coffee.  This  was  done,  and  he 
wrote  till  12  o'clock  at  night,  when,  finding  his  spirits  flag, 

be  took  two  ounces.     With  this  assistance  he  went  on  till 

.  '-  <      .       . 

six  in  the  morning,  when  again  beginning  to  grow  weary^ 
he  drank  the  remainder  of  the  coffee.  Hence  he  was  en- 
abled  to  proceed  with  fresh  vigour  till  nine  or  ten  o'clock 
in  the  morning,  when  he  finished  the  pamphlet,  which  had 
a  great  run,  and  was  productive  of  considerable  profit. 
Mr.  Campbell  having  succeeded  so  tvell  in  a  performance 
hastily  written^  expected  much  greater  success  fnm  aqo- 


ther  work)  about  which  be  had  taken  extraordinaty  pains^ 
and  which  had  cost  him  a  long  time  in  composing,  fiut 
when  it  came  to  be  published,  it  scarcely  paid  the  expeiice 
of  advertising.  Some  years  afterwards,  a  book  in  French 
was  brought  to  him  that  bad  been  translated  from  the  Grer-^ 
man ;  and  he  was  asked  whether  a  translation  of  it  into 
English  would  not  be  likely  to  be  acceptable,  '  Upon  ex** 
amining  it,  he  found  that  it  was  bis  own  neglected  work, 
which  had  made  its  way  into  Germany,  and  had  there  been 
translated  and  published,  without  any  acknowledgement 
of  the  obligation  due  to  the  original  writer.  But  it  is  ra- 
ther singular  that  his  biographers  have  not  told  us  what 
work  this  was. 


In  1749,  he  printed,  4.  *^  Occasional  thoughts  on  moral, 
serious,  and  religious  subjects,'*  8vo.  In  1754,  he  waa^ 
the  author  of  a  wdrk,  entitled,  5.  ^'  The  Rational  Amuse- 
ment/ comprehending  a  collection  of  letters  on  a  great  va- 
riety of  subjects,  interspersed  with  essays,  and  some  little 
pieces  of  humour,'*  8vo.  6.  "  An  exact  and  authentic 
l^ccount  of  the  greatest  white-herriog-iishery  in  Scotland, 
<iarried  on  yearly  in  the  island  of  Zetland,  by  the  Dutch 
pnly,"  1750,  8vo.  7.  "The  Highland  Gentleman's  Ma^ 
gazine,  for  Jan.  1751,"  8vo.  8.  "A  Letter  from,  the 
Prince  of  the  infernal  legions,  to  a  spiritual  lord  on  this 
$ide  the  great  gulph,  in  answer  to  a  late  invective  epistle 
levelled  at  his  highness,"  1751,  8vo.  9.  **  The  naturali- 
sation bill  confuted,  as  most  pernicious  to  these  united 
kingdoms,^'  1751,  8vq.  10.  "  His  royal  highness  Frede- 
rick late  prince  of  Wales  deciphered  :  or  a  full  and  parti«- 
cular  description  of  his  character,  from  his  juvenile  years 
tmtil  his  death/'  1751,  8vo.  11.  "  A  Vade  Mecum:  or 
tsompanion  for  the  unmarried  ladies:  wherein  are  laid 
down  some  examples  whereby  to  direct  them  in  the  choice 
of  husbands,"  1752,  8vo. «  12.  "  A  particular  but  melan- 
choly account  pf  the  great  hardships,  difficulties,  and  mi- 
series, that  those  unhappy  and  much  to  be  pitied  crea- 
tures, the  common  women  of  the  town,  are  plunged  into 
at  this  juncture,''  1752,  8vo.  13..  "  A  full  and  particular 
description  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,"  1752,  Svow 
14.  '^  The  case  of  the  publicans,  both  in  town  and  coun- 
try, laid  open,"  1752,  8vo.  15.  "  The  Shepherd  of  Ban- 
bury's rules,"  a  favourite  pamphlet  with  the  common  peo-* 
pie ;  and  "  The  history  of  the  war  in  the  East-Indies," 
which  appeared  in  1758  or  1759,  under  the  name  of  Mr. 



Wattsh,  are  slipposed  to  have  been  of  Mr«  Campbell's  com"* 
position.  Upon  the  conclusion  of  the  peace  of  Paris,  oinr 
author  was  requested  by  lord  Bute  to  take  some  share  in 
the  vindication  of  that  peace.  Accordingly,  he  wrote  '^  A 
description  and  history  of  the  new  Sugar  Islands  in  the 
West^Indies/'  Svo,  the  design  of  which  was  to  shew  the 
value  and  importance  of  the  neutral  islands  that  had  been 
ceded  to  us  by  the  French.  The  only  remaining  publica-». 
tion  of  Dr.  Campbell's,  that  has  hitherto  come  to  our 
knowledge,  is,  "  A  Treatise  upon  the  Trade  of  Great-Bri- 
,tain  to  America,"  1772,  4to.  His  last  grand  work  was 
^  A  political  survey  of  Britain  :  being  a  series  of  reflec- 
tions on  the  situation,  lands,  inhabitants,  revenues,  colo* 
nies,  and  commerce  of  this  island.  Intended  to  shew  that 
they  have  not  as  yet  approached  near  the  summit  of  im- 
provement, but  that  it  will  afford  employment  to  many 
generations,  before  they  push  to  their  utmost  extent  the 
natural  advantages  of  Great  Britain."  This  work,  which 
was  published  in  1774,  iti  2  vols,  royal  4 to,  cost  Dr.^Camp- 
bell  many  years  of  attention,  study,  and  labour.  As  it 
was  his  last,  so  it  seeniks  to  have  been  bis  favourite  produc- 
tion^ upon  which  he  intended  to  erect  a  durable  monu** 
ment  of  his  sincere  and  ardent  loVe  to  hiS'  country,  but  in 
the  success  of  it,  he  is  said  to  have  been  greatly  disap- 
pointed ;  yet  a  more  truly  patriotic  publication  never  ap«> 
peared  in  the  English  language.  The  variety  off  informa*^ 
tion  it  contains  is  prodigious ;  and  there  is  no  book  that 
better  deserves  the  close  and  constant  study  of  the  politic- 
ioian,  the  senator,  the  gentleman,  the  merchant,  the  ma« 
Bufaeturer ;  in  short,  of  every  one  who  has  it  in  any  de«> 
gree  in  bis  power  to  promote  the  interest  and  welfare  of 
Great-Britain ;  and  this  praise  it  may  be  allowed  to  de* 
serve,  although  the  accuracy  of  many  of  his  facts  may  be 
disputed,  and  much  of  his  reasoning  appear  ilUfoundedi 
Among  other  encomiums  produced  by  Dr.  Kippis  on  the 
literary  merit  of  his  predecessor,  that  of  Mr.  Burke,  the 
nuthor  of  the  ^^  Account  of  the  European  settlements  in 
America,"  is  perhaps  the  most  honourable  *.     Dr.  Camp-f 

*  **  Having  gpokexi,  perhaps^  a  Ut- 
il«  too  hardly  of  my  materials,  I  must 
except  the  assistance  I  have  had  from 
(be  judicious  collection  called  Harris's 
Voyages,  There  are  not  many  finer 
pieces  than  the  history  of  Brazil  in 
Vtiat  coliectk>a.    The  light  in  which  the 

author  sets  the  events  in  that  history  is 
fine  a  ad  instructive  ;  an  uncommon 
spirit  prevails  through  it ;  and  his  re- 
marks are  every  where  striking  and 
deep.  1'he  little  sketch  I  have  given 
in  the  pait  of  Portuguese  Amertca«  if 
it  has  any  merit,  is  entirely  due  to  dmt 



belPs  reputation  was  not  confined  to  his  own  country,  but 
extended  to  the  remotest  parts  of  Europe.  As  a  striking 
instance  of  this,  we  may  mention,  that  in  the  spring  of 
1774,  the  empress  of  Russia  was  pleased  to  honour  him 
with  the  present  of  her  picture,  drawn  in  the  robes  worn 
in  that  country  in  the  days  of  Ivan  Vussillievitcb,  grand 
duke  of,  Russia,  who  was  contemporary  with  queen  Eliza- 
beth. To  manifest  the  doctor^s  sense  of  her  imperial  ma- 
jesty's goodness,  a  set  of  the  "  Political  survey  of  Britain,'^ 
bound  in  Morocco,  highly  ornamented,  and  accompanied 
with  a  letter  descriptive  of  the  triumphs  and  felicities  of 
her  reign,  was  forwarded  to  St.  Petersburg,  and  conveyed* 
into  the  hands  of  that  great  princess,  by  prince  Gregory 
OrlofF,  who  had  resided  some  months  in  this  kingdom. 
The  empress's  picture,  sinc^  the  death  of  our  author,  has 
been  presented  by  his  widow  to  lord  Macartney! 

Let  us  now  advert  a  little  to  Dr.  Campbell's  personal 
history.  May  23,  1736,  he  married  Elizabeth,  daughter 
of  Benjamin  Vobe,  of  Leominster,  in  the  county  of  Here- 
ford, gentleman,  with  which  lady  he  lived  nearly  forty 
years  in  the  greatest  conjugal  harmony  and  happiness.  So 
wholly  did  he  dedicate  his  time  to  books,  that  he  seldom 
went  abroad  :  but  to  relieve  himself,  as  much  as  possible^ 
from  the  inconveniencies  incident  to  a  sedentary  life,  it 
was  his  custom,  when  the  weather  would  admit,  to  walk  in 
his  garden ;  or,  otherwise,  in  some  room  of  his  house,  by 
way  of  exercise.  By  this  method,  united  with  the  strictest 
temperance  in  eating,  and  an  equal  abstemiousness  in 
drinking,  he  enjoyed  a  good  state  of  health,  though  his 
constitution  was  delicate.  His  domestic  manner  of  living 
did  not  preclude  him  from  a  very  extensive  and  honour*- 
able  acquaintance.  His  house,  especially  on  a  Sunday 
'  evening,  was  the  resort  o{  the  most  distinguished  persons 
of  all  ranks,  and  particularly  of  such  as  had  rendered  them* 
selves  eminent  by  their  knowledge,  or  love  of  literature. 
He  received  foreigners,  who  were  fond  of  learning,  with 
an  affability  and  kindness,  which  excited  in  them*  the 
highest  respect  and  veneration ;  and  his  instructive  and 
cheerful  conversation  made  him  the  delight  of  his  friends 
in  general.     Oh  March  5,  1765,  Dr.  Campbell  was  ap- 

original.— .Where  I  dfffer  from  bim  in  every  where,  with  so  mnch  good  sense 

any  respect,  it  is  with  deference  to  the  and  eloquence,  to  rouse  that  spirit  of 

jhdgment  of  a  writer,  to  whom  this  na-  generous  enterpriee,    that  can    alone 

ii»b  is  much  oblta;ed,  for  endeavouring  make  anjp  nation  pewerfnl  or  iploriotn.*' 



pointed  his  maj^ty's  agent  for  the  province  of  Georgia,  id 
North  America,  which  employment  he  held  till  his  de- 
His  last  illneHB  was  a  decline,  the  consequence  of 


a  life  devoted  to  severe  study,  and  which  resisted  every 
attempt  for  his  relief  that  the  most  skilful  in  the  medical 
science  could  devise.  By  this  illness  he  was  carried  off, 
at  his  house  in  Queen-square,  Ormond-street,  on  Dec.  28, 
1775,  when  he  had  nearly  completed  the  6Sth  year  of  his 
ftge.  His  end  was  tranquil  and  easy,  and  he  preserved  the 
full  use  of  all  his  faculties  to  the  latest  moment  of  his  life. 
On  Jan.  4th  following  his  decease,  he  was  interred  in  the 
new  burying-^ ground,  behind  the  Foundling-hospital,  be** 
longing  to  St.  George  the  Martyr,  where  a  monument, 
with  a  plain  and  modest  inscription,  has  been  erected  to 
his  memory.  Dr.  Campbell  had  by  his  lady  seven  chil- 
dren, one  of  whom  only  survived  him,  but  is  $ince  dead. 
Dr.  Campbells  literary  knowledge  was  by  no  means  con- 
fined to.  the  subjects  on  which  he  more  particularly  treated  * 
as  an  author.  He  was  well  acquainted  with  the  mathema- 
tics, and  had  read  much  in  medicine.  It  has  been  with 
great  reason  believed,  that,  if  he  had  dedicated  his  studies 
to  the  last  science,  he  would  have  made  a  very  conspicuous 
figure  in  the  physical  profession.  He  was  eminently  versed 
in  the  different  parts  of  sacred  literature ;  and  his  ac- 
quaintance with  the  languages  extended  not  only  to  the 
Hebrew,  Greek,  and  Latin  among  the  ancient,  §.nd  to  the 
French,  Italian,  Spanish,  Portuguese,'  and  Dutch,  among 
the  modern ;  but,  likewise,  to  the  oriental  tongues.  He 
was  particularly  fond  of  the  Greek  language.  His  attaiur 
ment  of  such  a  variety  of  knowledge  was  exceedingly  as- 
sisted by  a  memory  surprisingly  retentive,  and  which,  in« 
deed,  astonished  every  person  with  whom  he  was  conver- 
sant. A  striking  distance  of  this  has  been  given  by  the 
honourable  Mr.  Daines  Barrington,  in  his  tract,  entitled, 
**  The  probability  of  reaching  the  north  pole  discussed  *.'* 

*  The  instaDce  mentioned  by  Mr. 
"Barrington  regards  the  accuracy  where- 
with Dr.  Campbell,  at  the  distanee  of 
^0  years,  remembered  the  facts  related 
to  him  by  a  Dr.  Daillie,  coneerniag  a 
voyage  towards  the  north  pole^  in 
which  the  navigators,  among  whom  was 
J)r.  Daillie  himself,  went  so  far  as  to 
ike  88th  degree  of  north  latitude ;  and 
might  easily  have  proceeded  farther, 
had  not  the  captain  thought  hiotfelf 

obliged  by  his  duty  in  other  respects, 
to  return.  In  Mr.  Harrington's  curi* 
Dtts  collection  of  papers  relative  to  the 
probability  of  reaching  to  the  north 
pole,  is  a  tract  which  he  received  from 
a  learned  friend,  who  permitted  him  to 
print  it,  though  not  to  inform  the  pub- 
lie  to  whom  they«were  iadebted  for  the 
communication.  It  is  entitled,  Thoughtii 
on  the  probability, .  expediency,  and 
utility  of  discor^ring  a  passage  by^^ie 

C  A  M  P  B  E  L  L.  159 


In  communicating  bis  ideas,  our  author  bad  an  uncommon 
readiness  and  facility ;  and  the  style  oi*  his  works,  whicii 
had  been  formed  upon  the  model  of  that  of  the  celebrated 
bishop  Sprat,  was  perspicuous,  easy,  flowing,  and  harmo- 
nious. Should  it  be  thought  that  it  is  sometimes  rather 
too  diffusive,  it  will,  notwithstanding,  indubitably  be  al- 
lowed, that  it  is,  in  general,  elegant. 

To  all  these  accomplishments  of  the  understanding,  Dr/ 
Campbell  joined  the  more  important  virtues  of  a  moral  and. 
pious  character.  His  disposition  was  gentle  and  humane, 
and  his  manners  kind  and  obliging.  He  was  the  tenderest 
/pf  husbands,  a  most  indulgent,  parent,  a  kind  master,a 
firm  and  sincere  friend.  To  his  great  Creator  he  paid  the 
constant  and  ardent  tribute  of  devotion,  duty,  and  rever- 
ence ;  and  in  his  correspondences  he  shewed,  that  a  sense 
of  piety  was  always  nearest  his  heart.  It  was  our  author's 
custom  every  day,  to  read  one  or  more  portions  of  scrip- 
ture, in  the  original,  with  the  ancient  versions,  and  the 
best  commentators  before  him  ;  and  in  this  way,  as  appears 
from  his  own  occasional  notes  and  remarks,  he  went  through 
the  sacred  writings  a  number  of  times,  with  great  tliank- 
fulness  and  advantage.  ^ 

CAMPEGIO,  or  COMPEGIO  (Lawrence),  an  emi- 
nent cardinal  of  the  Romish  church,  and  an  English  bishop, 
was  a  native  of  Bologna,  the  son  of  John  Campegio,  a  learned 
lawyer,  and  was  himself  professor  of  law  at  Padua.  After 
the  death  of  his  wife,,  he  went  into  the  church,  and  in 
1510  became  auditor  of  the  Rota,  and  in  1512  bishop  of 
Feltria.  Being  afterwards,  in  1517,  created  cardinal,  he 
was  sent  as  pope'&  legate  into  England  in  the  following 
year.  His  chief  business  at  the  English  court  was  to  per- 
suade Henry  VIII.  to  join  the  confederation  of  Christian 
princes  against  the  Turks.  He  was  very  favourably  re- 
ceived on  this  occasion,  and  had  several  spiritualities  be- 
stowed upon  bioQ,  among  which  was  the  bishoprick  of  Sa* 
lisbury,  but  not  having  be^  able  to  accomplish  the  busi-. 
ness  of  his  mission,  he  returned  to  Rome.  When  the  con- 
troversy respecting  Henry's  divorce  began,  in  1527,  car- 
dinal Campe^gio  was  sent  a  second  time,  into  England,  to. 


north  pole.    We  are  now  permitted  by     of  this  iogenious  essay  was  Dr.  Oamp« 
3Sr.  BarhngtOD  to  sAy,  that  the  writer     bell. 

1  Biog.  Brit.— >Nichol8*s  Bowyer.— Some  curious  remarks  on  his  character  and 
talents,  ;iot  exactly  corresponding  with  tka  account  in  the  Biog.  Brit  may  bo 
Man  iu  Botwsirs  Towr  to  the  Hi  brides,  and  his  Idh  of  Or.-Jobnsoa. 

160  C  A  M  P  E  G  I  O. 

call  a  legantine  court,  where  he  and  his  colleague  cardinal' 
Wols^  Were  to  sit  as  judges.     Having  arrived  in  London 
Oct.  1528,  the  first  session  began  at  Blackfriars,  May  31, 
'  1529,  and  the  trial  lasted  until  July  23,  when  the  qu'een 
Catherine  appealing  to  the  pope,  the  court  was  adjourned 
until  Sept.  28,  and  was  then  dissolved.     Afterwards  Cain- 
pegio  was  recalled  to  Rome,  the  king  making  him  con- 
,  siderable  presents  upon  his  departure ;  but  a  rumour  being 
spread,  that  be  carried  along  with  him  a  treasure  belong- 
ing to  cardinal  Wolsey,  whose  downfall  was  at  this  time 
contrived,  and  who,  it  was  suspected,  intended  to  follow 
him  to  Rome,  he  was  pursued  by  the  king's  orders,  and 
overtaken  at  Calais.     His  baggage  was  searched,  but  no- 
thing being  found  of  the  kind  suspected,  he  complained 
Ibudly  of  this  violation  of  his  sacred  character.  '  In  this, 
however,  he  obtained  no  redress,  and  when  king  Henry 
understood  that  the  see  of  Rome  was  not  disposed  to  fa,vour 
him  with  a  divorce  from  his  queen,  he  deprived  Campegio 
of  his  see  of  Salisbury.     He  died  at  Rome  in  August  1539, 
leaving  the  character  of  a  man  of  learning,  and  a  patron  of 
learned  men,  and  much  esteemed  by  Erasmus,  Sadoiet, 
and  other  eminent  men  of  that  time.     His  letters  only  re- 
main, which  contain  many  historical  particulars,  and  were 
published  in  **  Epistolarum  miscellanearum,  libri  decem," 
Basil,  1550,  fol.     Hume  represents  his  conduct,   in   the 
matter  of  the  divorce,  as  prudent  and  temperate,  although 
somewhat  ambiguous. '' 

CAMPER  (Peter),  an  eminent  physician  and  surgeon, 
the  son'  of  Florence  Camper,  a  minister  of  the  reformed 
church,  was  born  at  Leyden  May  11,  1722,  and  was  first 
taught  design  and  painting,  which  enabled  him  in  his  fu- 
ture studies  to  draw  his  anatomical  preparations.  He 
afterwards  studied  medicine  under  Boerhaave,  and  the 
other  eminent  professors  of  Leyden,  and  in  1746  took  his 
degree  of  M.  D.  In  1748,  he  attended  the  hospitals  and 
anatomical  lectures  in  London,  and  afterwards  at  Paris. 
In  1749,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  philosophy,  medi- 
cine, and  surgery  at  Franeker  ;  and  in  1755  taught  these 
sciences  at  Amsterdam,  which  he  quitted  in  1761.  After 
two  years'  residence  at  his  country -jhouse  in  Friesland,  he 
was  appointed  professor  of  medicine^  surgery,  anatomy, 

>  Moreri.:— Docld's  £ccl.  tiist.«— HttBie's  History.— »Fidde3  and  Grore's  Uves 
>f  Cardinal  Wolsey. 



«nd  botany  at  Grpotngen,  whete  he  resided  until  June 
1773,  when  be  settled  at  Franeker,  in  order  to  superin^- 
tend  the  educatioa  of  his.  sons.     la  1762,  he  bad  been 
appointed  a  representative  in  the  assembly  of  the  province 
of  Friesland;  but  in  17S7»  he  was  noimoated  one  of  the 
council  of  state,  and  was  therefore  obliged  to  reside  at  the 
Hague,  where  he  died  i»  April  1789,!  in  the  sixty^seventh 
year  of  his  age.     The  immediate  cause  of  his  death  was  a 
pleurisy,  but  his  eulogist  seems  to  attribute  it  remotely  to 
bis  patriotic  exertions,  and  the  grief  which  oppressed  him 
when  he  saw  the  independence  of  his  country  attacked. 
Whichever  account  be^  true,  be  nyaif. lamented  as  a  learned 
and  ingenious  propaoter  .of  science,  and  an  ornament  to 
his  country.     He  wa^  at  the  time  of  bis  death  a  member 
of  the  royal  socieiy  of  London,  and  of  the  academies  of 
Peter$burgh,  Berlin,  Edinburgh  (the  college  of  physicians), 
Gottiogen,  Manchester,  Haerlem,  Rotterdam,  &c.  and  other 
learned  societies  in  various  parts  of  Europe. 

His  works,  if  not  numerous,  are  highly  valuable,  and 
contain  many  imp9rtant  facts,  and  successful  experunents 
and  improvements.     He  published,  K. '^  DemoDstrationnnpi 
Anatomico-Pathologicarum  liber  primufi,  continens  brachii 
humani  fabricam  et  morbos,  in  folio  maximo,  cum  quatuor 
figuris,^'  Ainst.  1760*     2.  *^  Liber  secundus,  continens  peU 
vis  human®  fabricam  et  morbos,"  1762.     2.  '^  An  account 
of  a  method  of  performing  the  opetation  of  Lithotomy  at 
'two  different  times,''  pubUsbed  in  a  Dutch  journal.     The 
operation  is  performed  at  twice,  that  is,  on  <  the  first  day 
the  surgeon  makes  the  incision  into  the  bladder ;  the  pa- 
tient, is  then  to  be  put  to  bed,  and  the  extraction  of  the 
stone  deferred  until  the  second,  third,  or  fourth  day ;  but 
this  method  has  not  been  attended  with  the  advantages  ex- 
pected from  it.     Camper's  other  wOrks  were  published  by 
his  son  :  3.  '^  A  Dissertation  on  the  fracture  of  the  patella 
and  olecranon,"  1789, 4to. .  4.  *' ATreatise  on  the  natural 
difference  of  features, ,  &c."  which  was  translated  by  Dr. 
Cogan,  and  published  at  London  in  1794,  under  the  title 
"  The  Works  of  the  late  professor  Camper,  on  the  con- 
nection between  the  science  of  ana^niy  and  the  arts  of 
drawing,  painting,  statuary,  &c.   &c.  in   2   books ;    con- 
taining a  treatise  on  tb^  natural  diiFerence  of  features  in 
persons  of  different  countries  and  periods  of  life ;  and  on 
beauty,  as  exhibited  in  ancient  sculpture,  &c."     This  is 
unquestionably  a  work  of  great  curiosity  and  importance  ^ 

vot.vm.  M 

162  C  A  M  P  £  A. 

to  artists^  and  is  one  of  the  best  translated  seientific  books 
in  our  language.  In  1903,  a  collection  of  Camper's  works 
was  published  at  Paris,  in  3  vols.  8to.  with  a  folio  atlafs 
of  piatesy  containing  his  various  dissertations  on  natural 
history,  physiology,  and  comparatire-  anatomy.  To  diese 
is  prefixed  an  account  of  his  life  by  his  son.  Camper  was 
not  less  amiable  in  private  life,  than  celebrated  in  his  pub« 
lie  character.  ^ 

CAMPIAN  (Edmund),  an  ingenious  Roman  catholio 
writer,  was  bom  in  London  in  1540,  and  educated  at 
Christ's  hospital.  Being  a  boy  of  great  parts^  he  was  se- 
lected while  at  school,  to  make  an  oration  before  queen 
Mary  at  her  accession  to  the  crown;  and  from  thence 
elected  scholar  of  St.  John's  college  in  Oxford  by  Thomas 
White,  the  founder  of  it,  in  1553.  He  took  his  degrees 
of  B.  and  M.  A.  regularly,  and  afterwards  went  into  orders. 
In  1566,  when  queen  Elizabeth  was  entertained  at  Ox- 
ford, he  made  an  oration  before  her,  and- also  kept  an  act 
in  St.  Mary's  ch9rcb,  with  very  great  applause  from  that 
learned  queen.  In  1 568,  he  went  into  Ireland,  where  he 
wrote  a  history  of  that  country  in  two  books ;  but  being 
then  discovered  to  have  embraced  the  popish  rdigion,  and 
to  labour  for  proselytes,  he  was  seised  and  detained  for 
some  time.  He  escaped  soon  after  into  England ;  but  in 
1571  transported  himself  into  the  Low  Countries,  and  set- 
tled in  the  English  college  of  Jesuits  at  Doway,  where  h^ 
openly  renounced  the  protestant  religion,  and  had  the  de- 
gree of  B.  D.  conferred  upon  him.  From  thence  he  went 
to  Rome,  where  he  was  admitted  into  the  society  of  Je- 
taitsin  1573;  and  afterwards  sent  by  the  general,  of  his 
order  into  Germany^  He  lived  for  some  time  in  Brune, 
and  then  at  Vienna;  where  he  composed  a  tragedy,  called 
^^  Nectar  and  Ambrosia,"  which  was  acted  before  the  em^ 
peror  with  great  applause.  Soon  after  he  settled  at  Prague 
in  Bohemia,  and  taught  rhetoric  and  philosophy  for  about 
six  years  in  a  college  of  Jesuits,  which  had  been  newly 
erected  there.  At  length  being  called  to  Rome,  he  was 
sent  by  the  command  of  pope  Gregory  .XIII.  into  England, 
where  he  arrived  in  June  1580.  Here  he  performed  all 
the  offices  of  a  zealous  provincial,  and  was  diligent  in  pro<^ 
pagating  his  religion  by  all  the  arts  of  conversation  and 
writing.    He  seems  to  have  challenged  the  English  clergy 

ShgmiM  Aeddaakimui,  vol.  V.— Rcet'j  CydopaeaU. 

C  A  M  P  I  A  N.  I6S 

ta  a  disputation,  by  a  piece  entitled  ^*  Rationes  decern  ob* 
lati  certaminb  in  canaa  iidei^  reddittt  academicis  Angliae^** 
which  was  printed  at  a  prirate  press  in  1581 ;  and  many 
copies  of  which,  as  Wood  tells  ns,  were  dispersed  that 
yeir  in  St.  Mary's  church  aH  Oxford,  during  the  time  of 
an  act.  It  was  afterwards  printed  in  English,  and  ably 
refuted  by  the  English  divinei.  In  short,  Campian,  though 
nobody  knew  where  he  was,  was  yet  so  active  as  to  fall 
under  the  cognizance  of'Walsingham,  secretary  of  state; 
aad  Walsiagham  employed  a  person  to  find  him  out  He 
was  at  last  diacoirered  in  disguise  at  the  house  of  a  private 
gentleman  in  Berks,  from  whence  he  was  conveyed  iii 
great  procession  to  the  Tower  of  London,  with  a  pap^r 
fiuitened  to  his  bat,  on  which  was  written  ^*  Edmund  Cam*^ 
piauj  a  most  pernicious  Jesuit.**  Afterwards,  having  been 
fottnt4  gnilty  of  high  treason  in  adhering  to  the  bishop  of 
Rome,  the  queen's  enemy,  and  in  coming  to  Enghind  to 
disturb  the  peace  and  quiet  of  the  realm,  he  was  hanged 
and  quartered,  widi  other  Romirii  priests,  at  Tyburn,  De- 
cember 1,  1581. 

AU  parties  allow  him  to  have  been  a  most  extraordinary 
man ;  of  adarirable  parts,  an  eloquent  orator,  a  subtile 
pUlosopher  and  skilful  ^sputant,  an  exact  preacher  both 
in  ijatin  and  English,  and  a  man  of  good  temper  ftnd  ad- 
dress. Besides  the  works  already  mentioned,  he  wrote, 
1.  ^^^  NiMf  Articles  directed  to  the  lords  of  the  privy-coun- 
cil," 1581.  3.  *<  The  History  of  Ireland,**  noticed  above, 
published  by  sir  James  Ware,  Dublin,  1633,  fbl.  Thef 
original  MS.  n  in  the  British  Museum.  9.  **  Chronologia 
universalis.**  4.  *^  Conferences  in  the  Tower,^V  published 
by  the  English  divines,  1583,  4to.  5.  ^'Narratio  de  Di- 
vortio,**  Antwerp,  163^1.  6.  "  Orationes,**  ibid.  1631. 
7.  <<£pisi»lflB  tarisfe,^*  ibid.  1631.  8.  «<  De  Imitatione 
Rbetorica,**  ibid.  16^1.  His  life,  iHrritteii  by  Paul  Bom- 
bino,  a  Jesuit,  is  very  scait;e ;  the  best  edition  is  that  of 
Mantua,  1620,  8vo.^ 

CAMPISTRON  {JoHvr  Oalbeut),  was  bom  at  Toulouse 
in  16S6,  and  shewed  an  ^arly  taste  for  poetry,  which  was  * 
improved  by  a  good  education,  and  when  he  came  to 
Paris,  he  tMk  Racine  for' his  guide  in  the  dramatic  career. 
But,^  though  it  may-be'  allowed  that  Campistron  approacihed 

«  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  I.-^^trype's  Parker,  p.  375.— Strype'i  Orindal,  p.  256,  #nd 
Annals.  See  Index.— Archieologia^  toI.  Xni.««»I>odd'f  Churcli  HUt.  vol.  II.— 
Alegambe  BiU.  Soc.  Script  Jefu. 


1«4  C  A  M  P  1  S  T  R  O  N. 

Ilis  merit  in  the  condact  of  his  pieces,  yet  he  could  never 
equal  him  in  the  beauties  of  composition,  nor  in  his  en- 
chanting versification.  Too  feeble  to  avoid  the  defects  of 
Racinei  and  uni^le  like  him  to  atone  for  them  by  beauti^ 
ful  strokes  of  the  sublime^  he  copied  him  in  his  soft  man* 
per  of  ddineating  the  love  of  his  heroes,  of  whom,  it  must 
be  confessed,  he  sometimes  made  inamoratos  fitter  for  the 
most  comic  scenes  than  for  tragedy,  in  which  passion 
ought  always  to  assume  an  elevated  style.  Racine,  whila 
he  was  forming  Campistron  for  the  drama,  was  not  inat* 
tentive  to  promote  the  fortune  of  the  youn^  poet.  Having 
proposed  him  to  the  duke  de  Vend6me  for  the  compositioD 
of  the  heroic  pastoral  of  '^  Acis  and  Galatea,"  which  he  de* 
signed  should  be  represented  at  his  chateau  of  Anet,  that 

{irince,  well  satisfied  both  with  his  character  and  his.  ta«* 
ents,  first  made  him  secretary  of  his  orders,  and  then  se« 
cretary  general  of  the  gallies.     He  afterwards  got  him 
made  knight  of  the  military  order  of  St.  James  in  Spain, 
commandant  of  Cbimene,  and  nmrquis  of  Penange  in  Italy. 
The  poet,  now  become  necessary  to 'the  prince^  by  tb^ 
cheerfulness  of  his  temper  and  the  vivacity  of  his  imagina- 
tion, attended  him  on  his  travels  into  various  countries. 
Campistron,  some  time  after  his  return,  retired  to  his  owi> 
country;    where  he  married  mademoiselle  de  Maniban,^ 
lister  of  the  first  president  of  Toulouse,  and  of  the  bishop 
of  Mirepoix,  afterwards  archbisbop  of  Bourdeaux;   and 
there  he  died  May  11,  ]723,  of  an  apoplexy,  at  the  age 
of  67.     This  stroke  was  brought  on  by  a  fit  of  pa3sion  ex* 
cited  by  two  chairmen  who  refused  to  carry  him  on  ac- 
count of  his  great  weight    Campistron  kept  good  com- 
pany, loved  good  cheer,  and  had  all  the  indolence  of  9^ 
man  of  pleasure.    While  secretary  ^  to  the  duke  de.Ven- 
d6me,  he  found  it  a  more  expeditious  way  to  burn  th^  let- 
ters that  were  .written  to  that  prince  than  to  answer  them. 
Accordingly,  the  duke,  seeing  him  one  day  before  a  large 
fire,  in  which  he  was  easting  a  heap  of  papers :  ^^  There 
•its  Campistron,''  said  he»  ^  employed^  in  answering  my 
^correspondents."    He  followed  the  duke  even  to  the  field 
of  battle.    At  the  battle  of  Steinkerque,  the  duke  seeing 
him  always  beside  him,  said,  ><  What  do  you  do  here, 
Campistron  ?"     *^  Monseigneur,"    answered  he,    '^  I  am 
limiting  to  go  back  with  you."     This  sedateness  of  mind  in 
^  a  moment  of  so  much  danger  was  highly  pleasing  to  the 

hero.    Uis  plajs,  1750^  3  vols.  12mo.  have  been  pearl^ 

C  A  M  P  I  S  T  R  O  N.  161 

fts  often  printed  as  those  of  Comeilley  Racine,  Crebillon; 
and  Voltaire.  The  most  popular  of  them  are. his  **  An*- 
dronicus/'  "Alcibiadesj"  **Acis  and  Galatea j'*  **Phocion/' 
«  Adrian,''  «  Tiridatos/'  "  Phraates,"  and  "  Jaloux  De- 
«abas£/'  * 

CAMPS  (FRjkNcis  de),  was  born  at  Amiens  Jan.  3|, 
1643,  of  very  poor  parents.  Serroni,  bishop  of  Mende, 
took  him  from  the  Dominican  convent  of  the  fttuxbourg  St. 
Germain,  in  Paris,  provided  for  his  education,  and  made 
him  his  sectetary .  This  prelate  also  gave  him  the  priory  at 
Flore,  obtained  for  him  the  abbey  of  St.  Marcel,  the  co^ 
adjutorship  of  Gland^ves,  and  lastly  the  bishopric  of  Pa- 
niiers.  But  not  able  to  obtain  his  bulls  from  Rome,  on 
account  of  his  bad  conduct,  he  had  by  way  of  compensa- 
tion the  abbey  of  Signy.  He  is  the  author  of  several  dis- 
sertations on  medals,  on  the  history  ofTrance,  on  the  title 
of  Most  Christian  given  to  the  kings  of  France,  on  the 
guard  of  these  monarchs,  on  the  daughters  of  the  house  of 
I'rance  given  in  marriage  to  heretical  or  pagan  princes,  on 
the  nobility  of  the  royal  race,  on  the  heredity  of  the  grand 
fiefs,  on  the  origin  of  ensigns  armorial,  ort  the  hereditary 
dignities  attached  to  titled  estates,  &c.  all  which  were 
pubhshed  in  the  Paris  Mercuries  for  1719,  1720,  1722, 
and  1723.  His  cabinet  was  rich  in  medals ;  the  celebrated 
Vaillant  published  the  most  curious  of  them  acconppanied 
with  explications.  Abb^  de  Camps  died  at  Paris  in  1723, 
aged  81.  He  was  learned  and  laborious,  and  his  investi- 
gations ha,ve  been  of  great  use  to  the  historians  that  bav^ 
came  after  him.  * 

CAMUS  (Antony  lb),  a  French  physician,  was  born 
at  Paris  in  1722,  and  died  in  the  same  city  in  1772,  at  50 
years  of  age.  He  practised  medicine  there  with  great  suc- 
cess^ and  wrote,  1.  "Medicine  de  Pesprit,"  Paris,  1753, 
2^  vols.  12mo,  in  which  his  reasonings  are  not  always- just; 
but  his  conjectures  are  in  general  very  ingenious,  and  may 
he  of  great  service.  2.  ^*  Abdeker,''  or  the  art  of  preserv- 
ing beauty,  1756,  4  vols,  small  twelves;  a  romance  in 
which  the  author  introduces  a  variety  of  receipts  and  pre- 
cepts for  the  benefit  of  the  ladies.  The  true  cosmetics  are 
exercise  and  temperance.  A  translation  of  part  of  this  ap- 
peared in  English,  but  before  the  above  date,  1754,  in 
one  vol.  l2mo.     3.  "  Memoires  sur  divers  jsujets  de  medi- 

'  Moreri.— 'Diet.  Hist— See  art  ALUtom  in  vol,  I.—Niceron* 
9  Moreri^Dict.  Hiit. 

I6i  ,    .    C  A  M  U  S. 

cine/'  1760,  8vo.  4.  '^  Meihoire  8(!ir  Tetat  actuel  de  H 
Pharmacie/'  1765,  12aio.  5.  "  Projet  d'aneauiirla  Petite- 
verole,*'  1767,  12mo,  6.  **  Medicine  pratique,"  3  vols. 
12mo,  and  1  vol.  4to.  7.  **  Ampbitbeatrum  poeticum,'' 
a  poem,  1745,  4to.  He  also  was  editor  of  the  '^'  Journal 
Economique,''  from  1753  to  1765,  and  exhibited  in  all 
his  works  various  talents,  and  considerable  powers  of  fancy 
as  well  as  of  science.  One  of  bis  brothers,  Nicolas  Camus 
DE  M£Zi£H£S,  was  a  skilful  architect,  and  published  some 
works  on  that  subject;  particularly  ^^Dissertations  sur  le 
boisde  charpente,"  Paris,  1763,  12mo.  "  Le  Genie  d' Ar- 
chitecture," ibid.  1780,  8vo;  "Traill  de  la  force  de 
bois,"  1782,  8vo;  and  "  Le  guide  de  ceux  quL  veulent 
batir,"  2  vols.  8vo.  He  died  July  24,  1779.  Another 
brother,  Armand  Gaston  Camus,  who  died  in  1 804,  was 
a  very  active  agent  in  all  the  revolutionary  measures  of  the 
diiferent  French  assemblies,  and  being  sent  to  arrest  Du- 
mourier  in  1793,  was  delivered  by  bim  to  the  Austrians, 
and  afterwards  exchanged  for  the  daughter  of  Louis  XVL 
His  political  conduct  belongs  to  the  history  of  those  turbu- 
lent periods*  In  ISOO  be  was  commissioned  to  inspect  the 
libraries  and  collections  of  the  united  departments,  and 
particularly  examined  the  library  of  Brussels,  which  is  rich 
in  MSS.  He  was  a  man  of  some  learning,  and  extensive 
knowledge  of  books;  and  published,  1.  *^  Observations  sur 
la  distribution  et  le  classement  des  livres  d'une  biblio- 
thcque."  2.  *'  Memoire  sur  un  livre  AUemand,"  the  famous 
Tewrdannckhs.  3.  "Memoire  sur  Phistoire  et  les  pro- 
c^d^s  du  Polytypage  et  de  la  Stereotype."  4.  **  Rapport 
sur  la  continuation  de  la  collection  des  Historiens  de  la 
France,  et  de  celle  des  Chartres  et  Dipilomes."  5.  "  No- 
tice d'un  livre  imprim6  a  Bamberg  in  1462,'*  a  very  curi- 
ous memoir  of  a  book,  first  described  in  the  Magasin  Hist 
Litt.  Bib^iog.  1792.  6.  <<  Memoire  sur  la  collection  des 
grands  et  petits  voyages,''  1802,  4to.  In  the  "Notices 
des  MSS.  de  la  Bibl.  Nationale,"  vol.  VI.  is  an  interesting 
memoir  by  him,  relating  to  two. ancient  manuscript  bibles, 
in  2  vols.  fol.  adorned  with  5152  pictures,  each  of  them 
having  a  Latin  and  French  verse  beautifully  written  and 
illuminated  beneath.  ^    '  , 

CAMUS  (Charles   Stephen    Lewis),    a    celebrated 
French  mathematician,  examiner  of  the  royal  schools  of 

1  Diet.  Hist— Biog*  MQdtenu3.-^Dibdiii'f  BibUongftaia,  p<  «8.  - 

CAMUS.  167 

axtillery  and  engineersi  secretary  and  professor  of  the  royal 
academy  of  architecture,  honorary  member  of  that  of  the 
marine,  and  fellow  of  the  royal  society  of  London,  w^ 
born  at  Cressy  en  Brie,  August  25,  1699.  His  early  in* 
genuity  in  mechanics  and  his  own  intreaties  induced  bis 
parents  to  send  him  to  study  at  a  college  in  Paris,  at  ten 
years  of  age;  where  in  the  space  of  two  years  his  progress 
was  so  great,  that  he  was  able  to  give  lessons  in  mathe* 
matics,  and  thus  to  defray  his  own  expences  at  the  college 
without  any  farther  charge  to  his  parents.  By  the  assist* 
ance  of  the  celebrated  Varignon,  young  Camus  soon  ran 
through  the  course  of  the  higher  mathematics,  and  acquired 
a  name  among  the  learned.  He  made  himself  more  particu<<' 
larly  known  to  the  academy  of  sciences  in  1727  by  his  me* 
moir  upon  the  subject  of  the  prize  which  they  had  proposed 
tor  that  year,  viz.  ^^  To  determine  the  most  advantageoua 
way  of  masting  ships  ;**  in  consequence  of  which  he  waa 
named  that  year  adjoint  mechanician  to  the  academy ;  and 
in  1730  he  was  appointed  professor  of  architecture.  In  jiesa 
than  three  years  after,  he  was  honoured  with  the  secretary-*- 
ship  of  the  same;  and  the  18th  of  April  1733,  he  obtained 
the  degree  of  associate  in  the  academy,  where  he  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  memoirs  upon  living  forces,  or  bo- 
dies in  motion  acted  upon  by  forces,  on  the  figure  of  the 
teeth  of  wheels  and  pinions,  on  pump  work,  and  several 
other  ingenious  memoirs. 

In  1736  he  was  sent,  in  company  with  messieurs  Clairaut^ 
Haupertuisy  and  Monnier,  upon  the  celebrated  expedition 
to  measure  a  degree  at  the  north  polar  circle ;  in  which  he 
rendered  himself  highly  useful,  not  only  as  a  mathema^. 
tician, .  but  also  as  a  ^mechanician  and  an  .artist,  branches 
for  which  be  had  a  remarkable  talent.  In  1741  Camus  had 
the  honour  to  be  appointed  pensioner  geometrician  in  the 
academy ;  and  the  same  year  he  invented  a  gauging-rod 
and  sliding-rule  proper  at  once  to  gauge  all  sorts  of  casks, 
and  to  calculate  their  contents.  Aloiout  the  year  1747  he 
was  named  examiner  of  the  schools  of  artillery  and  en- 
gineers; and,  in  1756,  one  of  the  eight .  ndathematicians 
appointed  to  examine  by  a  new  measiii^^ent,  the  base 
which  had  formerly  been  measured  by  Picard,  between 
yillejuive  aud  Juvisi;  an  operation  ^n  which  bis  ingenuity 
and  exactness  were  of  great  utility.  In  1765  M.  Camus 
was  eleot^  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society  of  London ;  aiid 
died  the  4th  of  May  i763t,  in  the  sixty -ninth  year  of  his 

16S'  0  A  MV  d; 

age.;  being  succ^ded  by  the  celebrated  d'Alemb^rt  in  bis 
office  of  geometrician  in^tbe  French  academy ;  and  leaving 
behi:)d  him  a  great  number  of  manuscript  treatises  on  va- 
rious branches  of  the  mathematics;  The  works  published 
by  M.  Camus  are,  1.  "  Course  of  Mathematics  for  the  use 
of  "the  Engineers,'*  4  vols.  8vo.  2.  "  Elements  of  Me- 
chanics." 3.  "  Elements  of  Arithmetic.**  And  his  me- 
moirs printed  in  the  volumes  of  the  academy  are,  1.  **  Of 
accelerated  motions  by  living  forces,"  vol.  for  1716.  2. 
**  Solution  of  a  geometrical  problem  of  M.  Cramer,'*  1732. 
8."  On  the  figure  of  the  teeth  and  pinions  in  Clocks,**" 
17^3.  4.  "  On  the  action  of  a  musket-ball,  piercing  a 
prfetty  thick  piece  of  wood,  without  communicating  any 
considerable  velocity  to  it,"  1738.  5.  **.On  the  best  man- 
lier of  employing  Buckets  for  raising  Water,"  1739.  6. 
«  A  problem  in  Statics,*'  1740.    7.  "  On  an  Instrument  for 

tanging  of  vessels,"  1741.  8.  "  On  the  Standard  of  the 
11  measure,"  1746.  9.  **  On  the  Tangents  of  points  com- 
ttton  to  several  branches  of  the  same  curve,"  1747.  10. 
^^•On  the  operations  in  measuring  the  distance  between 
the  centres  of  the  pyramidis  of  Villejuive  and  Juvisi,  to 
discover  the  best  measure  of  the  degree  about  Paris,"  1754. 
11 .  «  On  the  Masting  of  Ships  ;**  Prize  Tom.  II.  12. "  The 
Manner  of  working  Oars  ;*'  Mach.  tom.  II.  13.  **  A  Machine 
for  moving  many  Colters  at  once;"  Mach.  tom.  II.  ^ 

CAMUS  (John  Peter),  an  exemplary  French  prelate, 
n^as  born  at  Paris  in  1582,  and  on  account  of  bis  excellent 
character  and  talents,  was  nominated  to  the  bishopric  of 
B«llay  by  Henry  IV.  in  1600,  before  he  was  of  age,  but 
having  obtained  the  pope*s dispensation,  he  was  consecrated 
on  Dec,  30th  of  the  same  year.  From  'this  time  h^  ap- 
pears to  have  devoted  his  time  and  talents  to  the  edification 
of  his  flock,  and  of  4iie  people  at  large,  by  frequent  prelach- 
ingi,  and  more  frequent  publicatioh  of  numerous  works  cal- 
culated to  divert  their  attention  to  this  conciernsbf  an  im- 
mortallife.  In  his  time  romances  began  to'be'thefa^urite 
books  with  all  who  would  be  thought  readers  6f  taste;  and 
Camus,  considering  that  it  would  not  be  eitsy  to^petsuade 
them  to  leave  off  such  books  without  supplyinjg  them  with 
some  kind  of  substitute,  pubiishied  several  works  of  prac- 
tical i^ety  with  a  mixture  of  romantic  nai'rative,  by  Which 

'     *     »     • 

1  Diet,  Hist— Hutton't  Math,  Pi^on«ryf«*-L«  Necnologe  id«i  Ji»Hmki^Qiy^ 
1»re6  di^  Prance,  17S9,  ISmo,  .    < . 

CAM  us;  16a 

he  hoped  to  attract  and  amuse  the  attention  of  romance- 
readers,  and  draw  them  on  insensibly  to  matters  of  religious^ 
importance.  He  contrived,  therefore,  that  the  lovers,  in 
these  novels,  while  they  encounterc^d  the  usual  perplexities; 
should  be  led  to  see  the  vanity  and  perishable  nature  of  all 
human  enjoyments,  and  to  form  resolutions  of  tenouncing 
worldly  delights,  and  embracing  a  religious  life.  Among 
these  works  we  find  enumerated,  1.  **  Doroth^e,  ou  recit 
de  la  pitoyable  issue  d'une  volont^  violentfie,"  Paris,  ,1621. 
2.  "  Alexis,''  1622,  3  vols.  8vo.  3.  L'Hyacinte,  histoire 
Catalane,"  ibid.  1627,  Svo.  4.  ^^  Alcime,  relation  fiilieste^' 
&c.''  ibid.  12mo,  1625,  &c.  But  the  principal  objedt  of 
his  reforming  spirit  was  the  conduct  of  the  monk:^,  or  men- 
dicant fiiars,  against  whom  he  wrote  vafibiis  severe  re- 
monstrances, and  preached  against  thiem  ivrith  a  mixture 
of  religious  fervour  and  satirical  humour.  Among  the 
works  he  published  against  them  are,  1.'^' Le  Directeur 
desintcress^,"  Paris,  1632,  i2mo.  2.  "  Desappropriationr 
claustrale,''  Besan^on,  1634.  3.  '^  Le  Rabat-joye  du  tri- 
omphe  mona5al."  4.  "  L'anti-'Moine  bien  prepare,"  1632, 
&c.  &c.  These  monks  teazed  the  cardinal  Richelieu  to 
silence  him,  and  the  cardinal  told  him,  ^<  I  really  find  no 
other  fault  with  yon  but  this  horrible  bitterness  against 
the  monks;  were  it  not  for  that,  I  would  canonize  you.'* 
**  I  wish  that  may  come  to  pass,'*  said  the  bishop,  "  for 
then  we  should  both  have  our  wish ;  you  would  be  pope, 
and  I  a  saint."  Many  of  'his  bons-mots  were  long  in 
circulation,  and  show  that  he  had  the  courage  to  reprove 
vices  and  absurdities  amoitg  the  highest  classes.  In  1620 
he  established  in  the  city  of  Bellay  a  convent  of  capuchins, 
and  in  1622  one  for  the  nuns  of  the  visitation,  instituted 
by  St  Francis  de  Sales.  In  1629  he  resigned  his  bishopric' 
that  he  might  pass  the  remainder  of  his  day%  in  retirement, 
in  the  abbey  of  Cluny  in  Normandy,  but  the  atrdhbishop  bf 
Rouen,  unwiUing  that  sb  active  a  member'  of  the  church 
should  not  bfe  employed  in  public  services,  associated  him 
in  his  episcopal -cares,  by  appbihting  him  his  grand  Vicatv 
At  lengl^  he  finaHy  retired  to' the  hospital'  of  incurables  in 
Parts,  where  he  died  April  26*,  1652.  Morerihas  enu- 
merated a  large  catalogue  of  "his  works,  the  princi]balof 
which,!  besides  what  Vire  baVe  'enumeratfed,  are,  **  L'Esprit 
de  S.  Francois  de  Sales,"  6  vols.  Svo,  reduced  to  one  by  a 
doctor  of  the  Sorbonne ;  and  "  L' Avoisinement  des  Pro- 
testans  avec  I'Eglise  Romaine/'  republished  iu  1703  by 

170  CAM  US/ 

Richard  Simon,  under  the  title  of  '<  Moyens  de  reunir  les 
Procestaus  avec  TEglise  Romaine."  Simon  asserted,  that 
Bossuet's  exposition  of  the  catholic  faith  was  no  more  than 
this  work  in  a  new  dress.  ^ 

CAMUSAT  (Nicholas)^  >  French  historian,  was  bora 
at  'Trpyes  in  1575,  In  his  eighteenth  year  he  was  pro- 
moted to  a  canojiry  in  the  cathedral  of  his  native  city,  but 
appears  to  have  devoted  himself  chiefly  to  the  study  of  his- 
tory and  antiquities.  He  died  Jan.  20,  1655,  in  the 
eightieth  year  of  his  age,  after  publishing^  1.  <^  Chronolo- 
gia  ab  origine  orbis,  usque  adanx).  1200,  auctore  anonymo, 
9ed  ccenobii  ^.  Mariani  apud  Altissiodorum  (Auxerre)  re- 
gulss  Prsmonstratensis  monacho,"  with  an  appendix  to  th^ 
year  1223  i  Trecis.  (Troyes)  1608,  4to,  2.  "  Promptuarium 
sacrarum  antiquitatum  Tricassine  dioBcesis,  &c.''  1610,  Svo, 
a  work  of  great  utility  to  those  who  have  tfaie  curiosity  to 
study  the  history  of  ecclesiastical  discipline.  3.  <^  Historia 
Albigensium,  &a  auctore  Petro,  ccenobii  Vallis-Sarn^nsia 
ordinis  Cisterciensis  in  dioDcesi  Parisiensi  monacho,^^  Tre« 
cis,  1618,  8vo.  This  history^  which  Camusat  first  published 
from  the  original  MS.  was  translated  into  French  by  Arnaud 
Sorbin,  Paris,  1615.  4.  **  Melanges  historiques,  ou  recueil 
de  plusieurs  actes,  trait^s,  et  lettres  missives^  depuis  Tan 
1390  jusqu'a  Tan  1580,"  ibid.  1619,  8vo.  Some  of  hi& 
historical  communications  are  in  Duchesne's  collection  of 
French  historians,  and  in  othpr collections.' 

CAMUSAT  (Francis  Deni^is),  grand  nephew  of  the 
preceding,  was  born  at  Besan^on,  where  his  father  was  an 
advocate,  in  1697,  and  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1732.  In 
this  city  he  was  employed  in  the  journals,  to  relieve  the 
distress  he  brought  upon  himself  by  quitting  the  post  of 
secretary  and  librarian  to  marechal  d'Estre^s,  and  marry- 
ing without  any  fortune.  He  left  ^^  Hist  Critiques  dea 
Journaux  qui  sUmpriment  en  France,"  9  vols.  12mo ;  *^  3ib- 
liotheque  des  Livres  nouveaux,"  of.  which  only  2  vols,  haye 
appeared.  The  first  four  volumes  of  the  *^  Bibliotheqiie 
Fraufoise,**  which  consists  of  34  vols.  4ta;  <<  Melange^.de 
liitteniture,'*  taken  from  manuscijpt  letters  of  Chapelai(»|t 
&c.  1 2mo.  He  appears  to  have  been  of  au  unsteady  te^-* 
per,  never  studying  but  to  relieve  his  necessities,  and 
shifting  from  one  pursuit  to  another  witliout  ^ompietiQg 

any-!  ^ 

*  Moreri. — ^Dict  Hist— -Femult  Let  HomnHes  tllttstres.— 'Fnshen  TheaCruin. 
^Biof .  Gattica,  vol.  I.  ?  liwwri.    .    .    ^      *  IW. 

CANAL.  171 

CANAL,  or  CANALETTO  (Antonio),  an  tminent 
painter  of  Venice,  was  born  in  1697,  the  son  of  one  Ber«» 
nardo  a  scene-painter.  He  followed  the  profession  of  his 
father,  and  acquired  a  wildness  of  conception  and  a  readi«- 
ness  of  band  which  afterwards  supplied  him  with  ideas  and 
dispatch  for  his  nearly  numberless  smaller  works.  Tired 
of  the  theatre,  he  went  young  to  Rome,  and  with  great 
fissiduity  applied  himself  to  paint  views  from  nature  and 
the  ruins  of  antiquity.  On  his  return  to  Venice  he  con- 
tinued the  same  studies  from  the  prospects  of  that  city 
which  the  combination  of  nature  and  art  has  rendered  ohe 
of  the  most  magnificent  and  the  most  novel  of  Europe. 
Numbers  of  these  are  exact  copies  of  the  spots  they  re- 
present, and  hence  highly  interesting  to  those  whose  cu*- 
riosity  has  not  been  gratified  by  residence  in  the  metropolis 
of  the  Adriatic.  Numbers  are  the  compound  of  bis  own 
invention,  graceful  mixtures  of  modern  and  antique,  of 
fancied  and  real  beauties :  such  he  painted  for  Algarotti. 
The  most  instructive  and  the  most  novel  of  these  appears 
to  be  that  view  of  the  grand  canal,  in  which  he  adopted  the 
idea  of  Palladio,  by  substituting  the  Rialto  for  its  present 
bridge,  with  the  basilica  of  Vicenza  rising  in  the  centre, 
the  palace  Chericato  and  other  fabrics  of  that  great  archi- 
tect rounding  the  whole.  Canaletto  made  use  of  the  ca« 
mera  to  obtain  precision,  but  corrected  its  defects  in  the 
air-tints ;  he  was  the  first  who  shewed  to  artists  its  real  use 
and  limits.  He  produced  great  effects  somewhat  in  the 
manner  of  Tiepolo,  who  sometimes  made  his  figures,  and 
impressed  a  character  of  vigour  on  every  object  he  touched  i 
we  see  them  in  their  most  striking  aspect.  He  takes  pic« 
turesque  liberties  without  extravagance,  and  combines  bis 
objects  so  congenially,  that  the  common  spectator  finds 
nature,  and  the  man  of  knowledge  the  art. 

Lord  Orford  informs  us  that  he  came  to  England  in  1746^ 
when  he  was  about  the  i^  of  fifty,  by  persuasion  of  his 
countryman  Amiconi,  and  encouraged  by  the  multitude  of 
pictures  lie  had  sold  to,  or  sent  over  to  the  English.  He  was 
then  in  good  circumstances,  and  it  was  said  came  oyer  to 
vest  his  money  in  our  stocks.  Lord  Orford  thinks  he  did  not 
stay  above  two  years.  At  Strawberry  hill  i$  a  perspective 
by  him  of  the  inside  of  King's  college  chapel,  Cambridge ; 
and  at  Buckingham-bouse  are  several  large  pieces  far  su- 
perior to  his  coaunoQ  views  of  Venice.  They  had  belong^ 
to  Smythi  the  English  oonsul  at  Venice,  who  early  en- 

172  CANAL. 

gaged  Canaletto  to  work  for  him  for  a  long  teitin  of  years 
at  low  rates,  but  retailed  the  pictures  to  travelling  English 
at  higher  prices.  Canaletto  died  in  1768,  aged  seventy- 
one,  Mr.  Fuseli  adds,  that  Francesco  Guardi,  his  scholar, 
has  been  of  late  considered  as  the  rival  of  his  fame,  and 
his  views  of  Venice  have  excited  in  Italy  and  on  this  side 
of  the  Alps,  the  admiration  of  those  whom  the  brilliancy 
of  his  effect  and  the  taste  of  his  method  prevented  from 
perceiving  how  much  he  wants  of  the  precision  and  soli- 
dity of  the  master.     He  died  1793,  aged  eighty-one.  * 

CANANUS  (John  Baptist),  one  of  the  restorers  and 
improvers  of  anatomy,  was  born  at  Ferrara,  in  Italy,  iu 
1515,  where  he  acquired  so  much  reputation  for  his  skill  in 
medicine,  that  he  was  invited  to  Rome  by  pope  Julius  III. 
who  made  him  archiator,  and  his  principal  physician.  On 
the  death  of  the  pope  he  returned  to  Ferrara,  and  pursued 
his  anatomical  researches.  He  first  discovered  the  valves  of 
the  veins,  which  were  afterwards  more  completely  described 
by  Vesalius.  The  work  by  which  he  is  known,  of  which 
only  four  complete  copies  are  said  to  be  in  existence,  is 
**  Musculorum  humani  corporis  picturata  dissectio,"  4to, 
printed,  Haller  thinks,  in  1543,  no  date  or  place  named. 
The  figures,  twenty-seven  in  number,  are.  neatly  engraved 
on  copper,  and  represent  the  muscles  of  the  upper  extre- 
mities. In  the  preface,  he  promises  a  continuation  of  the 
work,  which  he  probably  did  not  finish.    He  died  in  1579.  ■ 

CANAYE  (Philip  de  la),  seigneur  du  Fresne,  counsel- 
lor of  state,  was  born  1551  at  Paris,  and  carefully  educstted 
by  his  father  James  de  la  Canaye,  an  eminent  advocate. 
At  the  age  of  fifteen,  having  declared  himself  a  Calvinist, 
he  went  into  Italy,  Germany,  and  to  Constanstinople ;  and 
published  an  account  of  his  travels  to  that  city,  under  the 
title  of  ^^  Ephemerides.**  He  shone  afterwards  at  the  bar, 
and  was  counsellor  of  state  under  Henry  III.  Henry  IV. 
sent  hitn  embassador  into  England,  Germany,  and  to  Ve- 
liice.  He  assisted  at  the  famous  conference  of  Fontaine- 
bleau,  1600,  between  cardinal  du  Perron  and  Duplessis- 
Momay,  and  afterwards  turned  catholic.  The  year  fol- 
lowing be  was  sent  ambassador  to  Venice,  where  he  contri- 
buted greatly  to  the  termination  of  the  disputes  between 
that  republic  and  pope  Paul  V.    He  died  at  his  return  to 

'■^  PilkingtoiL— Walpole't  Anecdotal. 

»  SaUer  Bitil.  ABtU— Reel's  Cyclepvdta. 

C  N  A  A  Y  E.  171 

Parisi  February  27, 1610.    Three  vols.  fol.  of  his  embassies 
were  published  in  1635,  with  his  life  prefixed  to  the  first.  ^ 
CANDIDO  (P£T£r),  was  an  artist,  whose  real  name  was 
De  Witte  (or  White),  although  Sandrart  calls  him  Candido, 
as  also  does  De  Piles,  on  account  of  that  name  being  in- 
scribed on  some  of  the  prints  engraved  after  the  designs  o£ 
this  artist.     Some  authors  affirm  that  he  was  born  at  Mu- 
nich ;  but  Descamps  asserts,  that  he  was  born  at  Bruges, 
io  Flanders,  in  1548,  although  he  probably  might  have  re- 
sided for  several  years  at  Munich,  and  perhaps  have  died 
there.     He  painted  with  equal  success  in  fresco  and  in 
oil,  and  had  an  excellent  genius  for  modelling.   He  worked 
in  conjunction  with  Vasari  at  the  pope^s  palace  in  Rome^ 
and  was  also  employed  at  Florence  by  the  grand  djuke ;  in 
both  places  affording  competent  proofs  of  his  skill,  and 
gaining  r^utation  ;  till  at  last  he  was  taken  into  the  ser- 
vice of  the  elector  Maximilian  of  Bavaria,  and  spent  the 
remainder  of  his  life  in  the  court  of  that  prince.     Several 
prints  are  pubUshed  by  Sadeler,    after  his  designs  and 
paintings ;  particularly  the  Hermits,  and  the  Four  Doctors 
of  the  Church.  • 


CANGIAGI  (Lucas),  or  CAMBIASO,  called  Luchet- 
TO,  an  eminent  Genoese  painter,  was  born  at  Oneglia, 
near  <jrenoa,  in  1527,  and  became  a  most  expeditious 
painter,  working  with  both  his  hands,  by  which  unusual 
power  be  executed  more  designs,  and  finished  more  great 
works  with  his  own  pencil  in  a  much  shorter  time  than  most 
other  artists  could  do  with  several  assistants.  It  is  men- 
tioned as  a  memorable  circumstance  in  bis  life,  that  at  the 
^ge  of  seventeen  he  was  employed  in  painting  the  front  of 
a  house  in  fresco ;  but  whilst  he  was  commencing  his  work, 
some  Florentine  painters  who  were  actually  engaged,  con- 
ceived him  to  be  a  mere  grinder  of  colours,  and  when  he 
took  up  his  pallet  and  pencils  they  wished  to  have  pre- 
vented his  proceeding  with  it,  lest  he  should  spoil  the 
work,  but  after  a  few  strokes  of  his  pencil  they  were  con- 
vinced of  their  mistake,  and  respected  his  singular  abilities. 
Of  Cangiagi,  it  is  remarked,  that  he  practised  three  dif- 
.  ferent  modes  of  painting  at  three  different  periods  of  his 
life.     His  first  manner  was  gigantic  and  unnatural,  which 

»  L'Arocat.— Mamri,       .    .   -       .     «  Pilkioftoii. 

in  C  A  N  G  I  A  G  I. 


be  corrected  in  consequence  of  the  remonslraiices  of  his 
friend  Aiessi^  the  celebrated  architect^  for  his  best  style^^ 
in  forming  which  he  consulted  nature  with  attention,  and 
digested  his  thoughts  in  sketches,  before  he  began  to  paint, 
tlis  third  manner  was  distinguished  by  a  more  rapid  exe- 
cution, to  which  he  recurred  in  order  to  make  more  am* 
pie  provision  for  his  wife  and  family,  and  had  a  great 
deal  of  the  mannerist.  His  works  at  Genoa  are  very  nu^ 
merous,  and  he  was  employed  by  the  king  of  Spain  to 
adorn  part  of  the  Escurial. 

Of  his  personal  history,  we  are  told  that  in  his  youth  he 
was  volatile,  and  that  when  bis  wife  died  he  became  ena* 
moured  of  her  sister,  but  could  not  obtain  a  dispensation 
from  the  pope  to  marry  her,  although  he  endeavoured  to 
gain  his  favour  by  painting  two  fine  pictures  for  his  boli-» 
ness.  When  employed  by  Philip  II.  of  Spain,  Jbe  wished 
to  obtain  his  leave  to  marry  the  lady,  but  was  again,  nn^ 
successful,  and  it  is  supposed  the  disappointment  contri^- 
buted  to  his  death,  which  happened  at  the  Escurial  in  1  Si5. 
In  the  royal  collection  at  Paris  there  are  a  ^'  Sleeping  Ca-» 
pid,''  as  large  as  life,  and  likewise  *^  Judith  with  her  At* 
tendant,'*  which  do  honour  to  this  master.  In  the  Pem^ 
broke  collection  at  Wilton,  there  is  a  picture,  represent- 
ing Christ  bearing  his  cross,  which  is  ascribed  to  Can-/ 

CANINIUS  (Anoelus),  a  learned  scholar  of  the  six-^ 
teenth  century,  was  a  native  of  Anghiari  in  Tuscany,  where 
he  acquired  great  reputation  by  his  knowledge,  not  only 
of  the  Greek,  Latin,  and  Hebrew,  but  of  the  Syriac  and 
other  oriental  languages,  which  he  taught  at  Venice,  Pa-* 
dua,  Bologna,  Rome,  and  Spain.  From  Spain  be  came 
to  France  m  1550,  accompanied  by  fiither  Simon  Guicfaard, 
then  superior  of  Uie  order  of  the  Minims ;  and  at  Paris,  he 
had  for  one  of  his  scholars,  the  celebrated  Andrew  Duditb  , 
of  Buda.  At  length  he  attached  himself  to  William  do^ 
Prat,  bishop  of  Clermont,  in  whose  service  he  died  at 
Auvergne  in  1557.     He  was  the  author  of  some  works  j 

which  have  not  appeared,  but  among  those:  published  was 
a  very  valuable  Greek  grammar,,  entitled  '^  Uellenismus,^' 
and  a  book  of  instructions  in  tiie  oriental  languages,  en«    v 
titled   *^  Institudones  lingu»mm   Syriacae,  Assyriacse,   et 
Thalmudicae,  una  cum  iEthiopicss  et  Arabicse  collatione,''  j 

I  Pil|tii«lia.«-4yAiBeiiviis»  vol»  It 


C  A  W  I  N  I  U  S.  175 

Paris,  1554,  4to,  which  was  mudh  esteemed  by  the  learned 
of  bis  time.  ^ 

CANI8IUS  (Henry),  or  De  Hondt,  the  nephew  of 
Peter  Canisius,  first  provincial  of  the  Jesuits  in  Germany, 
who  died  in  1597,  was  born  at  Nimeguen^  and  became  not 
only  a  celebrated  lawyer,  but  a  general  scholar  of  great 
reputation,  particularly  in  ecclesiastical  antiquities.  After 
studying  at  the  university  of  Louvain,  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  canon  law  in  that  of  Ingolstadt,  which  situa- 
tion he  retained  until  his  death  in  1610.  His  professional 
writings  were  principally,  1.  **  Summa  juris  Canonici." 
a.  "  Commentarium  in  regulas  juris.'*  3.  "  Prselectiones 
academicfie,"  &c.  ail  collected  and  republished  by  Andrew 
Bouvet  in  **^  Opera  Canonica  Canisii,'*  Louvain,  1649,  4to, 
Cologne,  1662.  But  the  work  by  which  he  is  best  known 
is  bis  3.  <<  Antiquae  lectiones,'*  1601 — 1603,  7  vols.  4to, 
reprinted  by  the  tare  of  M.  James  Basnage,  ujider  the 
title  of  *' Thesaurus  monumentorum  ecclesiasticorum  & 
historfcorum,'*  &c.  Amsterdam,  1725,  in  7  parts,  usually 
bound  in  4  vols,  folio.  The  learned  editor  has  enriched 
them  with  particular  prefaces  at  the  head  of  each  work,  in- 
dicating the  subject  and  the  author,  accompanied  by  use- 
ful tod  Curious  reuiarks,  and  some  note^  of  Capperonier, 
This  collection  comprises  several  pieces  of  great  import- 
ance to  the  history  of  the  middle  ages,  and  to  chronology 
in  general.  Basnage,  ail  we  have  noticed  in  his  life,  died 
before  this. Work  was  entirely  printed.* 

CANITZ  (the  Baron  o^),  a  German  poet  and  statesman, 
and  privy  counsellor  of  state.  Was  of  an  ancient  and  illus- 
trious family  in  Brandenburg,  and  bom  at  Berlin  in  16.54, 
five  months  after  his  father's  deat)i.  After  his  early  stu- 
dies, he  travelled  to  France,  Italy,  Holland,  and  England ; 
and  upon  his  return  to  his  country,'  was  charged  with  im- 
portant negociatiobs  by  Frederic  II.  and  Frederfc  til. 
Cahitz  united  the  statesman  with  the  poet;  and  was  con- 
versant in  many  lianguages,  dead  as  well  as  living.  His 
German  poems  were  published  for  the  tenth  time,  1750,  in 
8vo.  He  is  said  to  have  taken  Horace  for  his  model,  and 
to  have  written  purely  aiid  delicately;  and  the  French  bio- 
graphers complimented  him  with  the  title  of  the  Pope  of 
Germany.     He  not  odly  cultivated  the  fine  arts  himself, 

*  Gen.  Diet — Moreri. — Saxii  Onommit 

'  MQreri.-f-FoppeB  BibL  Belg.<— Bsillci  JiifeflMni.^p-Saidt  Onomast. 

176  C  A  N  I  T  Z;. 

but  gave  all  the  eocouragement  he  could  to  them  in  others. 
He  died  at  Berlin  in  1699,  highly  praised  for  the  excel- 
lence of  his  private  character.  ^ 

CANNE  (John),  was  a  leader  of  the  Engl^h  Brownists 
at  Amsterdam,  whither  he  fled  on  the  restoration  ;  but 
little  is  known  of  his  personal  history.  His  employ  in  Eng- 
land before  his  flight  seems  to  have  been  no  other  than 
compiling  the  weekly  news,  yet  he  found  time  sufficient  to 
collate  many  passages  of  Scripture,  from  whence  he  drew 
his  notes,  which  he  placed  in  the  margin  of  his  Bible  ;  the 
first  edit,  printed  in  8vo,  at  Amsterdam,  in  1664,  is  the 
rarest,  but  the  best,  perhaps,  is  that  of  Edinburgh,  1727, 
8vo.  In  the  preface  be  mentions  a  larger  work,  to  be  soon 
published,  but  it  does  not  seem  to  have  ever  been  printed. 
It  was  his  opinion  that  the  original  text  of  scripture  in 
Hebrew  and  Greek  should  be  translated,  as  much  as  pos- 
sible, word  for  word,  as  Ainswortb  did  the  Pentateuch,  the 
Psalms,  and  Canticles,,  which  were  all  printed  together  in 
1639,  folio.  Ganne  succeeded  Ainsworth  as  preacher  to 
the  congregation  of  Brownists  at  Amsterdam.  * 

CANO  (Alonso),  a  Spanish  artist,  and  styled  the  Mi- 
chel Angelo  of  Spain,  because  he  excelled  in  painting, 
sculpture,  and  architecture,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Gre- 
nada in  1600,  where  his  father,  an  eminent  architect,  edu- 
cated him  in  his  own  profession,  and  when  his  instructions 
in  this  branch  were  completed,  he  applied  himself  to  the 
study  of  sculpture,  and  made  an  uncommon  progress  in  a 
very  short  time.  He  next  went  to  Seville,  and  for  eight 
months  studied  i\nder  Pacheco,  and  afterwards  under  Juan 
del  Castillo,  in  whose  academy  he  executed  many  noble 
paintings  for  the  public  edifices  in  Seville,  and  at  the  s^me 
time  gave  some  specimens  of  his  excellence  in  statuary, 
which  were  highly  admired,  particularly  a  "  Madonna  and 
Child/'  in  the  great  church  of  Nebriga,  and  two  colossal 
figures  of  San  Pedro  and  San  Pablo.  Count  Olivarez  was 
the  means  of  his  coming  to  Madrid,  where  he  was  made 
first  royal  architect,  king's  painter,  and  preceptor  to  the 
prince,  don  Balthazar  Carlos  of  Austria.  jHere,  as  archi- 
tect, he  projected  several  additional  works  to  the  palaces, 
some  public  gates  to  the  city,  and  a  triumphal  arch  erected, 
on  the  entrance  of  Mariana,  second  queen  to  Philip  IV, 
As  a  painter,  he  executed  many  celebrated  compositions 
in  the  churches  and  palaces  of  Madrid. 

I  Diet  Hist.  •  Neai's  PuriUns.— Crosby's  Hist,  of  the  Baptists. 

GANG.  177 


While  in  the  height  of  his  fame  an  event  happened  which 
involved  him  in  much  trouble.  Returning  home  one  even- 
ing, he  discovered  his  wife  murdered,  his  house  robbed, 
while  an  Italian  journeyman,  on  whom  the  suspicion  na- 
turally fell,  had  escaped.  The  criminal  judges  held  a 
court  of  inquiry,  and  having  discovered  that  Cano  had  been 
jealous  of  this  Italian,  and  also  that  he  was  known  to  be 
attached  to  another  woman,  they  acquitted  the  fugitive 
gallant,  aud  condeniined  the  husband.  On  this  he  fled  to 
Valencia,  and  being  discovered  there,  took  refuge  in  a 
Carthusian  convent  about  three  leagues  from  that  city, 
where  he  seemed  for  a  time  determined  upon  taking  the 
order,  but  afterwards  was  so  imprudent  as  to  return  to 
Madrid,  where  he  was  apprehended,  and  ordered  to  be 
put  to  the  torture,  which  he  suffered  without  uttering  a 
single  word.  On  this  the  king  received  him  again  into  fa- 
vour, and  as  Cano  saw  there  was  no  absolute  safety  but 
within  the  pale  of  the  church,  he  solicited  the  king  with 
that  view,  and  was  named  residentiary  of  Grenada.  The 
chapter  objected  to  his  nomination,  but  were  obliged  to 
submit,  and  their  church  profited  by  the  appointment, 
many  sculptures  and  paintings  being  of  his  donation.  The 
last  years  of  his  life  he  spent  in  acts  of  devotion  and  cha- 
rity. When  he  had  no  money  to  bestow  in  alms,  whiqh 
was  frequently  the  case,  he  would  call  for  paper,  and  give 
a  beggar  a  drawing,  directing  him  where  to  carry  it  for 
sale.  To  the  Jews  he  bore  an  implacable  antipathy.  On 
his  death-bed  he  would  not  receive  the  sacraments  from  a 
priest  who  attended  him,  because  he  had  administered 
them  to  the  converted  Jews ;  and  from  another  he  would 
not  accept  the  crucifix  presented  to  him  in  his  last  mo- 
ments, telling  him  it  was  so,  bungling  a  piece  of  work  that 
he  could  not  endure  the  sight  of  it.  In  this  manner  died 
Alonso  Cano,  at  the  age  of  seventy-six,  in  1676  ;  a  circum- 
stance, says^  his  biographer,  which  shows  that  his  ruling 
passion  for  the  arts  accompanied  him  in  the  article  of  death, 
superseding  even  religion  itself  in  those  moments  when 
the  great  interacts  of  salvation  naturally  must  be  supposed  to 
occupy  the  mind  to  the  exclusion  of  every  other  idea. 

In  his  early  days,  as  he  was  of  a  noble  family,  he  dis- 
dained to  accept  pay  for  his  productions,  declaring  that  he 
worked  for  fame  and  practice,  and  that  he  considered  him- 
self as  yet  so  imperfect  in  his  art,  that  he  could  not  in 
conscience  admit  of  any  recompence^     As  he  acdvanced, 

Vol.  VIII.  N 

-     178  CAN  O. 

however,  he  had  no  scrapie  in  accepting  the  just  reward  of 
his  merit;  and  the  following  anecdote,  related  by  Mr.  Cum- 
berland, will  show  his  spirit  in  asserting  what  was  his  due. 
A  counsellor  of  Grenada  having  refused  to  pay  the  sum  of 
one  .hundred  pistoles  for  an  image  of  St.  Antony  of  Padua, 
which  Cano  had  made  for  him,  he  dashed  the  saint  into 
pieces  on  the  pavement  of  his  academy,  while  the  coun- 
sellor was  reckoning  up  how  many  pistoles  per  day  Cano 
had  earned  whilst  the  work  was  in  hand.    "  You  have  been 
twenty-five  days  carving  this  image  of  St.  Antony,"  said 
the  counsellor,  "and  the  purchase-money  demanded  being 
one  hundred,  you  have  rated  your  labour  at  the  exorbitant 
price  of  four  pistoles  per  day,  whilst  I,  who  am  a  coun- 
sellor, and  your  superior,  do  not  make  half  your  profits 
by  my  talents." — "  Wretch !"   cried  the  enraged   artist, 
**  to  talk  to  me  of  your  talents^ — I  have  been  fifty  years 
learning  to  make  this  statue  in  twenty-five  days ;"  and  so 
saying,  flung  it  with  the  utmost  violence  upon  the  pave* 
menc.     The  affrigl;ted  counsellor  escaped  out  of  the  hous^ 
in   terror.     For  this  proiunation,    however,  of  the  image 
of  a  saint,  he  was  suspended  from  his  function  by  the 
chapter  of  Grenada,  and  was  not  restored  by  the  king  until 
he  had  finished  a  magnificent  crucifix,  which  the  queen 
had  ordered,  but  which  he  had  long  neglected. 

In  Mr.  Fuseli's  opinion,  Cano  excelled,  as  a  painter^ 
with  the  single  exception  of  Velasquez,  all  his  contemn 
poraries,  and  yet  seems  to  have  owed  his  superiority  ep- 
tirely  to  nature :  his  design  is  correct,  his  arrangements 
happy,  and  his  colour  charming.  As  a  sculptor,  he  gives 
evident  proofs  of  having  studied  the  antique  by  the  dig- 
;  nity  of  his  forms,  the  grandeur  of  his  drapery,  and  ele- 

gance of  taste.     In  architecture  he  was  too  loaded,  too 
ornamental,  and  swayed  by  the  fashion  of  the  day.     With 
I  such  talents  he  connected  a  whimsical  character,  and,  as 

I  the  master  of  a  school,  scarcely  left  a  pupil  that  rose  above 

mediocrity.     A  catalogue  of  his  nearly  endless  works  may 
be  found  in  Bermudez.  * 

CANON,  or  CANONICUS  (JoHN),^y  some  called 
MaebR£S,  an  English  Franciscan  monk,  and  an  able  Aristo- 
telian of  the  fourteenth  century,  studied  some  time  at 
Oxford,  from  which  he  removed  to  Paris,  where  he  be- 
came a  pupil  of  Duns  Scotus,  whom,  says  Pits,  he  long 

^  Cumberland's  AB«odott9  of  Painters  ia  Spaiii.--PUkiBgtoiw 

CANON.  17« 


attended,  and  alwap  imitated.  He  returned  afterwards  t0 
Oxford,  and  there  taught  theology  to  the  time  of  his  deaths 
which,  according  to  Dupin,  happened  about  the  year  1340* 
DupiQ  also  says  that  he  was  a  doctor  of  divinity  of  Paris* 
He  was  particularly  learned  in  the  Aristotelian  philosophy^ 
and  in  civil  and  canon-*law.  In  Lincoln  college  library, 
Oxford,  is  one  of  his  manuscripts,  to  which  are  prefixed 
many  verses  in  honour  of  Mm,  and  in  one  of  them  he  is 
styled  "  Alter  Aristoteles."  His  published  works  are,  U 
**  In  Aristotelis  Physica,  Lib.  VIIL"  printed  at  St.  Alban's 
in  1481,  8vo,  and  reprinted  at  Venice  1481,  1492,  and 
1505.,  2.  "  Lecturae  magistrales  ;  Lib.  L  Questiones  dis- 
putatae.  Lib.  L  QuaBstiones  dialectices.  Lib.  L'*  printed 
with  the  former  at  Venice,  1492  and  1516.  ^ 
.  CANTACUZENUS  (John),  emperor  of  Constantinople, 
and  a  celebrated  Byzantine  historian,  was  born  at  Con- 
stantinople about  the  year  1295,  of  a  very  ancient  and 
noble  family  ;  his  father  being  governor  of  Peloponnesus, 
and  his  mother  a  near  relation  of  the  emperor's.  He  was 
fcred-to  letters  and  to  arms,  and  afterwards  to  the  highest 
offices  of  state,  in  which  he  acquitted  himself  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  gain  the  favour  of  both  court  and  city.  He 
was  made  prefect  of  the  bedchamber  to  the  emperor  An- 
dronicus  the  elder,  but  lost  his  favour  about  1320,  by 
addicdng  himself  too  much  to  the  interest  of  his  grand- 
son Andronicus.  In  1328,  when  the  grandson  seized. the 
empire,  he  loaded  Cantacuzenus  with  wealth  and  honours  ; 
made  him  generalissimo  of  his  forces  ;  did  nothing  without 
consulting  him ;  and  fain  would  have  joined  him  with  him- 
self in  the  government^  which  Cantacuzenus  refused.  In 
1341  Andronicus  died,  and  left  to  Cantacuzenus  the  care 
of  the  empire,  till  his  son  John  Paleologus,  who  was  then 
but  nine  years  of  age,  should  be  fit  to  take  it  upon  himself: 
which  trust  he  discharged  very  diligently  and  faithfully. 
Bnt  the  empress  dowager,  the  patriarch  of  Constantinople, 
and  some  of  the  nobles,  soon  growing  jealous  and  envious 
of  Cantacuzenus,  formed  a  party  against  him,  and  de- 
clared him  a  trtitor :  upon  which  a  great  portion  of  the 
fiobility  and  army  besought  him  to  take  the  empire  upon 
himself,  and  accordingly  be  was  crowned  at  Hadrianopolis 
in  May  134£.  A  civil  war  raged  for  five  years,  and  Can- 
tacussenua  was  conqueror,  who,  however,  came  to  the  foU 

1  Bale,  Pits,  .and  Tanner, 
N  2 

130  C  A  N  T  A  C  U  Z  E  N  U  S. 

lowing  terms  of  peace  with  John  Paleologiis ;  viz.  that  him- 
self should  be  crowned,  and  that  John  should  be  a  partner 
with  him  in  the  empire,  though  not  upon  an  equal  footing; 
till  he  should  arrive  at  years  sufficient.  He  gave  him  also 
his  daughter  Helen,  to  whom   he  had  formerly  been-  en- 

faged,  for  a  wife;  and  the  nuptials  were  celebrated  in 
Iiiy  1347.  But  suspicions  and  enmities  soon  arising  be- 
tween the  new  emperors,  the  war  broke  out  again,  and 
lasted  till  John  took  Constantinople  in  1355.  A  few  dayi 
after  that  city  was  taken,  Cantacuzenus,  unwilling  to  con- 
tinue a  civil  war  any  longer,  abdicated  his  share  of  the 
empire,  and  retired  to  a  monastery,  where  he  took  the 
habit  of  a  monk,  with  the  new  name  of  Joasaphus,  and 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  study  and  writing.  His 
wife  retired  also  at  the  same  time  to  a  nunnery,  where  she 
changed  her  own  name  Irene  for  the  new  one  of  Eugenia. 

How  long  he  lived  in  this  retirement,  and  when  he  died, 
is  not  very  certain  ;  but  it  is  agreed  by  all,  that  he  lived 
a  very  long  time  in  it,  and  it  is  supposed  by  some,  that  he 
did  not  die  till  1411,  when  he  was  100  years  of  age,  or 
upwards.  Others,  with  considerable  probability,  place  his 
death  on  Nov.  20,  1411.  In  this  place,  however,  he  wrote 
^  history  of  his  own  times,  in  four  books,  or  rather  of  the 
timfes  in  which  he  was  engaged  in  worldly  affairs ;  since 
the  period  it  includes  is  only  from  1320  to  1355.  He  was 
a  very  proper  person  to  relate  the  transactions  within  this 
period,  because  he  was  not  only  an  eye-witness  of  what 
was  done,  but  himself  the  orderer  and  doer  of  a  great  part : 
upon  which  account  Vossius  has  not  scrupled  to  prefer  him 
to  all  the  Byzantine  historians.  A  Latin  translation  of  this 
history,  from  the  Greek  manuscript  in  the  duke  of  Bavaria's 
library,  was  published  by  Pontanus  at  Ingolstadtin  1603  ; 
and  afterwards  at  Paris  1645,  a  splendid  edition  in  three 
volumes  folio  of  the  Greek  from  the  MS.  of  M.  Seguier, 
chancellor  of  France,  with  Pontanus's  Latin  version,  and 
the  notes  of  him  and  Gretser. 

Besides  this  history,  he  wrote  also  some  theological 
works,  particularly  an  apology  for  the  IJhristian  religion 
against  that  of  Mahomet,  in  four  books:  this  he  did  at  the 
request  of  a  monk  and  friend  of  his,  who  bad  been  so- 
licited by  a  mussulman  of  Persia  to  desert  Christianity,,  and 
•  embrace  Mahonietanism.  In  this  he  does  not  content  him- 
self with  replying  to  the  particular  objection  of  the  mus- 
sulman to  Christianity^  but  writes  a  general  defence  of  it 


«  t 

ligainst  the  Koran.     He  calls  himself  Chrbtodulus  as  a 
writer.     This  apdogy  was  printed  in  Greek  and  Latin  at 
Basil,  1543)  by  fiibliander  and  Gualtharus,  from  Greek  MSS. 
Gibbon,  in  his  "  Decline  and  Fall  of  the  Roman  Empire," 
says,  that  the  name  and  situation  of  the  emperor  John  Can* 
tacuzenus)  might  inspire  the  most  lively  curiosity.   His  me-* 
morials  of  forty  years  extend  from  the  revolt  of  the  younger 
Andronicus  to  his  own  abdication  of  the  empire  ;  and  it  is 
observed,  that,  like  Moses  and  Caesar,  he  was  the  principal 
actor  in  the  scenes  which  he  describes.     But  in  this  elo-* 
quent  work,  "  we  should  vainly  seek  the  sincerity  of  an 
hero  or  a  penitent.     Retired  in  a  cloister  from  the  vices 
and  passions  of  the  world,  he  presents  not  a  confessioni 
but  an  apology,  of  the  life  of  an  ambitious  statesman.    In* 
stead  of  unfolding  the  true  counsels  and  characters  of  men, 
he  displays  the  smooth  and  specious  surface  of  events, 
highly  yarnishQd  with   his   own  praises  and   those  of  his 
friends.     Their  motives  are  always  pure ;  their  ends  always 
legitimate ;  they  conspire  and  rebel  without  ^.ny  views  of 
interest;  and  the^  violence  which  they  inflict  or  sutfer  is 
celebrated  as  the  spontaneous  effect  of  reason  and  virtue."  * 
•    CANTARINI  (HiMONE),  a  painter  and  engraver,  called 
often  from  his  native  place  da  Pesaro,  was  born  in  1612, 
and  was  a  pupil  of  Pandolfi.     Alter, proving  himself,  by 
the  picture  of  St.  Peter  at  Fano,  less  an  imitator  of  Guido 
than  bis  equal,  he  entered  bis  school  at  Bologna  more  as  a 
rival  than  as  a  pupil:  the  humility  which  he  had  affected 
at  his  entrance,  soon  dissolved  in  a  proud  display  of  his 
powers;  and  the  modest  student  became  the  supercilious 
censor  of  his  companions,  and  of  the  master  himself.  From 
the  general  disgust,  which  the  insolence  of  this  conduct 
had  excited,  Cantarini  fled  to  Rome,  and  for  some  time 
studied  RafFaello  and  the  antiques.     When  he  returned  to  . 
Bologna,  where  he  taught,  and  from  thence  to  the  court 
of  Mantua,  his  powers  seemed  to  smooth  the  road  to  new 
success ;  but   fear  of  those  whom    he  had  provoked   by 
arrogance  or  invective,  with  the  mortiH cation  of  having 
failed  in  the  portrait  of  the  duke,  impaired  his  health  and 
drove  him  to  Verona,  where  he  died  in  164S,  in  his  thirty- 
sixth  year,  not  without  suspicion  of  having  being  poisoned 
by  a  painter  of  Mantua,  whom  he  had  reviled.     Cantarini 

*  Univ.  History. — Moreri  in  art,  John.-^VMsius  de  Hist  Qrsc. — Cave  vol.  II* 
— Saxii  Onomast. 

182  C  A  N  T  A  R  I  N  L 

is  not  equal  to  Guido,  because  the  most  perfect  imitator  of 
a  style  cannot  be  called  equal  to  its  inventor :  but  the  on* 
ginal  beauties  which  he  added,  of  conception  and  execu- 
tion, raise  him  above  all  the  pupils  of  that  school.  If  his 
ideas  have  less  dignity,  they  are,  perhaps,  more  graceful 
than  those  of  Guido :  if  he  has  less  compass  of  knowledge, 
he  has  more  accuracy,  and  no  rival  in  the  finish  of  the 
extremities.  The  heads  of  his  saints  have  been  called  pro- 
digies of  beauty  and  expression.  Sir  Robert  Strange  had 
a  picture  of  Cantarini's,  "  Our  Saviour  standing  on  the 
Globe,  attended  by  Cherubiras,"  which,  he  says,  is  no- 
thing inferior  to  Guido,  inimitably  coloured;  the  compo- 
sition extremely  agreeable,  and  the  whole  apparently 
painted  with  great  facility.  Cantarini  etched  with  great 
spirit.  Strutt  enumerates  some  of  his  works  in  this  manner.  * 

CANTEL  (Peter  Joseph),  a  man  of  considerable  learn- 
ing ip  classical  criticism,  was  born  Nov.  1,  1645,  in  the 
diocese  of  Rouen,  and  entered  the  society  of  the  Jesuits  in 
1664,  completing  his  vows  in  1679.  His  immoderate  and 
incessant  application  to  study,  operatif»g  upon  a  delicate 
constitution,  shortened  his  days,  and  he  died  in  the  Jesuits^ 
college  at  Paris,  Dec.  6,  1684.  He  w^asone  of  the  French 
literati  employed  in  preparing  the  Delphin  classics,  and 
edited  Justin  in  1677,  4to,  and  Valerius  Maximus  in  1679, 
enriched  with  six  dissertations,  on  the  names,  families, 
magistrates,  &c.  of  the  Romans.  He  published  aisoj  I. 
'^  De  Romana  Repiiblica,  de  re  militari  et  civili  Romano- 
rum,''  Paris,  1684,  12mo,  and  thrice  reprinted  at  Utrecht, 
1691,  1696,  1707,  the  last  with  plates,  taken  from  Justus 
Lipsius  and  Onuphrius  Panviniusv  This  has  always  been 
considered  as  an  excellent  abridgment  of  the  Roman  anti* 
quities.  2.  "  Metropolitanarum  urbium  historia  civilis  et 
ccclesiastica,  tomus  primus,   &c."  Paris,  1.684,  8vo.' 

CANTEMIR  (Demetrius),  of  an  illustrious  family  in 
Tartary,  and  prince  of  Moldavia,  was  born  in  1673.  His 
father,  who  was 'governor  of  the  three  cantons  of  Moldavia, 
became  prince  of  this  province  in  1664.  Demetriiis,  being 
sent  early  to  Constantinople,  flattered  himself  with  the 
prospect  of  succeeding  him  ;  but  was  supplanted  by  a  rival 
at  the  Porte.  Being  sent  in  1710  by  the  Ottoman  minister 
to  defend  Moldavia  against  the  czar  Peter,  he  delivered 

»  Pilkington. — Slrutl.— IVArgeiiviUe,  toI.  II.— Sir  R.  Strauge's  Catalogue, 
s  Moreri. — Saxii  Oaomasticon. 

C  A  N  T  E  M  I  R.  ua 

it  up  to  that  monarch ;  and,  following  his  new  master 
through  his  conquests,  indemnified  himself  for  all  he  had 
lost ;  for  he  obtained  the  title  of  prince  of  the  empire,  with 
full  power  and  authority  over  the  Moldavians,  who  quitted 
their  country  to  attach  themselves  to  his  fortunes.  He 
died,  1723,  in  his  territories  6f  the  Ukraine,  much  la- 
mented. He  was  studious  and  learned,  and  is  said  to  have 
understood  eleven  languages.  He  wrote  in  Latin  a  "  His- 
tory of  the  Growth  and  Decay  of  the  Ottoman  Empire," 
A.  D.  1300 — 1683,  which  was  published  in  an  English 
translation  by  Tindal,  Lond.  1734,  fol.  Gibbon  says  it  con- 
tains strange  blunders  in  Oriental  history,  though  he  ac- 
knowledges that  the  author  was  conversant  with  the  lan- 
guage, annals,  and  institutions  of  the  Turks.  His  "Sys- 
tem of  the  Mahometan  Religion''  was  written  and  printed 
in  the  Russian  language,  by  order  of  czar  Peter ;  his  moral 
dialogues  entitled  "  The  World  and  the  Soul,"  were 
printed  in  Moldavia  in  Greek  and  Moldavian ;  "  The  pre-» 
sent  state  of  Moldavia"  was  printed  in  Latin;  his  "  Musical 
Airs  with  Turkish  Words,"  and  "  An  Introduction  to  Mu- 
sic," in  Moldavian.  He  was  also  the  author  of  other  pieces, 
which  were  either  lost  in  his  shipwreck,  or  still  remain 

CANTEMIR  (Antiochus),  son  of  the  above,  was  born 
in  1710.  The  most  skilled  at  Petersburg  in  mathematics, 
physics,  history,  morality,  and  polite  literature,  were  em- 
ployed to  continue  those  lectures,  which  his  father  had  be- 
gun to  give  him.  The  academy  of  Petersburg  opened 
their  gates  to  him,  and  the  ministry  initiated  hini  into 
affairs  of  state.  Successively  ambassador  to  London  and 
Paris,  he  was  equally  admired  as  a  minister  and  man  of 
letters.  On  his  return  to  Russia,  he  conducted  himself 
with  most  consummate  wisdom  and  prudence,  during  the 
different  revolutions  which  agitated  t,hat  country.  This  ac-^ 
complished  person  died  in  1744.  The  Russians  before  him 
bad  nothing  in  verse  but  some  barbarous  sougs :  he  was  the 
first  who  introduced  any  civilized  poetry  among  them. 
Besides  a  translation  of  Anacreon  and  the  epistles  of  Ho- 
race, he  gave  them  of  his  own,  satires,  odes,  and  fables. 
He  made  several  foreign  works  known  to  them  ;  as,  1.  The 
Plurality  of  worlds.  2.  The  Persian  letters.  3.  The  dia- 
logues of  Algarotti  upon  light,  &c. :    and  he  printed  a^ 

1  Moreri. — Gibbon's  Hist. 

184  C  A  N  T  E  M  I  R. 

**  Concordance  to  the  Psalms"  in  the  Russian  language/ 
The  abb6  de  Guasco,  who  translated  his  Satires,  has  writ* 
ten  his  life.  * 

CANTERUS  (William),  an  eminent  linguist  and  phi- 
lologer,  was  born  at  Utrecht  of  an  ancient  and  reputable 
family  in  1542;  and  educated  in  the  belles  lettres  under 
the  inspection  of  his  parents,  till  he  was  1 2  years  of  age. 
He  was  then  sent  to  Cornelius  Valerius  at  Louvain,  with 
whom  he  continued  four  years ;  and  gave  surprising  proofs 
of  his  progress  in  Greek  and  Latin  literature,  by  writing 
letters  in  those  languages,  by  translations,  and  by  drawing 
up  some  dramatic  pieces.     Having  an  uncommon  taste  for 
the  Greek,  he  removed  in  1559  from  Louvain  to  Paris,  for 
the  sake  of  learning  that  language  more  perfectly  from 
John  Auratus,  under  whom  he  studied  till  1562,  and  then 
was  obliged  to  leave  France  on  account  of  the  civil  wars. 
He  travelled  next  into  Germany  and  Italy,  and  Visited  the 
several  universities  of  those   countries ;  Bononia  particu- 
larly, where  he  became   known   to   the   famous   Carolus 
Sigonius,  to  whom  he  afterwards  dedicated  his  eight  books 
"  Novarum  Lectionum."     Venice  he  had  a  great  desire  to 
see,  not  only  for  the  beauty  and  niagnificence  of  the  place, 
btit  for  the  opportunity  he  should  have  of  purchasing  ma- 
nuscripts ;  which  the  Greeks  brought  in  great  abundance 
from   their  own   country,  and  there  exposed  to  sale :  and 
from  Venice  he  purposed  to  go  to  Rome.     But,  not  being 
able  to  bear  the  heat  of  those  regions,  he  dropped  the 
pursuit  of  his  journey,  and  returned  through  Germany  to 
Louvain,  where  in  about  eight  years*  time  excessive  study 
brought  on  a  lingering  consumption,  of  which  he  died  in 
li75,  when  he  was  only  in  his  33d  year.     Thuanus  says, 
that  he  deserved  to  be  reckoned  among  the  most  learned 
men  of  his  age ;  and  that  he  would  certainly  have  done! 
great  things,  if  he  had  not  died  so  very  immaturely.     He 
understood  six  languages,  besides  that  of  his  native  coun- 
try, viz.  the  Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew,  French,  Italian,  and 

It  may  justly  seem  a  matter  of  wonder,  how  in  so  short 
a  life  a  man  could  go  through  so  many  laborious  tasks ; 
and  no  less  matter  of  curiosity  to  know  how  he  contrived 
to  do  it.  Melchior  .Adam  hasf  given  us  some  account  of 
diis :    and  according  to  him,  Canterus  was,  in  -  the  firs^ 

I  Diet.  Hut. 

C,A  N  T  E  R  U  S.  185 

place,   very  temperate  and  abstemious  in  point  of  diet. 
He  always  began  his  studies  at  seven  in  the  morning,  and 
not  sooner,  because  early  rising  did  not  agree  with  him; 
and  pursued  them  very  intensely   till    half  past   eleven. 
Then  he  walked  out  for  an  hour  before  dinner;  and,  after 
he  had  dined,  walked  for  another  hour.     Then,  retiring  to 
his  study,  he  slept  an  hour  upon  a  couch,  and  after  that 
resumed  his  studies,  which  he  continued  till  almost  sun-set 
in  winter,  and  seven  in  summer.     Then  he  took  another 
hour^s  walk;    and,  after   returning   again   to  his  studies, 
continued  them  till  midnight'  without  interruption.     These 
last  Hours  of  the  day  were  not  however  devoted  by  him  to 
severe  study,  but  to  writing  letters  to  his  friends,  or  any 
other  business  that  required  less  labour  and  attention.     In 
these  habits,  Canterus  was   both  assiduous  and  constant ; 
and  his  studies  were  conducted  with  as  much  form  and 
method,  as  if  he  himself  had  been  a  machine.     He  had  not 
only  his  particular  hours  for  studying,  but  he  divided  those 
by  an  hour-glass,  some  of  which  he  set  apart  for  reading, 
ethers  for  writing ;  and  as  he  tells  us  himself  in  a  preface 
to  his  Latin  translation  of  Stoboeus,  he  never  varied  from 
his  established  method  on  any  account  whatever.     During 
bis  short  life,  he  collected  a  most  excellent  and  curious 
library;  not  only  full  of  the  best  authors  in  all  the  lan- 
guages he  understood,  but  abounding*  with  Greek  manu- 
scripts, which  he  had  purchased  in  his  travels,  and  which, 
if  death  had  spared  him,  he  intended  to  have  published 
with  Latin  versions  and  notes.     He  could  have  said  with  An- 
toninus, that  "  nothing  was  dearer  to  him  than  his  books  :" 
his  inordinate  love  of  which  exposed  him  to  a  most  severe 
trial,  when  a  sudden  inundation  at  Louvain  greatly  da- 
maged, and  had  like  to  have  destroyed  his  whole  library. 
This  happened  in  the  winter  of  1573,  and  was  such  an  af- 
fliction to  him,  thatj  as  Melchior  Adam  says,  it  would  cer- 
tainly have  killed   him,  if  his  friends  had  not  plied  him 
with  proper  topics  of  consolation,    and    assisted  him   in 
drying  and  restoring  his  books  and  manuscripts. 

His  writings  are  purely  philological  and  critical,  as, 
1.  ^^  Novarum  lecticSnum  libri  octo,"  Basil,  1564,  and  an, 
icnpraved  edition  1571,  8vo.  2.  "  Syntiagnia  de  ratione 
emendandi  Grsecos  autores,"  printed  in  the  last  mentioned 
edition  of  the  former.  3.  Not©,  scholia,  emendationes;  & 
explicationes  in  Euripidem,  Sophoglem,  JEschylum,  Ci- 
peronem,  Propertium,  Ausonium,  Arnobium,  &c.  besides 


a  book  of  various  readings  in  several  MSS.  of  tbe  ^eptai^ 
^int,  and  a  great  many  translations  of  Greek  authors. 

His  brother  Theodore  was  also  a  classical  scholar,  and 
editor  of  many  annotations  and  criticisms,  some  of  which 
are  in  Gruter^s  Thesaurus.  Burman  has  given  a  very  am** 
pie  catalogue  of  the  writings  of  both  these  learned  brothers. ' 

CANTON  (John),  an  ingenious  natural  philosopher, 
was  born  at  Stroud,  in  Gloucestershire,  July  31,  1713; 
and  was  placed,  when  young,  under  the  care  of  a  Mr. 
Davis,  of  the  same  place,  a  very  able  mathennitician,  with 
whom,  before  he  attained  the  age  of  nine  years,  he  had 
gone  through  both  vulgar  and  decimal  arithmetic'  He 
then  proceeded  to  the  mathematics,  and  particularly  to 
algebra  and  astronomy,  wherein  he  made  a  considerable 
progress,  when  his  father  took  him  from  school,  and  pj3t 
him  to  learn  his  own  business,  that  of  a  broad-cloth  weaver^ 
but  this  circumstance  did  not  damp  his  zeal  for  the  acqui- 
sition of  knowledge.  All  his  leisure  time  was  devoted  to 
tbe  assiduous  cultivation  of  astronomical  science ;  and,  by 
the  help  of  the  Caroline  tables,  annexed  to  Wing^s  astro* 
nomy,  he  computed  eclipses  of  the  moon  and  other  ph»- 
nomena.  His  acquaintance  with  that  science  he  applied^ 
likewise,  to  the  constructing  of  several  kinds  of  dials.  But 
the  studies  of  our  young  philosopher  being  frequently  pur- 
sued to  very  late  hours,  his  father,  fearing  that  they  would 
injure  his  health,  forbade  him  the  use  of  a  candle  in  bis 
chamber,  any  longer  than  for  the  purpose  of  going  to  bed, 
and  would  himself  often  see  that  his  injunction  was  obeyed. 
The  son's  thirst  of  knowledge  was,  however,  so  great^  that 
it  made  him  attempt  to  evade  the  prohibition,  and  to  jfind 
means  of  secreting  his  light  till  the  family  had  retired  to 
rest ;  when  he  rose  to  prosecute  undisturbed  his  favourite 
pursuits.  It  was  during  this  prohibition,  and  at  these 
hours,  that  he  computed,  and  cut  upon  stone,  with  no 
better  an  instrument  than  a  common  knife,  tbe  lines  of  a 
large  upright  sun-dial ;  on  which,  besides  the  hour  of  the 
day,  were  shewn  the  rising  of  the  sun,  his  place  in  the 
ecliptic,  and  some  other  particulars.  When  this  was  finished, 
and  made  known  to  bis  father,  he  pernritted  it  to  be  placed 
against  the  front  of  his  house,  where  it  excited  the  admi« 
ration  of  several  gentlemen  in  the*neighbourhood,  and  in-» 
troduced  young  Mr.  Canton  to  their  acquaintance,  which 

*  Moreri. — Foppen  Bibl.  Belf. — Burmanni  Trajectum  erudilum. — Blount's 
Censureu^-'^Saxu  Onomast. 



was  fottovved  by  the  offer  of  the  use  of  their  libraries.  In' 
the  library  of  one  of  these  gentlemen,  he  found  Martin's 
Philosophical  Grammar,  which  was  the  first  book  that  gave* 
him  a  taste  for  natural  philosophy.  In  the  possession  of 
another  gentleman,  a  few  miles  from  Stroud,  he  first  saw 
a  pair  of  globes ;  an  object  that  afforded  him  uncommon' 
pleasure,  fiova  the  great  ease  with  which  he  could  solve 
those  problems  he  had  hitherto  been  accustomed  to  com-' 
pute.  The  dial  was  beautified  a  few  years  ago,  at  the  ex- 
pence  of  the  gentlemen  at  Stroud ;  several  of  whom  had 
been  his  schooUfellows,  and  who  continued  still  to  regard 
it  as  a  very  distinguished  performance.  Among  other  per- 
sons with  whom  he  became  acquainted  in  early  life,  was 
the  late  reverend  and  ingenious  Dr.  Henry  Miles  of  Tooth- 
ing, a  learned  member  of  the  royal  society,  and  of  ap* 
proved  eminence  in^natural  knowledge.  This  gentleman^ 
perceiving  diat  Mr.  Canton  possessed  abilities  too  promis- 
ing to  be  confined  within  the  narrow  limits  of  a  country 
town,  prevailed* on  his  father  to  permit  him  to  come  to 
London.  Accordingly  he  arrived  at  the  metropolis  March 
4,  1737,  and  resided  with  Dr.  Miles,  at  Tooting  (who,  it 
may  here  be  noticed,  bequeathed  to  him  all  his  philoso« 
phical  instruments),  till  the  6th  of  May  following;  when 
be  articled  himself,  for  the  term  of  five  years,  as  a  clerk 
to  Mr.  Samuel  Watkins^  master  of  the  academy  in  Spital- 
square.  In  this  situation,  bis  ingenuity,  diligence,  and 
good  conduct  were  so  conspicuous,  that,  on  the  expiration 
of  bis  clerkship,  in  the  month  of  May  1742,  he  was  taken 
into  partnership  with  Mr.  Watkins  for  three  years  ;  which 
gentleman  he  afterwards  succeeded  in  SpitaUsquare,  and 
there  continued  during  his  whole  life.  On  December  25, 
1744,  he  married  Penelope,  the  eldest  daughter  of  Mr. 
Thomas  Colbrooke,  and  niece  to  James  Colbrooke,  esq. 
banker  in  London. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  year  1745,  electricity,  which 
seems  early  to  have  engaged  Mr.  Canton^ s  notice,  received 
a  very  capital  improvement  by  the  discovery  of  the  famous 
Leyden  phial.  This  event  turned  the  thoughts  of  most  of 
the  philosophers  of  Europe  to  that  branch  of  natural  phi- 
losophy ;  and  our  author,  who  was  one  of  the  first  to  re- 
peat and  to  pursue  tKe  experiment,  found  his  assiduity 
and  attention  rewarded  by  many  capital  discoveries.  To- 
wards the  end  of  1749  he  was  concerned  with  his  friend, 
the  late  ingenious  Benjamin  Robins,  esq.  in  making  expe- 

188  CANTON. 

nimemts  in  order  to  determine  to  what  herglit  rockets  may 
be  made  to  ascend,  and  at  what  distance  their  light  maj 
be  seen.  On  January  17,  1750,  was  read  at  the  royal 
society,  Mr.  Canton's  method  of  making  artificial  magnets, 
without  the  use  of,  and  yet  far  superior  to,  any  natural 
ones.  This  paper  procured  him,  March  22,  1750,  the 
honour  of  being  elected  a  member  of  the  society  ;  .and,  on 
the  St.  Andrew's  day  following,  the  farther  honour  of  re- 
ceiving the  most  distinguished  testimony  of  their  appro* 
batlon,  in  the  present  of  their  gold  medal.  On  April  21, 
in  the  same  year,  he  was  complimented  with  the  de- 
gree of  M.  A.  by  the  university  of  Aberdeen  ;  and,  on  No- 
vember 30,  1751,  was  chosen  one  of  the  coitncilof  the 
royal  society. 

In  17^2,  when  the  act  passed  for  changing  the  ,st3He, 
Mr.  Canton  gs^ve  to  the  earl  of  Macclesfield  several  memo- 
rial canons  for  finding  leap-year,  the  dominical  letter,  the. 
epact,  i&c.  This  he  did  with  the  view  of  having  them  in- 
serted in  the  common-prayer  book;  but  his  happened  to 
be  too  late  in  his  communication,  the  form  in  which  they 
now  stand  having  been  previously  settled.  These  .canons, 
with  an  explication  of  the  reasons  of  the  rules,'  were  after- 
yards  given  to  the  rev.  Dr.  Jennings,  who  inserted  them 
in  his  "  Introduction  to  the  use  of  the  Globes." 

On  July  20,  1752,  our  philosopher  was  so  fortunate  as  to 
be  the  first  person  in  England,  who,  by  attracting  the  elec- 
tric fire  from  the  clouds  during  a  thunder  storm,  rerified 
Dr.  Franklin's  hypothesis  of  the  similarity  of  lightning  and 
electricity.  Dec.  6,  1753,  his  paper,  entitled,  "Electri- 
cal experiments,"  with  an  attempt  to  account  for  their  se- 
veral phenomena,  was  read  at  the  Royal  Society.  In  the 
same  paper  Mr.  Canton  mentioned  his  having  discovered, 
by  a  great  number  of  experiments,  that  some  clouds  were 
in  a  posi^ve,  and  some  in  a  negative  state  of  electricity. 
Dr.  Franklin,  much  about  the  same  time,  made  the  like 
discovery  in  America.  This  circumstance,  together  with 
our  author's  constant  defence  of  the  doctor's  hypothesis,- 
induced  that  eminent  philosopher,  immediately  on  bis  ar- 
rival in  England,  to  pay  Mr.  Canton  a  visit,  and  gave  rise 
to  a  friendship  which  ever  after  continued  without  inter- 
ruption or  diminution.  On  November  14,  1754,  was  read 
at  the  royal  society,  a  letter  to  the  right  honourable  the. 
earl  of  Macclesfield,  concerning  some  new  electrical  ex- 
periments. On  St.  Andrew's  day,  1754,  he  was  a  second  time 
elected  one  of  the  council  of  the  royal  society  for  the  year 

CANTON.  18f 

ensuing.  In  the  Lsuly^s  Diary  for  1756,  our  author  an-)- 
swered  the  prize  question  that  had  been  proposed  in  the 
preceding  year.  The  question  was,  "  How  can  what  we 
call  the  shooting  of  stars  be  best  accounted  for;  what  is  the 
substance  of  this  phsenomenon  ;  and  in  what  state  of  the 
atmosphere  doth  it  most  frequently  shew  itself?''  The  sor 
lution,  though  anonymous,  was  so  satisfactory  to  his  friend 
'Mr.  I'homas  Simpson,  who  then  conducted  that  work, 
that  he  sent  Mr.  Canton  the  prize^  accompanied  with  a 
Dote,  in  which  he  said  he  was  sure  that  he  was  not  mistaken 
in  the  author  of  it,  as  no  one  besides,  that  he  knew  of^ 
could  have  au.swered  the  question.  Our  philosopher's  next 
communication  to  the  public  was  a  letter  in  the  Gentle- 
man's Magazine  for  September  1759,  on  the  electrical 
properties  of  the  tourmalin,  in  which  the  laws  of  that  won- 
derful stone  are  laid  down  in  a  very  concise  and  elegant 
manner.  On-  Dec.  13,  in  the  same  year,  was  read,  at  the 
royal  society,  '^  An  attempt  to  account  for  the  regular 
diurnal  variation  of  the  horizontal  magnetic  needle ;  and 
also  for  its  irregular  variation  at  the  time  of  an  aurora  bo- 
realis."  A  complete  year's  observations  of  the  diurnal  va- 
riations of  the  needle  are  annexed  to  the  paper.  On 
Nov.  5,  1761,  our  author  communicated  to  the  royal  so- 
ciety an  account  of  the  transit  of  Venus,  June  6,  1761, 
observed  in  Spital-square.  Mr.  Canton's  next  communi-^ 
cation  to  the  society  was  a  letter  addressed  to  Dr.  Benja- 
min Franklin,  and  read  Feb.  4,  1762,  containing  some  re- 
marks on  Mr.  Delaval's  electrical  experiments.  On  De- 
cember 1 6,  in  the  same  year,  another  curious  addition  was 
made  by  him  to  philosophical  knowledge,  in  a  paper  en-i 
titled,  "  Experiments  to  prove  that  water  is  not  incom- 
pressible." These  experiments  are  a  complete  refutation 
of  the  famou^  Florentine  experiment,  which  so  many  phi- 
losophers have  mentioned  as  a  proof  of  the  iucompressibi- 
lity  of  water.  On  St.  Andrew's  day,  1763,  oqr  author  was 
the  third  time  elected  one  of  the  council  of  the  royal  so- 
ciety;  and  on  Nov.  8,  in  the  following  year,  were  read, 
before  that  learned  body,  his  farther  experiments  and  ob- 
servations on  the  compressibility  of  water,  and  some  other 
fluids.  The  establishment  of  this  fact,  in  opposition  to  the 
received  opinion,  formed  on  the  hasty  decision  of  the 
Florentine  academy,  was  thought  to  be  deserving  of  the 
society's  gold  medal..  It  was  accordingly  moved  for  in  the 
council  of  1764  J  and  after  several  invidious  debys;  which 


C  A  N  T  6  N- 

teraiinated  much  to  the  honour  of  Mr.  Canton,  it  was  pre» 
seated  to  him  Nov.  30,   1765. 

The  next  communication  of  our  ingenious  author  to  the 
royal  society,  which  we  shall  take  notice  of  in  this  piace^  ^ 
was  on  Dec.  22,  1768,  being  "  An«asy  method  of  mak- 
ing a  phosphorus,  that  will  imbibe  and  emit  light  like  the 
£oJognian  stone;  with  experiments  and  observatioos.'* 
.When  he  first  shewed  to  Dr.  Franklin  the  instantaneous 
-light  acquired  by  some  of  this  phosphorus  from  the  near 
discharge  of  an  electrified  bottle,  the  doctor  immediately 
exclaimed,  ^^  And  God  said,  Let  there  be  light,  and  there 
was  light !"  The  dean  and  chapter  of  St.  Paul's  having, 
in  a  letter  to  the  president,  dated  March  6,  1769,  requested 
the  opinion  of  the  royal  society  relative  to  the  best  and 
most  effectual  method  of  fixing  electrical  conductors  to 
preserve  that  cathedral  from  damage  by  lightning,  Mr. 
Canton  was  one  of  the  committee  appointed  to  take  the 
letter  into  consideration,  and  to  report  their  opinion  upon 
it.  The  gentlemen  joined  with  him  in  this  business  were 
Dr.  Watson,  Dr.  Franklin,  Mr.  Delaval,  and  Mr.  Wilson* 
-Their  report  was  made  on  the  8th  of  June  following  ;  and 
the  mode  recommended  by  them  has  been  carried  into  exe- 
cution. This  will  probably  contribute,  in  the  most  effec- 
-tual  manner,  to  preserve  the  noble  fabric  of  St.  Paul's 
from  being  injured  by  lightning.  The  last  paper  of  our 
author's,  which  was  read  before  the  Royal  Society,  was  on 
Dec.  21,  1769  J  and  contained  experiments  to  prove  that 
the  luminousness  of  the  sea  arises  from  the  putrefaction  of 
its  animal  substances.  In  the  account  now  given  of  his 
communications  to  the  public,  we  have  chiefly  confined 
ourselves  to  such  as  were  the  most  important,  and  which 
threw  new  and  distinguished  light  on  various  objects  in  the 
philosophical  world.  Besides  these,  he  wrote  a  number 
of  papers,  both  in  earlier  and  in  later  life,  which  appeared 
in  several  different  publications,  and  particularly  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  of  which  a  list  is  given  in  the 
note  *.     We  may  add,  that  he  was  very  particular  with 

*  In  the  Ladies  Diary  for  1739, 
<*  The  time  and  quantity  of  an  eclipse 
of  the  moon.^*  In  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine  for  January  1739,  "  A  ques- 
tion on  the  cause  of  the  thunder  and 
lightning  which  happened  on  the  fourth 
of  that  month.*'  Id  ditto  for  August 
^739,  «*  The  number  of  Mr.  Whitfield's 
hearers  calculated."    In  ditto  for  Sep- 

tember 1750,  "  The  number  of  Mr. 
Whitfield's  hearers  justified."  In  this 
he  estimates  the  number  of  Mr.  Whit- 
field's bearers,  when  he  preached  in 
Moorfit  Ids,  at  more  than  25,000.  In 
the  Ladies  Diary  for  1740,  "  The  tiiie 
ami  quantity  of  two  eclipses  of  the 
moon."  In  the  Gentleman's  Magazine 
for  October  1748,  «  A  letter  to  ^fr. 



regard  to  the  neatness  and  elegance  of  his  apparatus ;  and 
that  his  address  in  conducting  his  experiments  was  remark- 
ably conspicuous. 

The  close  and  sedentary  life  of  Mr.  Canton,  arising 
from  an  unremitted  attention  to  the  duties  of  his  profession, 
and  to  the  prosecution  of  his  philosophical  inquiries  and 
experiments,  probably  contributed  to  shorten  his  days. 
The  disorder  into  which  he  fell,  and  which  carried  him  off, 
was  a  dropsy.  It  was  supposed,  by  his  friend  Dr.  Milner, 
to  be  a  dropsy  in  the  thorax.  His  death  was  on  March 
22,  1772,  in  the  54th  year  of  his  age,  to  the  great  regret 

Urbatt,  on  the  remarkable  variation  of 
beat  and  cold  in  Fahrenheit's  Ihemio- 
meter."     in  ditto  for  December  1748, 
**  Observations  on  the  common  ther- 
mometer, &c."    In  ditto  for  June  1752, 
**  The  true  length  of  the  year  deter- 
«Bined  by  scriptare  data,  in  imitation 
•of  the  rev.  Mr.  John  Kennedy."     In  the 
Philosophical  Transactions,  vol.  XLVIL 
p.  568,  *«  Part  of  a  letter  to  Mr.  Wat- 
son, on  extracting  electrical  fire  from 
the  clouds."     In   the  supplement  to 
Martin's  Magazine  for  1760,  **  A  let- 
ter to  the  author,  on  the  electricity  of 
a  mop- stick."      In   the    Gentleman's 
Magazine  for  September  1761,  *'  A  let- 
ter signed  Indagator,  occasioned  by  a 
supposed  accidental  discovery  of  an  at- 
traction between  tallow  and  the  magne- 
tic needle,  mentioned  in  the  preceding 
Magazine  for  August."     In  ditto  for 
November  1761,  '*  Another  letter  sign' 
«d  Indagator,  occasioned  by  Mr.  Chap- 
pie's in  that  for  October,  on  the  sup- 
posed attraoti(Hi  between  tallow,  &c«" 
In  the  Gentleman's  Magazine  for  De- 
cember of  the  same  year,  Mr.  Chappie 
takes  notice* of  a  letter  sent  to  him  at 
Powderham  Castle,  near  Exeter,  against 
his  imagined  attraction  between  tallow 
and  the  magaetic  needle,  signed  Ami- 
cus.   This  came  from  the  same  hand  as 
those  signed  Indagator.     In  the  Ga- 
zetteer for  June  the  8th,  1764,  «  A 
letter  to  the  printer^  coneeming  the 
appearance  of  Venus  in  the  day-time ; 
signed  Astronomus."     In  the  Philoso- 
phical Transactions,  vol.  LIV.  p.  308, 
**  An  account  of  melting  small  bra9*< 
wire,  by  artificial  lightning  from  a  case 
of  thirty.five  bottles."     In  ditto,  voU 
I.VI.I,  p.  ^03,  *<  Observations  on  the 
heat  of  Bath  and  Bristol  water."     In 
Pr.  Owen's  jenquiry  into  -the  present 
state  of  tha  Septuagint  version  of  the 

Old  Testament,  p.  136,  "  A  scheme 
to  reconcile  the  fourth  and  fifth  verses 
of  the  thirty-fifth  chapter  of  the  book 
of  Numbers."  See  the  appendix  to 
that  work,  p.  174.  In  the  Philosophi- 
cal Transactions,  vol.  LIX.  p.  192, 
'*  A  letter  to  the  Astronomer  Royal, 
containing  observations  on  the  transit 
of  Venus,  June  the  3d,  1769  j  and  on 
the  eclipse  of  the  sun  the  next  morn- 
ing." In  the  Gazetteer  for  October  31, 
1770,  "  A  card  from  Astronomus  to 
Copernicus."  When  Dr.  Priestley 
wrote  his  History  of  Electricity,  Mr< 
Canton  eommunicated  to  him  several 
new^  experiments  and  observations,  > 
which  are  inserted  in  that  rery  valua- 
ble work.  They  are  as  follows :  1.  On 
electric  atmospheres,  with  a  figure,  p« 
246.  2.  On  glass-balls  hermetically 
sealed,  p.  279.  0.  Observations  on 
^Mr.  Wilson's  experiment  concerning 
light  in  vacuo,  p.  289.  4.  On  tbo 
tourmalin,  p.  305.  -  5.  Comparison  of 
the  positive  and  negative  electricity  in 
the  clouds,  p.  316.  6.  A  new  method 
of  electrifying  the  air,  p.  196.  7.  Gold 
and  silver  vitrified  by  the  heat  of  elec- 
trical explosions,  p.  647.  8.  All  the 
prismatic  colours  produced  by  electri- 
cal explosions  of  fine  wire  of  different 
metals,  extended  over  tKe  surface  of 
glass,  p.  679.  See  also  the  Philoso- 
phical Transactions,  vol.  LVIII.  p.  73. 
In  Dr.  Priestley's  history  of  vision,  &<?. 
p.  434,  are  observations,  by  our  au- 
thor, on  light  transmitted  through  thick 
and  thin  substances.  We  might  add, 
that  Mr.  Canton*  in  early  life,  wrote 
several  enigmas  and  poems  in  the  Lon- 
don and  Gentleman's  Magazines.  But 
such  productions,  though  sometioies 
the  amusements  of  the  most  ingenious 
minds  when  yonag^  scarcely  deserva 
to  be  particularly  marked  out. 

132  CANTON. 

.  of  hi»  family,  and  of  his  literary  and  otlier  acquaintance^ 
.Nor  w^s  his  decease  a  small  loss  to  the  interests  of  know- 
ledge; since  from  the  time  of  life  in  which  he  died,  an4 
his  happy  and  successful  genius  in  philosophical  pursuits^ 
he  might  have  been  expected  to  have  enriched  the  world 
of  science  with  new  discoveries.  Mr.  Canton  was  a  |nai^ 
of  very  amiable  character  and  manners.  In  conversation 
be  was  calm,  mild,  and  rather  sparing  than  redundant : 
what  he  did  say  was  remarkably  sensible  and  judicious. 
He  had  much  pleasure  in  attending  the  meetings  of  the 
Royal  Society,,  and  some  voluntary  private  societies  of 
learned  and  intelligent  persons,  to  which  he  belonged.  By 
his  wife,  who  survived  him,  he  left  several  children  His 
eldest  son,  Mr.  William  Canton^  succeeded  .him  in  the 
academy  in  Spital -square,  which  he  carried  on  with  great 
reputation  ;  and  he  also  pursued  with  advantage  the  same 
philosophical  studies  to  which  his  ingenious  and  worthy 
father  was  so  eminently  devoted.  *  ' 

CANTWELL  (Andrew),  a  native  of  Tipperary  in  Ire- 
land, lived  principally  in  Paris,  where  he  was  made  doctor 
in  medicine  in  1742.  The  same  year  he  published  a  trans- 
lation into  French  of  the  account  of  Mrs.  Stephens's  medi- 
cine for  dissolving  the  stone  in  the  bladder;  and  in  1746 
an  apcount  of  sir  Hans  Sloaue's  medicines  for  diseases  of 
the  eyes ;  also  some  severe  strictures  on  the  practice  of 
propagating  the  small  pox  by  inoculation  ;  and  in  the  Phi- 
losopliical  Tr:insactions,  London,  No.  453,  an  account  of 
a  double  child,  a  boy.     He  died  at  Paris,  July  11,  1764.* 

CANUS  (Melchior),  a  Spanish  divine,  was  a  native  of 
Taranzo,  in  the  diocese  of  Toledo.  He  was  Francis  Vic- 
toria's pupil,  and  succeeded  him  in  the  theological  chair  at 
Salamanca,  where  he  taught  with  reputation.  Canus  ap* 
peared  also  with  great  distinction  at  the  council  of  Trent^ 
under  Paul  HI.  and  was  made  bishop,  of  the  Canary  Islands' 
1552.  '^e  resigned  his  bishopric  afterwards,  and  was  ap- 
pointed provincial  of  the  province  of  Castile.  He  died  1 560^ 
at  Toledo.  His  treatise  *'  de  locis  Theologicis,"  published 
at  Padua  1727,  4  to,  is  very  elegantly  written,  and  is  justly 
esteemed  a  master- piece.  He  is  also  supposed  the  a^uthor, 
.  of  "  Praelectiones  de  PenitentiS,."  He  appears  to  have 
been  a  man  of  more  liberality  than  might  have  been  ^x- 
.  pected  from   bis  age  and  profession.     Dr.  Jortin  quotes 

»  Bk^.  Brit.  «  Diet.  Hist 

C  A'lf  U  S-  193 

some  instances  of  this  in  his  *^  Remarks  on  Ecclesiastical 
History/'  vol.  II.  p.  316.  His  whole  works  were  printed 
at  Venice  in  17S9,  4to.  ^ 

CANUS,  or  CANO  (John  Sebastian  del),  a  Biscayan^ 
companion  of  the  fimious  Magellan  ip  his  maritime  espe- 
didons,  passed,  in  company  with  him,  about  the  year  1520^ 
the  straits  to  which  that  celebrated  navigator  gave  his  name* 
After  the  death  of  Magellan,  be  reached  the  isles  of  Snnda^ 
from  whence  he  proceeded  to  double  the  cape  of  Good 
Hope.  He  returned  to  Seville  in  1522,  after  having  made 
the  circuit  of  the  world  by  theeast,  in  three  years  and  four 
weeks.  Charles  V.  gave  him  for  his  device  a  terrestrial 
globe,  with  these  words :  **  Primus  me  circumdedisti.'* 
Care  must  be  taken  npt  to  confound  him  with  James  Canus^ 
a  Portuguese,  who,  in  1484,  discovered  the  kingdom  of 
Congo.  ■ 

CAPACCIO, (Julius  C^ssar),  a  historian  of  the  sev«a« 
teenth  century,  was  born  in  Campagnia,  in  the  kingdom  of 
Niqdes,  of  an  obscure  family,  which  was  afterwards  raised 
by  Capaccio*s  merits.  He  studied  at  Naples  the  civil  and 
canon  law,  and  afterwards  read  over  the  poets  and  histo- 
rians. Being  a  person  of  note  for  his  learning  and  parts^ 
he  was  made  secretary  to  the  town  of  Naples.  He  was 
one  of  those  thi^t  had  the  greatest  share  in  setting  up  the 
academy  of  the  Otiosi.  Francis  de  la  Rovere,  duke  of 
Urbino,  employed  him  in  the  education  of  the  prince  his 
son ;  and  while  he  was  employed  in  this  business  he  wrote 
most  of  his  works.  He  died  in  1631.  His  works'  are: 
•^  Tratato  de*i  imprese ;"  "  II  secretario,  prediche  quadra-^ 
gecimali;"  « II  principe ;"  "  Historia  Puteolana ;''  *«His- 
toria  Napolitana,''  &c.  the  latter  are  in  Graevius's  The- 
aaurus,  but  the  separate  editions  of  these,  as  well  as  of  hit 
<<  Iliustrium  mulierum  et  virorum  historia,''  Naples^  1609, 
4to,  are  very  scarce. ' 

CAPECIO  (SciPio),  in  Latin  Capvcius,  a  native  of  Na- 
ples, and  a  Latin  poet  of  the  sixteenth  century,  attempted 
to  imitate  Lucretms,  in  his  poem  of  the  "  Principles  of 
thing^,**  Frankfort,  1631,  8vo,  with  considerable  success. 
Cardinal  Bembo  and  Manucius  placed  this  work  on  a  level 
with  his  model,  to  which  high  praise  it  is  scarcely  entitled* 
An  edition,  with  an  Italian  translation,  was  given  in  8VO9 

1  Moreri.-— Dupin. — ^Antonio  Bibl.  Hist.— Saiii  Onomast  >  Mor«ri. 

»  Iforeri.— Diet.  Hiitr^FAbricii  Coiiit>eciuft  Thei.  JLitt.  Tta1i«. 

Vgfc.  VIIL  O 

194  C  A  P  E  C  I  O., 

at  Venice,  in  1754.  He  also  composed  elegies,  epigrams^ 
and  a  poem  ^'  De  Vate  maximo/'  i.  e.  St.  John  ^e  Bap- 
tist, which  Gesner,  doubtless  a  great  friend  of  the  poet^ 
equalled  with  the  productions  of  antiquity.  «* 

CAPEL  (Arthur,  Lord)  was  the  only  son  and  heir  of 
sir  Henry  Capel,  who  died  in  the  flower  of  his  age.  He 
succeeded  to  the  family  estate  on  the  death  of  his  grand- 
father, sir  Arthur,  and  following  the  example  of  his  vir- 
tuous ancestors,  was  vei*y  eminent  for  his  hospitality .  to 
his  neighbours^  while  bis  great  charities  to  the  poor  en- 
deared him  to  the  hearts  of  the  people,  who  chose. him  to 
serve  in  parliament  for  the  county  of  Hertford,  in  1639 
and  1640.  In  the  following  year  he  was  made  a  peer  by 
Charles  I.  with  the  title  of  lord  Capel,  of  Hadham.  Upon 
the  breaking  out  of  the  rebellion,  he  raised  at  his  own 
charge  some  troops  of  horse,  in  defence  of  the  royal  cause, 
although  he  had  at  first  sided  with  the  parlialnent ;  and  did 
t)ot  attach  himself  particularly  to  the  court,  untiL  he  saw 

-  that  the  designs  of  the  republicans  were  no  longer  ton- 
ducted  with  moderation  or  justice.  He  fought  valiantly  in 
many  battles  and  skirmishes,  and  continued  to  >  adhere 
loyally  to  his  king,  till  his  majesty's  armies  were  dispersed, 

'  his  garrisons  lost,  and  his  person  imprisoned,  when  lord 
Capel  compounded  with  the  parliamentarians,  and  retired 
to  his  manor  of  Hadham.  Perceiving,  some  time  after, 
the  hard  treatment  his  sovereign  met  with,  he  resolutely 
ventured  again,  with  all  the  force  he  could  r^se,  to  rescue 
the  king  from  his  enemies;  and  joining  his  trt)ops  with 
those  of  lord  Goring  and  sir  Charles  Lucas,  underwent  the  « 
severest  hardships  in  the  memorable  siege  of  Colchester, 
which  was  at  length  surrendered  to  general  Fairfax  upon 
articles'  which  were  immediately  broke ;  for  sir  Charles 
Lucas  and  sir  George  Lisle  were  shot,  and  lord  Capel  sent 
prisoner  to  Windsor-castle.  An  act  of  attainder  being  or- 
dered by  the  house  of  commons  to  be  brought  in  against, 
him,  the  house  voted,  Nov.  10,  164.8,  that  he  and  some 
others  should  be  banished,  but  that  punishment  not  being 
thought  severe  enough,  he  was  removed  to  the  Tower. 
Lord  Clarendofl  is  of  opinion  that  two  or  three  sharp  and 
bitter  speeches  which  passed  between  Ireton  and  lord 
Capel,  cost  the  latter  his  life.  In  .the  mean  time,  hpw- 
6ver,  he  contrived  to  escape  out  of  his  prison,  but  being 

^  Moreri.'— Oen.  bict.«— Diet.  Hiit. 

C  A  PEL.  IW 

drscovered  and  apprehended  at  Lamb^tli,  on  F^b.  10^ 
1649,  he  was  brought  before  a  pretended  high  court  of 
justice  in  Westminster-hall,  to  be  tried  for  treason  and 
other  high  crimes  ;  and  though  he  strenuously  insisted  that 
he  was  a  prisoner  to  the  lord  general  Fairfax,  that  he  had 
conditions  given  him^  and  was  to  l)five  fair  quarter  for  his 
life  ;  yet  his  plea  was  over- ruled.  *In  three  days  aft^r  he 
was  brought  again  before  the  court,  when  the  counsel 
moved  that  he  should  be  hanged,  drawn,  and  quartered. 
This,  however,  was  changed  for  beheading,  and  the  ^o- 
tence  was  executed  March  9.  He  trod  the  fatal  stage^ 
says  lord  Orford,  with  all  the  dignity  of  valour  and  con- 
scious integrity.  In  these  qualities  all  historians  are  agreed, 
if  we  except  Mrs.  Macaulay,  whose  hostility  to  the  loyalists 
is  rather  a  compliment  His  literary  remains  were  pub- 
Jished  in  1654,  with  the  title  "  Daily  observations  or  me- 
. dilations  ;  divine,  moral,  written  by  a  person  of  honour 
and  piety ;"  to  which  are  added  *'  Certain  letters  written 
to  several  persons,^'  4to ;  and  the  whole  were  reprinted  - 
afterwards  in  12mo,  with  the  title  of  "  Excellent  Contem- 
plations, &c.''  and  some  account  of  his  life.  Some  ^'  Stan- 
zas^" by  lord  Capel,  written  when  he  was  a  prisoner  in 
the  Tower,  were  inserted  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine 
for  1757.  His  heart,  which  he  had  ordered  to  be  kept, 
and  deposited  near  the  remains  of  his  royal  master,  was 
afterwards  placed  in  the  family-vault  at  Hadham,  as  ap- 
pears by  a  letter  from  the  late  incumbent  of  that  parish, 
Dr.  Anthony  Hamilton,  published  in  the  fifteenth  volume 
of  the  ArchsBologia.  * 

CAPEL  (Arthur),  eldest  son  and  heir  of  the  pre^ced- 
ing,  became  his  successor,  and  notwithstanding  the  suffer- 
ings of  bis  father,  his  estate  was  uodcr  sequestration  ;  but 
.  at  the  restoration,  he  was,  by  Charles  II.  advanced  to  the  ' 
title  and  dignity  of  viscount  Maiden,  and  earl  of  Essex, 
on  April  20,   1661.     He  also  was  constituted  lord  lieute- 
nant and  custos  rotulorum  of  the  county  of  Hertford,  on 
July  7,  1660  i  and  lord  lieutenant  of  the  county  of  Wilts, 
:  during  the  minority  of  the  duke  of  Somerset,  on  April  2, 
1668.     In  the  year  1670,  he  was  sent  ambassador  to  Chris- 
.  tian  V.  king  of  Denmark,  whence  he  returned  with  high  ' 
favour  for  having  vindicated  the  honour  of  tlie  British  flag  : 
and  upon  testimonies  of  his  courage,  prudence,  and  abili^ 

^  Biog,  BriU— Park's  Royal  and  Noble  AuthorSi 

0  2 

196  C  A  P  E  1. 

ties,  was  sworn  of  the  pHvy-counctl  in  1672,  and 
made  lord-lieutenant  of  the  kingdom  of  Ireland;  which 
high  office  he  exercised  in  that  kingdom  to  the  general 
satisfaction  of  the  people.  After  his  return,  be,  in  1678j 
with  Halifa!r,  and  the  duke  of  Buckingbstm,  had  the  chief 
political  influence  among  the  lords ;  yet,  when  tbey  moved 
an  address  to  the  king  to  send  the  duke  of  York  from 
court,  ^he  mstjority  was  against  them.  In  1679,  he  was 
appointed  first  and  chief  commissioner  of  the  treasuiy : 
and  his  majesty  choosing  a  new  council,  be  ordered  sir 
William  Temple  to  propose  it  to  the  lord  chancellor  Fineb, 
the  earl  of  Sunderland,  and  the  earl  of  Essex,  but  to  one 
after  another;  on  which,  when  he  communicated  it  to  the 
earl  of  Essex,  he  said,  '^  It  would  leave  the  parliament 
and  nation  in  the  dispositions  to  the  king,  that  he  found  at 
his  coming  in.''  Accordingly  be  was  sworn  of  that  privy<* 
council  on  April  21,  1679,  being  then  first  lord  commis^ 
tioner  of  the  treasury ;  and  his  majesty  valued  himself  on 
it  so,  that  the  next  day  he  communicated  it  by  a  speech 
to  the  parliament,  which  was  agreeable  to  both  houses : 
but  not  concurring  with  the  duke  of  York  in  his  measures^ 
his  majesty,  on  November  19  following,  declared  in  coun- 
cil, that  he  had  given  leave  to  the  earl  of  Essex  to  resign 
his  place  of  first  commissioner  of  the  treasury ;' yet  in- 
tended that  he  should  continue  of  his  privy-council.  Ne^ 
vertheless,  soon  after,  being  a  great  opposer ,  of  the  court 
measures,  ahd  on  Jan.  25,  1680-lj  delivering  a,  petition 
against  the  parliament's  sitting  at  Oxford,  he  was  accused^ 
with  the  lord  Russel,  of  the  fanatic  plot,  and  sent  pri«» 
soner  to  the  Tower  in  the  beginning  of  July,  1683.  Bi« 
shop  Burnet  says,  that  a  party  of  horse  was  sent  to  bring 
him  up  from  his  seat  in  Hertfordshire,  where  he  bad  been- 
for  some  time,  and  seemed  so  little  apprehensive  of  dan- 
ger, that  his  lady  did  not  imagine  be  had  any  concern : 
on  his  mind.  He  was  offered  to  be  conveyed  away,  but ' 
he  would  not  stir:  his  tenderness  for  lord  Russel  was  the 
cause  of  this,  thinking  his  disappearing  might  incline  tbe 
jury  to  believe  the  evidence  the  more.  Soon  aft^er  his 
commitment,  he  was  found  with  his  throat  cut,  on  July 
13,  1683.  The  cause  of  this  is  variously  represented, . 
some  imputing  it  to  himself  in  a  fit  of  despondency,  and 
some  to  the  contrivance  of  his  enemies.  From  the  evi-  . 
dence  examined  in  the  Biog.  Britannica^  a  decision  seems 

C  A  P  E  L.  197 

d^cult    See  ^'  Bp.  Burnet's  late  History  charged  iK^ith 
great  partiality,''  by  Mr.  Braddon,  1725,  8vo. 

Sir  Heory  Cbauocy,  in  bis  Antiquities  of  Hertfordshire^ 
says,  be  was  a  person  of  an  agreeable  stature,  slender  in 
body,  adorned  with  a  comely  countenance,  mixed  with 
gravity  and  sweetness,  and  was  easy  of  access ;  his  mind 
was  si^date,  but  his  discourses  were  generally  free  and 
pleasant,  and  his  demeanour  very  con^laisaot  >  his  promises 
were  real  and  sincere ;  bis  reprimands  smart  and  ingeni* 
ctts,  having  a  quick  apprehension,  g<K)d  elocution,  sound 
judgment,  great  courage,  and  resolution  unalterable :  he 
was  always  wary  and  circumspect  in  council,  where  he  en- 
deavoured to  obstruct  all  arbitrary  power,  and  the  increase 
of  the  Popish  iiuerest,  having  a  particular  regard  for  the 
established  religion  of  his  country  ;  be  was  very  temperate 
in  his  diet,  strict  in  his  justice,  tender  of  his  honour,  and 
constant  to  his  friend ;  be  delighted  much  in  his  library,  * 
which  enabled  him  to  speak  on  all  occasions  with  great  ap* 
plause,  and  would  spend  his  vacant  hours  in  the  viewing 
of  records,  and  learning  of  the  mathematics.  These  were 
bis  diversions,  together  with  recreating  himself  in  his  fine, 
gardens  and  pleasant  groves  at  Cashiobury,  which  were' 
of  his  own  plantation.  ^ 

CAPEL  (Richard),  son  of  Gbrietopher  Capel,  an  al- 
derman of  Gloucester,'  was  bom  1586  in  that  city,  and 
after  being  educated  there  in  grammar,  became  a  com<«> 
moner  of  Alban  hall,  Oxford,  in  1601,  and  soon  after  was 
elected  demy  of  Magdalen«college.  In*  1609  be  was  made 
perpetual  fellow,  being  then  M.  A.  the  highest  degree 
which  he  took  at  the  university.  While  there,  Wood  says, 
^  his  emiaence  was  great,  and  he  was  resorted  to  by  noted 
men,  especially  of  the  Calvinist  persuasion,*'  and  was  tutor 
to  sevend  young  men  who  afterwards  rose  to  high  reputa- 
tion, particularly  Accepted  Frewen,  archbishop  of  Ifork^ 
Will.  Pemble,  &c.  He  left  college  on  obtaining  the  rec-. 
toiy  of  Eastington  in  Gloucestershire,  and  became  highly 
popular  as  a.  plain  and  practical  preacher,  and  a  man  oi 
exemplary  life  and  conversation.  In  1633,  when  the  Book 
of  Spor^  Qn  tbe  Lord's  day  was  ordered  to  be  read  in  all 
churches,  be  refused,  and  resigned  his  rectory.  He  then 
obtained  licence  from  the  bishop  of  Gloucester  to  practise 
physicy  which  he  did  with  much  success  for  some  years, 

1  CoUins'fi  Peerage.— Jiiog.  3rU.— -Burnet's  Qiat  of  his  own  T^mtB^ 

198  C  A  P  E  L. 

residing  at  Pitchcomb,    near   Stroad,    where  he  had  ah 
estate.     In  the  commencement  of  the  rebellion,  he  was 
called  to. be  one  of  the  assembly  of  divines,  bnt  did  not 
accept  the  offer.     Wood  thinks  he  was  restored  to  his  be- 
nefice at  this  time,  or  had  another  conferred  upon  him, 
which  we  believe  was  Pitchcomb,  where  he  died  Sept.  21, 
1656,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  there.     Clarke  informs 
us  that  for  some  time  he  attended  the  court  of  James  I. 
until  the  death  of  sir  Thomas  Overbury,  who  was  his  par- 
ticular friend.     His  principal  works  are,  1.  "  Temptation^, 
their  nature,  danger,  and  cure,  &c."  Lond.  1650,  8vo,  and 
an     *^  Apology'*    against    some    exceptions,     1659,    Svo. 
2.  "  Remains,  being  an  useful  Appendix  to  the  former," 
1658,  Svo.     His  son  Daniel  Capel  was  also  a  divine,  and, 
according  to  Walker,  ejected  from  his  living  in  Glouces- 
tershire by  the  Oxford  visitors.     He  then  practised  physite 
at  Stroud,  where  he  died  in  1679.     He  wrote,  "  Tenta-  • 
raei\  medicum  de  variolis,"  and  some  otheir  tracts.  * 
;   CAPELL  (Edward),  a  gentleman  well  known  by  his 
indefatigaV)le  attention  to  the  works  of  Shakspeare,'  was 
bom. at  Troston,  near  Bury,.  Suffolk,  June  11,    1713,  and 
received  his  education  at  the  school  of  St.  Edmund's  Bury. 
In  the  dedication  of  his  edition  of  Shakspeare,  in  1768,  to 
the  duke  of  Grafton,  he  observes,  that  "  his  father  and  the 
grandfather  of  his  grace  were  friends,  and  to  the  patronage 
of  the  deceased  nobleman  he  owed  the  leisure  which  en- 
abled him  to  bestow  the  attention  of  twenty  yeafs  on  that 
work."     The  office  which  his  grace  bestowed  on  Mr.  Ca- 
pell  was  that  of  deputy  inspector  of  the  plays,  to  which  a 
salary  is  annexed  of  200/.   a  year.     So  early  as  the  year 
1745,  as  Capell  himself  informs  u^,  shocked  at  the  licen- 
tiousness of  Hanmer's  plan,  he  first  projected  an  edition  of 
Shakspeare,  of  the  strictest  accuracy,  to  be  collated  and 
publi^shed,  in  due  time,  *^  ex  fifle  codicum."     He  itniiie-* 
diately  proceeded  to  collec*:  and  compare  the  oldest  and 
scarcest  copies;  noting  the  original  excellencies*  and  de-* 
fects  of  the  rarest  quartos,  and  distinguishing  the  improve- 
ments or  variations  of  the  first,  second,  and  third  folios. 
But  while  all  this  mass  of  profound  criticistri  was  tempering 
in  the  forge,  he  appeared  at  last  a  self-armed  Aristarchus, 
almost  as  lawless  as  any  of  his  predecessors,  vindicating 
bis  claim  to  public  notice  by  his  established  reputation,  the 

'  Ath.  Ox,  Ttf],  IL-^Foller'B  Worthies,— Clarke's  Lives  of  Thirty ^twQ  Dirio^^ 

C  A  P  E  L  L.  19» 

aiudioritatlve  air  of  his  notes,  and  the  shrewd  observations^ 
as  well  as  majesty,  of  his  preface.  His  edition,  however, 
was  the  effort  of  a  poet,  rather  than  of  a  critic  ;  and  Mr. 
Capell  lay  fortified  and  secure  in  his  strong  holdsj  en- 
trenched in  the  black  letter.  Three  years  after  (to  use  his 
own  language)  he  **  set  out  his  own  edition,  in  ten  vo- 
lumes, small  octavo,  with  an  introduction,"  1768,  printed 
at  the  expence  of  the  principal  booksellers  of  London,  who 
gave  him  300/.  for  his  labours.  There  is  not,  among  tjhe 
various  publications  of  the  present  literary  aera,  a. more 
singular  composition  than  that  '^  Introduction."  In  style 
and  manner  it  is  mare  obsolete,  and  antique,  than  the  age 
of  which  it  treats.  It  is  lord  Herbert  of  Cherbury  walking 
the  new  pavement  in  all  the  trappings  of!  romance ;  but, 
like  lord  Herbert,  it  displays  many  valuable  qualities  ac-f 
companyiug  this  air  of  extravagance,  tuuch  sound  sense^ 
and  appropriate  erudition.  It  has  since  been  added  to  the 
prolegomena  of  Johnson  and  Steevena's  edition.  In  the 
title-page  of  this  work  was  also  announced,  ^^  Whereunto 
will  be. added,  in  some  c^her  volumes,  notes,  critical  and 
explanatory,  and  a  body  of  various  readings  entire."  The 
introduction  likewise  declared,  tl)at  these  ^^  notes  and  va-^ 
rious  readings"  would  be  accompanied  with  another  worky 
disclosing  the  sources  from/ which  Shakspeare  "  drew  the 
greater  part  of  his  knowledge  in  mythological  and  classical 
matters,  his  fable,  his  history,  and  even  the  seeming  pe-^ 
culiarities  of  his  language — 'to  which,**  says  Mr.  Capell, 
"  we  have,  given  for  title,  The  School  of  Shakspeare."  No* 
thing  surely  could  be  more  properly  conceived  than  such 
designs,  nor  have  we  ever  met  with  any  thing  better 
grounded  on  the  subject  of  "  the  learning  of  Shakspeare'* 
than  what  may  be  found' in  the  long  note  to  tlus  part  of 
Mr.  Capell's  introduction.  It  is  more  solid  than  even  the 
popular  essay  on  this  topic.  Such  were  the  meditated 
achievements  of  the.  critical  knight-errant,  Edward  CapelL 
But,  alas!  art  is  long,  and  life  is  short.  Three-and^, 
twenty  years  had  elapsed,  in  collection,  collation,  compi- 
lation, and  transcription,  between  the  conception  and  pro- 
duction of  his  projected  edition  :  and  it  then  came,  like 
human  births,  naked  into  the  world,  without  notes  or  cQm-> 
mentary,  save  the  critical  matter  dispersed  through  the 
introduction,  and  a  brief  account  of  the  origin  of  the  fables, 
of  the  several  plays,  and  a  table  of  the  different  editions. 
Certain  quaintnesses  of  style,  and  peculiarities  of  printinj;^ 


^500  G  A  P  E  L  t. 

aiid  punotoation^  attended  the  whole  of  this  pobiieatioir. 
The  outline,  however,  was  correct.  The  critic^  with  un^ 
remitting  toil,  proceeded  in  his  undertaking.  But  while 
he  was  diving  into  the  classics  of  Caxton,  and  working  hi$ 
way  under  ground,  like  the  river  Mole,  in  order  to  eoierge 
with  all  his  glories;  while  he  was  looking  forward  to  his 
triumphs;  certain  other  active  .spirits  went  to  work  upon 
his  plan,  and,  digging  out  the  promised  tr^asures^  laid 
them  prematurely  before  the  public,  defeating  the  eSect 
of  our  critic^s  discoveries  by  anticipation^  Steevens^  Ma^ 
lone,  Farmer,  Percy,  Reed,  and  a  whole  host  of  literacy 
ferrets^  burrowed  into  every  hole  and  corner  of  the  warreft 
pf  modern  antiquity,  and  overran  all  the  country,  whose 
map  had  been  delineated  by  Edward  Capell.  Such  a  con^ 
tingeucy  nearl}^  staggered  the  steady  and  unshaken  per-^ 
severance  of  our  critic,  at  the  very  eve  of  the  completion 
of  his  labours,  and,  as  his  editor  informs  us^^or,  atas !  at 
the  end  of  near  forty  years,  the  publiciktion  was  posthu-* 
mouS)  and  the  critic  himself  no  m6re  l-«-!^we  say  then,  as 
his  editor  relates^  he  was  almost  determined  to  lay  the 
work  Wholly  aside.  He  persevered,  however  (as  we  learn 
from  the  rev.  editor,  Mr.  Collins),  by  the  encouragement 
of  some  noble  and  worthy  persons:  and  to  such  their  en^. 
eouragement,  and  his  perseverance,  the  public  was,  in 
1783,  indebted  for  three  large  volumes  in  4Ao,  under  the 
title  of  **  Notes  and  various  readings  of  Shakspeare;  to- 
gether with  the  School  of  Shakspeare,  or  extracts  from 
divers  English  books,  that  were  in  print  in  the  author^s 
time;  evidently  shewing  from  whence  bis  several  fabled 
were  taken,  and  some  parcel  of  his  dialogue.  Also 
farther  extracts,  which  contribute  to  a  due  understanding 
of  hi|»  writings,  or  give  a  light  to  the  history  of  his  life,  or 
to  the  dramatic  history  of  bis  time/' 

Besides  the  works  already  mentioned,  Mr.  Capeil  waa 
the  editor  of  a  volume  of  ancient  poems  called  ^^  Prolu- 
sions ;'*  and  the  alteration  of  Anthony  and  Cleopatra,  as 
acted  at  Drury-lane  in  1758.     He  died  Jan.  24,  1781. 

This  lively  account  of  Mr,  Capeil,  which  appeared  in 
the  two  last  editions  of  this  Dictionary,  seems  to  be  prin- 
cipally taken  from  an  ingenious  criticism  in  vol.  XLIX.  of 
the  Monthly  Review ;  ^nd  those  who  wish  ;to  investigate 
the  merits  of  Mr.  Cap^l,  as  an  editor,  at  a  small  expence 
of  time,  may  be  referred  to  the  other  volumes  of  that  re^ 
Tiew  in  which  his  works  ^e  cbaraqterised^  and  to  th# 

C  A  P  E  t  L.  soi 

Critical  R^iew,  vol.  XLL  and  LVI.  In  vol.  XLIX.  of  the 
Crit.  Reviewr  is  a  list  of  bis  MSS.  and  printed  books^  wiuch, 
he  gave  to  Trinity  college,  Cambridge ;  and  firom  a  not^ 
on  one  of  these  Uiere  is  some  reason  to  suspect  that  he  >yasi 
in  a  considerable  measure,  the  author  of  a  defence  of  him*' 
.self,  entitled  f^  A  Letter  to  George  Hardinge,  esq.  on  th^ 
subject  of  a  passage  in  Mr.  Steevens's  Preface  to  his  imr 
pression  of  Shakspeare/'  1777,  4to,  unless,  indeed,  th^ 
gentlemanto  whom  the  fetter  was  attributed,  the  rev.  Mr» 
Collins,  was  disposed  to  flatter  him  beyond  all  reasonably 
bounds,  and  at  the  expence  of  his  own  sense  and  taste.  Mr. 
CapeU,  we  are  told,  spent  a  whole  life  on  Shakspeare ;  and 
if  it  be  true,  which  we  are  also  told,  that  he  transcribed 
the  works  of  that  illustrious  poet  ten  times  with  his  qwi| 
band,  it  is  no  breach  of  charity  to  add,  that  much  of  a  life 
that  might  have  been  employed  to  more  valuable  purposes^ 
wAa  miserably  wasted,^ 

CAPELLA  (Margunus  MIneus  Fei4X),  a  Latin  ppet, 
lived  abomit  the  year  490  of  the  vulgar  sra.  He  is  thought 
to  have -been  an  African  and  proconsul.  We  have  a  poem 
of  hi$  mixed  with  prose,  entitled  *^  De  nuptiis  Philologist 
et  MeiMuirii,  et  de  septem  arcibus  liberalibus."  Grptiu^* 
at  tjbe  a^e  of  only  fourteen  years,  gave  a  good  edition  of 
this  production  in  1599,  in  8vo,  with  notes  and  corrections*- 
He  i;estored  numberless  corrupted  passages,  with  a  sagacity, 
truly  wonderful  in  a  boy  of  his  age.  That  part  which 
treats  of  mu»c  has  been  most  noticed  by  inquirers  intp  the 
history  of  that  art.  * 

CAPELLUS,  or  CAPPEL  (Lewis),  an  eminent  French 
protestant  and  learned  divine,  was  born  at  Sedan,  a  town, 
in  Champagne,  about  1579.  He  was  professor  of  divinity 
and  of  the  Oriental  languages  in  the  university  of  Saumur ; 
and  so  very  deeply  skilled  in  the  Hebrew,  that  our  learned 
bishop  Hail  calls  him .  '^  magnum  Hebraizantium  oraculum 
in  Gallia,"  the  greiat  oracle  of  all  that  studied  Hebrew  in  < 
France.  He  was  the  author  of  some  very  learned  works  ; 
but  is  now  chiefly  memorable  for  the  controversy  he  had 
with  the  younger  Buxtorf  concerning  the  antiquity  of  the 
Hebrew  points.  Two  opinions  have  prevailed  concerning 
the  true  date  and  origin  of  these  points ;  both  of  which 

1  Month.  «nd  Crit.  Rev.  as  above— See  a  note  hj  Mr.  Malone,  in  the  4th 
Act  of  Julius  Cflesar  in  Johnson  and  Stecveos's  Shakspeare. 
'  *  Vossius. — ^Fabric.  Bibl.  Lat.—- Hawkins's  Hist,  of  Music,  and  Pr,  Barney 
In  Reel's  pyctopedia* 

fit)2  CAPELLUS. 

fcave  been  very  warmly  espoused.  The  first  k,  that  thd 
points  are  coeval  with  the  language,  and  were  always  in 
Use  among  the  Jews :  the  second,  that  the  points  were  not 
known  to  the  Jews  before  their  dispersion  from  Jerusalem^ 
but  invented  afterwards  by  modern  rabbis  to  prevent  the 
language,  which  was  every  day  decaying,  from  being  ut- 
terly lost ;  viz.  that  they  were  invented  by  the  Masoreth 
Jews  of  Tiberias,  about  600  years  after  Christ*.  This 
opinion  of  their  late  invention  was  taken  up  by  Capellus, 
who  defended  it  in  a  very  excellent  and  learned  treatise 
entitled  "  Arcanum  punctuationis  revelatum,"  &c.  which 
work,  after  being  refused  a  lice*nce  in  France  and  at  Ge- 
neva, was  printed  in  Holland,,  and  caused  a  great  clamour 
iamong  the  protestants,  as  if  it  had  a  tendency  to  hurt  their 
tause.  It  is,  however,  certain,  that  Luther,  Calvin,  Zuing- 
Jius,  and  others,  had  espoused  the  same  notion  as  well  as 
the  Scaligers,  Casaubons,  Erpenius,  Salmasius,  Grotius, 
and  the  Heinsii ;  and  therefore  it  could  not  be  said,  that 
Capellus  introduced  any  novelty,  but  only  more  solidly 
established  an  opinion,  which  had  been  approved  of  by  the 
most  learned  and  judicious  protestants.  The  true  reason, 
perhaps,  why  the  German  protestants  in  general  so  warmly 
opposed  Capellus's  opinion,  was,  that  they  had  been  ac- 
customed to  follow  that  of  the  two  Buxtorfs,  whom  they 
considered  as  oracles  in  Hebrew  learning.  Buxtorf  the 
father  had  written  a  little  treatise  in  defence  of  the  anti- 
quity of  the  points ;  and  as  Buxtorfs  credit  was  justly 
great  among  them,  they  chose  rather  to  rely  upon  his  au- 
thority than  to  examine  .his  arguments,  in  so -abstruse  an 
inquiry.  Buxtorf  the  son  wrote  against  Capellus,  and 
Maintained  his  father's  opinion.  Capellus,  however,  has 
bieen  generally  supposed  to  have  put  the  matter  beyond 
any  father  dispute  ;  on  which  account  his  scholars  Bochart, 
Grotius,    Spanheim,  Vossius,  Daill^,   and   almost  all  the 

.  *  "That  the  Hebrew  vowel-points  proved,  and  never  can  be  proved ;  and 

are  ancient,  might  he  easily  proved;  that  they  are  not  necessary  to  a  radical 

that  they  give,  as  near  as.  we  can  come  knowledj^e  of  the  language,  every  per- 

to  it,  the  true  ancient  pronunciation,  son  knows  who   is  at  all  acquainted 

is  pretty  clear  from  the  Hebrew  names  with  its  nature;  and  lastly,  that  they 

retained  by  the   Septuagint,    and  -by  are  of  no  importance  in  biblical  criti- 

quotations  of  Hebrew  in  other  letters  cism,  the  unsettled  controversy  ctm- 

found    in  the  primitive  fathers ;    and  cerning   them    fully   ascertains.     The 

^at  thus  far  tney  are  of  i^usiderable  best  defence  of  them  ever  published  is 

use,   none  of  their  opponents   should  that  by  Mr.  Feter  Whit^eld,  Liverptml^ 

deny:  but  that  they  are  coeval  with  1748,  4to.*'-s-Pr.  Xlarke's  Bib!iQgi»« 

the  Hebrew  language  h&h  never  been  phical  Dictionary, 

C  A  P  E  L'  L  U  S.  80S 


learned  in  Hebrew  since^    have  very  readily  acceded  to 
his  opinion. 

Capellus  composed  another  work,  entitled  *^  Critica  8a* 
era ;"  fol.  which  so  highly  displeased  the  protestahts  that 
they  hindered  the   impression  of  it ;    till  John  Capellas, 
who  was  his  son,  and  afterwards  turned  papist,  got  leave 
of  the  king  to  print  it  at  Paris  in  1650.     This  work  is  a 
cdllection  of  various  readings  and  errors^  which  he  thought 
were  crept  into  the  copies  of  the  Bible,  through  the  fault 
of  the  transcribers,  and  nnist  have  been  a  work  of  prodi* 
^ious  labour,  since  the  author  acknowledges,  that  he  bad 
been  thitty-six  years  about  it.    The  younger  Buxtorf  wrote 
a  learned  answer  to  it,  and  some  English  protestants  have 
also  appeared  against  it :  but  Grotius,  on  the  other  side^ 
very  much  commends  it  in  an  epistle  to  the  author ;  where 
he  tells  him  to  be  content  with  the  judicious  approbation 
of  a  few,  rather  than  the  blind  applause  of  many  readers. 
<^  Contentus  esto,''  says  he,  *^  magnis  potius  quam  multis 
laudatoribus.''     Father  Simon  quotes  a  letter  which  Mori« 
nns  wrote  to  cardinal  Fvancis  Barbarini  on  the  subject  of 
his  ^^  Critica  Sacra,''  in  which  he  intimates  that  they  would 
do  Capellus  a  kindness  in  condemning  his  book,  because  it 
bad  procured  him  the  hatred  of  his  own  party ;  but  that 
at  the   same  time  it  would  be  prejudicial  to  the  Roman 
catholic  cause,  which  those  *^  Critica"  were  thought  to 
support.     This  letter  was  printed  in  England,  and  added 
to  a  cdllection  of  letters  entitled  ^'  Bibliotheca  Orientalis." 
Capellus  died  at  Saumur,  June  16,  1658,  aged  almost 
eighty ;  having  made  an  abridgment  of  his  life  in  his  work 
**  De  gente  Capellorum." 

It  has  hitherto  escaped  the  notice  of  Capellus's  biogra* 
phers,  that  England  had  a  considerable  share  in  his  edu- 
cation. He  came  to  Oxford  in  1610,  and  resided  for  some 
time  at  Exeter  .  college,  attracted  by  the  fame  of  those 
eminent  rectors  of  that  house.  Dr.  Holland  and  Dr.  Pri« 
deaux.  Wood  says  that  he  wore  a  gown,  and  in  February 
-of  ^ the  above  year  answered  in  certain  disputations  in  the 
divinity  school,  and  performed  othe^  exercises  in  order  to 
take  the  degree  of  b^helor  in  divinity ;  but  his  qame  does 
not  appear  i^i  the  register.  In  1612,  out  of  gratitude  for 
the  assistance  he  had  enjoyed  in  his  studies,  he  presented 
6ome  books  to  the  library ;  and  it  was  after  his  return  from 
Oxford  that  he  was  appointed  Hebrew  professor  at  Saumur, 
Capellus's    other  works  are,     1,  "  Historia  ApostoUca. 



ittustraiay^'  Genev.  1634,  4to/  in^rted  aft^rwurdg  in  toI.  1/ 
of  the  ''  Critici  Sacri,"  London,  1660,  fol.  2.  "  Spicile- 
giiim:post  messem  ;*'  a  collection  of  criticisms  on  the  New 
Teifttaoieat,  Gen.  1632,  4tQy  and  added  afterwards  to  Ca> 
iMton^s.  ^^  Myrotbecium  fivangelicun^"  oi'  which  we  have- 
already  mentioned  Capellua  was  the  editor.  3.  ^*  Dia- 
trihise  duas,*'  also  in  the  Spicileginm.  4.  '*  Templi  Hiero* 
9«d|ywitaiii  Delineatio  triplex,'^  in  ¥oL  I.  of  the  ^^  Critici 
Sacri/*  5.  ^^Ad  novam  Davidis  lyram  animadversiones^ 
Ac.''  SbIoiut.  1643,  8to.  6.  ^Diatriha  de  ver4siet  anti- 
cs Ebraeoram  Uteris,"  Amst  1645,  12akOy  in  answer  to 
Bvxtorf.  l.^^De  critica  nuper  a  se  editaj[  a4  v^t.  yiriun 
IX  Jacob*  Usserium  Armacanum  in  Hihetriiia  Spiscopuiny 
^pbtola  apologetica,  in  qua  Amoldi  Bootii  temevaria  Cri- 
tiose  censors  ref^Utur,''  Salm.*  1651,  ito.  His  oori^espond* 
eoce  with,  the  learned  Usher  may  be  seen  in  P^arr*s  va- 
luable collection  of  letters  to  and  from  the  archbishop,  p. 
4,5a,  6$2^  56a,  569,  and  587.  8.  <' Chronologia  Ss^ora," 
Baris,  1655,  4to,  reprhned  afterwards  amEong  the  prelego«^ 
imena  to^  Walton's  Polyglots  In  1775  and  1778,  a  new 
edition  of  his  ^  Oritica  Sacra^'was  published  at  Halle  in  2 
vols.  6vo,  by  Yogel  and  Sdurfenberg,  with,  corvectioos 
and  improvements.  * 

<  CAPIPULI  (Camillas),  a  native  of  Mantua,  who  died 
in  154^5  made  himself  famous  by  a  work  entitled  '^The 
Stratagems  of  Charles  IX.  against  the  Huguenots,'' .  which 
he  published  in  Italian  at  Rome,  1572,  4to,  and  a  French 
translation  was  printed  1574.  He  describes  the  massacre 
0f  St.  Bartholomew,  and  relates  some  Tery  remarkable  par* 
ticulars  respecting  the  motives  and  consequences  Qf  that 
outrage,  which  very  naturally  gave  ocffence  •  to  the  Fre&ch 

•  CAPILUPI  (Lelio),  df  Mantosf,  broth^^  of  thjj  pre- 
ceding, was  a  celebrated  poet  of  the  sixteenth  century^ 
^o  acquired  great  reputation  by  his  (centos  of  .Viifgi]^  in 
wfaiefa  he  applies  the  expressions- of  that  great  poet  to  the 
Jives  of  th^  monks  and  the  public  affairs  of  bis  time*  .  Hi$ 
4pento  against  women,  Venice,  1550,  8vo,  is  thoiigbttoo 
aatirical.  Part  of  Capilupi's  poems  ^re  in  >the  f'  0elici8e 
Poetarum  Italorum/'  torn.  I.  and  they  are  prin^d  sepa* 
jpately,  1600,  4to.  He  died  1560,  aged  sixty*tw!o.  Ut 
I         .  '  ... 

'  Moreri.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I.  Fasti  and  vol.  IL  Ath. — Mosheim. — Blount's  Ceu- 
feUra.— Saxii  Oaomast.  2  Moreri. — Gen.  Diet. 

C  A  P  I  L  U  P  I.  20* 

should  be  distinguished  from  his  brotliers  Hyppblitus  4nd 
JuKus  Capilupi,  who  were  also  Latin  poets.  All  their 
poems  are  collected  in  one  vol.  4to,  printed  at  Rome,  1590^ 
except  the  ^*  Cento  Virgilianos  ^e  Monachis/'  which  is 
proscribed  at  Rome,  and  o)ay  be  found  at  the  end  of  the 
•*  Regnnm  Papisticum'*  of  Naogeorgus. ' 

CAPISTRAN  (John),  a  Franciscan  friar,  was  born  in 
the  village  of  Capistran  in  Italy,  1385,  and  acquired  pro- 
digious reputation  by  his  zeal,  his  eloquence,  and  the  re*- 
gttlarity  of  his  manners.  He  was  sent  into  Bohemia,  itk 
order  to  effect  the  conversion  of  the  Hussites ;  and  he 
preached  a  crusade  against  the  Turks,  in  Germany,  in 
Hungary,  and  in  Poland.  His  eloquence  seconded  io 
happily  the  valour  of  Hunniades,  that  he  contributed 
greatly  to  the  victories  which  the  Christians  gained  oveir 
Mahomet,  and  particularly  to  the  famous  battle  of  Belgrade 
in  1456.  These  two  men  divided  so  evidently  the  glory 
of  the  victories  which  were  gained,  that  it  was  thought' 
there  was  a  jealousy  between  them ;  for  in  the  account 
which  Capistran  gave  of  the  victory  of  Belgrade,  no  notice 
was  taken  of  John  Hunniades  ;  and  the  relations  of  the  iat- 
ter  dki  not  Qiake  the  least  mention  of' Capistran.  Capisw 
tran  died  a  little  after  the  victory  last  mentioned,  Oct  2Sp 
1456,  and  was  buried  at  Willak  in  Hungary.  We  are 
told,  that  many  miracles  were  wrought  9,t  his  tomb,  and 
that  his  prayers  put  a  stop  to  the  miracles  of  a  lay-brother. 
He  was  canonized  in  October  1690  by  pope  Alexander 
VIII.  but  had  before  been  beatified  by  Gregory  XV. 
Some  very  surprising  effects  are  related  of  his  eloquence, 
a&  that  he  prevailed  on  his  heai^rs  to  make  a  pile  of,  and 
burn,  all  their  implements  of  gaming,  and  then  take  up 
arms  against  the  Turks.  He  did  not,  however,  depend 
upon  his  eloquence,  but  employed  the  secular  arm  in  the 
work  of  conversion,  and  put  to  death  those  whom  he  found 
refractory.  His  body,  after  being  buried  above  a  century, 
was  removed  to  another  monastery  when  the  Turks  took 
Sirmisch,  and  afterwards,  when  the  protestants  got  pos- 
session of  that  monastery,  it  was  thrown  into  a  well.  His 
principal  work  was,  "  Speculum  Clericorum,'*  a  treatise 
on  the  power  of  the  pope  and  councils,  &c.  which  he 
maintained  in  the  genuine  spirit  of  persecution, ' 

^  Mor«ri.--4acB.  D|ct»  '  Gen.  Pict. 

206  C  A  P  I  T  O.' 

CAPITO,  Rober't,     See  GRQSTHEAD. 

CAPITO  (Wolfgang  Fabricius),  an  eminent  LutheraQ 
reformer,  was  born  at  Hagenau  in  Alsace^  in  1478.  His 
father  was  of  the  senatorian  rank,  and  being  averse  to  the 
lives  of  the^divines  of  his  time,  bad  him  brought  up  to  the 
profession  of  physic  at  Basil,  where  he  took  his  doctor^s 
degree,  and  likewise  made  great  proficiency  in  other  stu- 
dies. After  his  father's  deaths  however,  in  1 504,  he  studied 
divinity,  and  also  civil  law,  under  Zasius,  an  eminent  ci- 
vilian, and  took  a  degree  in  that  faculty.  At  Heidelberg 
he  became  acquainted  with  Oecolampadius,  with  whom  he 
ever  after  preserved  the  strictest  intimacy  and  friendship. 
On  their  first  acquaintance  t^ey  studied  Hebrew  together 
under  the  tuition  of  one  Matthew  Adrian,  a  converted  Jew^ 
and  Capito  then  became  a  preacher,*  first  at  Spire  and  af- 
terwards at  Basil,  where  he  continued  for  some  years. 
From  thence  he  was  sent  for  by  the  elector  Palathie,  who 
made  him  his  counsellor,  and  sent  him  on  several  em-p 
bassies,  and  Charles  V.  is  said  to  have  conferred  upoo  him 
the  order  of  knighthood.  From  Mentz  he  followed  Bucer 
to  Strasburgh,  where  he  astonished  his  hearers  by  preach- 
jng  the  reformed,  or  rather  reforming  religion,  at  St  Tho- 
mas's church  in  that  city,  beginning  his  ministry  by  ex- 
pounding St.  Paul's  epistle  to  the  Colossians.  The  fame 
of  Capito  and  .Bucer  spread  so  wide,  that  James  Faber  and 
Gerard  Rufus  were  sent  privately  from  France  to  hear  him, 
by  Margaret  queen  of  Navarre,  sister  to  the  French  king  ; 
and  by  this  means  the  protestant  doctrine  was  introduced 
into  France.  Capito  was  a  man  of  great  learning  and 
eloquence,  tempered  with  a  prudence  which  gave  weight 
to  his  public  services  as  well  as  to  his^writings.  In  all  dis- 
putes, he  insisted  on  brotherly  love  and  peaceable  disi- 

In  1525  he  was  recalled  into  his  own  country  where  h^ 
continued  to  preach  the  reformed  ^principles,  and  admi- 
nistered the  ordinances  of  baptism  and  of  the  Lord's  supper 
without  any  of  the  popish  ceremonies.  He  likewise  made 
frequent  excursions  into  the  neighbouring  parts  of  Switzer- 
land, preaching  and  confirming  the  converts  to  the  new 
doctrines.  He  distinguished  himself  particularly  in  a  so* 
lemn  disputation  held  at  Bern,  in  1528,  against  the  mass, 
&c.  and  likewise  at  the  diet  at  Ratisbon,  in  1541,  where 
be  was  one  of  the  delegates  from  the  protestants.    As  be 

C  A  P  I  T  O.  20T 

was  returning  home  from  this  last,  he  died  of  the  plague, 
about  the  end  of  the  year  1541,  in  the  sixty-third  year  of 
his  age. 

*  Capito  was  esteemeclone  of  the  first  men  of  bis  age  for 
learning,  and  had  a  very  extensive  correspondence  with 
his  learned  contemporaries.  Among  others,  he  was  very 
importunate  with  Erasmus,  to  throw  off  the  disguise,  and 
appear  more  decidedly  for  the  protestant  religion ;  but 
Oecolampadius  was  his  principal  friend,  and  after  the  death 
of  that  reformer,  he  married  his  widow,  by  whom  he  had 
several  children.  He  had  before  married  another  lady  of 
great  literary  accomplishments,  who  lived  but  a  short  time. 
Moreri  and  the  editors  of  the  Dictionnaire  Historique  make 
this  lady  to  have  been  his  second  wife,  and  tell  us  that 
she  would  sometimes  preach  when  he  was  indisposed,  but 
both  accounts  appear  improbable^  Capito  left  the  follow- 
ing works:  **  Institutionum  Hebraicarum  libri  duo;^* 
**  Enarrationes  in  Habacuc  et  Hoseam  propbetas,'*  Stras- 
burgh,  1526,  8vo;  **  Vita  Jobannis  Oecolampadii  ;"  MDe 
formando  puro  Theologo  ;^'  ^^  Explicatio  doctissima  in 
Hexhameron  opus  Dei.^*  He  was  also  the  editor  of  Oeco- 
lampadius^s  Commentary  on  Ezekiel,  published  at  8tras« 
burgh,  1534,  4to.  His  life  of  Oecolampadius  was  trans- 
lated into  English,  and  published  along  with  those  of  Lu- 
ther and  Zuinglius,  by  Henry  Bennet  Callesian,  Lond. 
1561,   8vo.» 

CAPORALI  (Cjesar),  an  Italian  poet  and  governor 
of  Atri  in  the  kingdom  of  Naples,  was  born  at  Perugia  in 
3  530.  He  wrote  a  satirical  poem  on  courts  and  courtiers, 
which  procured  him  much  reputation,  while  his  circle  of 
friends  and  admir'ers  was  greatly  enlarged  by  the  vivacity 
and  pleasantry  of  his  conversation.  Among  the  number  of 
his  patrons  was  Ascanio,  marquis  of  Coria,  at  whose  house 
'he  died  in  l^OL  He  wrote  also  some  poenis  of  the  ro- 
inantie'*  elass,  as  his  <*  Life  of  Maecenas,"  left  unfinished, 
and  two  comedies,  viz.  ^^  Lo  Seiocco,"  and  "  La  Nin- 
netta,"  published  at  Venice  in  1 605.  A  collection  of  his 
poemsy  with  the  observations  of  his  son  Charles,  was  pub- 
iished  at  Venice  in  1656  and  1662.^ 

*  Mejehior  AdBin.^-Fuller'i;  Abel  Redivirus. — Freheri  Theatrum, 
'^  Mwie^i.— Tiralbosdii.— Erythrse.i  Pinacotbeea. 

S08  C  A  P  P  E. 

CAlPPE  (KEWCOMfi),  a  dissenting  minisier  of  tbe  Strw 
euiian  persuasion,  son  of  the  rev.  Joseph  Oappe,  minister 
of  the  dissenting  congregation  at  Mill  hill  in  Leeds,  was 
born  in  that  town  Feb.  21,  1732»S,  and  educated  for  some 
time  under  the  care  of  his  father,  whom  he  lost  in  his  six-^ 
teenth  year.  Having  at  this  early  age  discovered  a  predi« 
lection  for  nonconformity,  he  was  placed  at  the  academy 
of  Dr.  Aikin  at  KiLworth  in  Leicestershire,  in  1743,  and 
the  next  year  removed  to  that  of  Dr.  Doddridge  at  Nor- 
thampton. During  his  residence  here  he  overcame  some\' 
scruples  that  arose  in  his  mind  respecting  the  evidences  of 
revealed  religion,  by  examining  them  in  the  best  writers 
with  great  attention.  After  passing  two  years  at  Norths 
ampton^  he  wa^  deprived  of  the  benefit  of  Dr.  Dod* 
dridge^s  instructions,  who  was  obliged  to  leave  England  on 
account  of  his  health,  and  in  1752  went  to  the  university 
of  Glasgow,  where  he  continued  three  years,  improving 
his  knowledge  with  great  industry  and  success,  and  form* 
ing  an  acquaintance  with  many  eminent  men  of  the  day^ 
particularly  Dr.  Leechman,  Dr.  CuUc^n,  Dr.  Adam  Smithy 
Dr.  Moore,  and  the  late  Dr.  Black.  Having  completed  his 
studies,  he  returned  in  1755  to  Leeds,  and  within  a  short 
time  after  was  chosen  co-pastor,  and  the  following  year 
sole  pastor  of  the  dissenting  congregation  at  St  Savioui"- 

Sate,  York.     This  situation  he  retained  for  forty  years> 
uring  which  he  engaged  the  respect  and  affection  of  his 
hearers,  and  was  distinguished  as  a  preacher  of  uncommon 
eloquence,  and  a  man  of  great  learning  and  amiable  man* 
ners.     In  1791    and   1793  he  experienced  two  paralytic 
shocks,  which  ever  after  affected  both  his  walking  and  his 
speech,  but  was  enabled  to  employ  much  of  his  time  in 
preparing  those  works  for  the  press  which  appeared  aft^ 
his  death.     Weakened  at  length  by  paralytic  affections,  he 
died  Dec.  24,  1800^.     He  published  in  his  life-time,  1.  "A 
Sermon  upon  the  king  of  Prussia's  Victory  at  Rosbach,*' 
Nov.  5,  1757.     2.  "Three  Fast-day   Sermons^  published 
during  the  American  War."  3.  **  A  Sermon  on  the  Thanks- 
giving-day, 1784.'*     4.  **  A  Fast-day  Sermon,  written  du- 
ring the  American  War,  but  first  published  in  1795."     5. 
**  A  Sermon  on  the  Death  of  the  rev.  Edw.  Sandercock.''  6. 
^  A  selection  of  Psalms  for  Social  Worship.**     7.  •*  Re- 
marks in  vindication,  of  Dr.  Priestley^  in  answer  to  the 
Monthly  Reviewers.'*     8.  ^^  Letters  published  in  the  York 

.  C  A  P  P  E.  209 

Chronicle,  signed  *  A  doughty  Champion  in  heavy  ar- 
mour,' in  reply  to  the  attack  of  Dr.  Cooper  (ander  the 
signature  of  Erasmus)  upon  Mr.  Lindsey  on  his  resigning 
the  living  of  Catterick,  and  ^*  Discourses  on  the  Provi-* 
dence.and  Government  of  God/*  In  1802  were  published 
^^  Critical  Remarks  on  many  important  passages  of  Scrip- 
ture, together  with  dissertations  upon  several  subjects  tend- 
ing to  illustrate  the  phraseology  and  doctrine  of  the  New 
Testament"  To  these  were  prefixed,  memoirs  of  his  life, 
by  the  editor  Catherine  Cappe,  his  second  wife,  2  vols. 
8vo.  The  chief  object  of  these  remarks  is  to  attack  the 
Trinitarian  doctrine,  and  to  give  those  explanations  and 
ineanings  to  various  parts  of  the  New  Testament  language 
which  are  adopted  by  the  modern  Unitarian  school.  How 
far  he  has  been  successful  may  be  seen  in  our  references.' 
,  CAPPERONNIER  (Claude),  an  eminent  classical  scho- 
lar and  Greek  professor,  was  born  at  Mondidier,  a  small 
town  in  Picardy,  May  1,  1671.  For  some  time  bis  father, 
who.  was  a  tanner,  employed  |iim  in  that  business,  but  he 
early  contracted  a  fondness  for  reading,  and  even  taught 
^imself,  at  his  leisure  hours,  the  elements  of  Latin.  About 
the  beginning  of  1685,  Charles  de  St.  Leger,  his  uncle,  a 
Benedictine  of  the  abbey  of  Corbie,  happening,  on  a  visit 
to  Mondidier,  to  discover  his  nephew's  predilection,  ad- 
vised his  parents  to  send  him  to  the  college  of  Mondidier, 
where  the  Benedictines  of  Cluny  then  taught  Latin.  There 
Capperonnier  studied  for  eighteen  months,  and  by  an  un- 
common effort  of  diligence  combined  the  study  of  Greek 
with  .Latin,  two  languages  which  he  considered  as  mutually 
aiding  each  other,  and  which  he  made  the  subject  of  all 
his  future  researches.  In  1686  he  continued  his  education 
at  Amiens  among  the  Jesuits,  for  two  years,  under  father 
Lpnguemare,  who  observing  his  application  to  be  far  more 
incessant  than  that  of  his  fellow-scholars,  gave  him  private 
lessons  in  Greek.  In  1688  he  came  to  Paris,  where  at  the 
seminary  of  the  Trente-trois,  he  entered  upon  a  course  of 
philosophy  and  theology,  during  which  he  never  failed  to 
compare  the  fathers  of  the  church  with  the  ancient  Greek 
and  Roman  philosophers.  In  1693  and  1694  he  studied 
the  Oriental  languages  in  the  college  of  Ave-Maria,  and 
in  the  latter  year,  the  bishop  of  his  diocese  sent  him  to 

1  Life,  ts  above. — Monthly Kev;  vol.  LXIX.  where  his  "Remarks  in  yittdU 
•Rtioo  of  Dr.  Prieatley"  are  AaBunfd.--Brit.  ^rit.  yoL  XXI.  p.  6$. 


^10  CAPPER  O  N  N  I  E  R. 

the  community  of  St.  George  d' Abbeville  to  assist  the 
ecclesiaslical  students  in  the  Greek  language^  and  in  1695 
to  that  of  St  Valois  de  Monstreuil  to  teach  humanity  and 
philosophy ;  but  the  sea  air  and  his  excessive  application 
disagreeing  with  his  health,  he  returned  to  Paris  in  1696, 
took  the  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  followed  the  business 
of  education  until  he  found  that  it  interfered  too  much  with 
his  studies.  Contenting  himself,  therefore,  with  the  small 
profits  arising  from  giving  a  few  lessons,  he  took  up  his 
abode,  in  May  ]  697,  in  one  of  the  colleges,  and  when  he 
had  taken  his  baclielor's  degree  in  divinity  went  to  Amiena 
to  take  orders.  Returning  to  Paris,  he  became  a  licen- 
tiate, and  obtained  the  friendship  and  patronage  of  car- 
dinal Rohan,  the  abbe  Louvois,  and  other  persons  of  note. 
At  this  time,  some  lessons  which  he  gave  in  the  Greek,  and 
a  chapelry  of  very  moderate  income  in  the  church  of  St. 
Audr6  des  Arcs,  were  his  jonly  resources,  with  which  he 
lived  a  life  of  study  and  temperance,  defrayed  the  ex- 
pences  of  his  licentiate,  and  even  could  purchase  books. 
Mr.  Colesson,  however,  a  law- professor,  and  who  from 
being  his  scholar  had  become  bis  friend,  seeing  with  what 
difficulty  he  could  'maintain  himself,  made  him  an  offer  of 
bis  house  and  table,  which,  after  many  scruples,  he  con- 
sented to  accept  He  went  to  his  new  habitation  in  1700, 
and  in  the  following  year  resigned  his  duty  in  the  chapel, 
the  only  benefice  he  had,  because  it  took  up  that  time 
which  he  thought  completely  lost  if  not  employed  ia 
^tudy.  In  1706,  M.  Yiel,  then  rector  of  the  university  of 
Paris,  and  M.  Pourchot,  the  syndic,  admiring  his  disin<» 
terested  spirit,  procured  him  a  pension  of  four  hundred 
livres  on  the  faculty  of  arts,  to  which  no  other  condition 
was  annexed  than  that  he  should  revise  the  Greek  book» 
used  in  the  classes.  M.  Capperonnier  expressed  his  gra- 
titude on  this  occasion  in  a  Greek  poem,  which  was  printed 
with  a  Latin  translation  by  M.  Viel,  4to,  a  pamphlet  of 
jsix  pages. 

During  his  residence  with  M.  Colesson,  which  lastefd 
more  than  ten  years,  he  read  with  that  professor  whatever 
lie  could  find  in  the  Greek  authors  respecting  the  law,  and 
jacquired  a  very  profound  knowledge  of  the  subject ;  nor 
was  he  less  skilled  in  what  the  ancients  have  conveyed  to 
JUS  on  the  arts  and  sciences ;  and  the  assistance  he  afforded^ 
to  many  eminent  writers  ba»  been  amply  acknowledged^ 

C  A  P  P  E  R  O  N  N  I  E  R.  2U 

particularly  by-Montfancon,  Baudelot  de  Dairvil,  Kuster^ 
Tournemine,  and  many  others.  In  1702  he  engaged  with 
Toumenoine  and  Dnpin  in  an  edition  of  Photius>  of  which 
Dupin  was  to  be  principal  editor,  Tournemine  was  to  fur*' 
trish  the  notes,  and  Capperonnier  the  translations.  This 
work  was  considerably  advanced,  and  some  part  printed^ 
when  it  was  interrupted  by  the  banishment  of  Dupin  to 
Chatelleraut,  and  was  never  afterwards  completed  ;  a  cv> 
cumstance  which  the  learned  world  has  to  regret,  as 
Capperonnier  had  employed  three  years  in  collating  the 
best  editions  and  manuscripts,  and  Photius'  still  remains 
without  an  editor.  ...    ».     . 

Capperonnier  was  an  inmate  with  M.  Colesson  when  the 
university  of  Basil  invited  him  to  the  chair  of  the  Greek 
professor,  with  a  liberal  salary,  and  freedom  of  conscience; 
but  this  be  did  not  think  proper  to  accept.     About  the  end 
of  1710  he  was  induced  to  undertake  theeducation  of  thei 
three  sons  of  M.  Crozat,  who,  on  his  removing  to  his  housej 
settled  a  pension  of  one  hundred  pistoles  upon  him,  which^ 
with  his  usual  moderation,  Capperonnier  made  sufficient 
for  all  his  wants,  until  in  Oct.  1722  he  was  appointed 
royal  professor  of  Greek.     On  this  occasion  he  delivered  a 
Latin  discourse  on  the  use  and  excellence  of  the  Greek 
language.     In  1725  he  published  at  Paris  his  edition  of 
**  Quintilian,*'  fol.  dedicated  to  the  king,  who  bestowed  on 
him  a  pension  of  800  livres.     Burman,  who  had  published 
an  edition  of  Quintilian.  thought  it  incumbent  to  attack 
this  of  our  author,  who  answered  h^s  objections  with  tem- 
perate and  sound  reasoning.     Capperonnier's  is  a  splendid 
book,  and  particularly  useful  in  illustrating  the  author  by 
references  to  the$  Greek*  orators.     In  1719  our  author  pub- 
lished *^  Apologie  de  Sophocle,'*  a  pamphlet,  8vo,  in  an- 
swer to  some  objections  of  Voltaire  to  the  GBdipus.     M. 
Capperonnier  died  at  Paris,  Jply  24,  1744,  leaving  a  cha- 
racter of  amiable  simplicity,  great  piety  and  probity,  and 
singular  benevolence  and  kindness.     He  was  distinguished 
by  a  very  retentive  memory.     Among  various  works  which 
he  left  for  the  press  were  an  edition  of  the  "  Antiqui  Rhe* 
tores  Latini,'*  with  notes  and  illustrations,   published  at 
Strasburghin  1756,  4to  ;  and  "  Philological  Observations'* 
on  Greek  and  Latin  authors,  which  would  amount  to  se* 
veral  volumes  in  4to.     He  also  completed  a  "  Treatise  on 
the  ancient  pronunciation  of  the  Greek  language,"  and 


made  great  additions  and  corrections  to  Stephens^s  Latin 
Thesaurus. ' 

CAPPERONNIER  (John),  nephew  of  the  preceding, 
was  borii  at  Mondidier  in  1716,  and  died  at  Paris  in  1775. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions,  professor 
of  Greek  in  the  royal  college,  to  which  he  succeeded  on 
his  uncle^s  death,  and  librarian  to  the  king.  He  inherited 
much  of  his  uncle's  taste  for  classical  studies,  and  was  not 
less  esteemed  for  his  private  character.  He  published,  1. 
an  edition  of  Joinville's  "  History  of  St.  Lewis,"  Paris, 
1761,  fol.  2.  An  edition  of  '^  Anacreon,"  1748,  12mo, 
described  in  our  authority  as  rare,  nor  do  we  find  it  in 
Harwood,  Dibdin,  or  Clarke.  3.  **  Cssaris  Opera,"  Paris, 
Barbou,  1754,  2  vols.  12mo.  4.  ^*  Plautus,"  with  a  good 
glossary,  by  Valart,  1759,  8  vols.  12mo.  5.  **  Sophocles,** 
prepared  by  our  author,  but  published  after  his  death  by 
Vauvilliers,  Paris,  1781,  2  vols.  4to.  An  ample  account 
of  this  edition  may  be  sden  in  Dibdin.,  Capperonnier  also 
contributed  various  papers  to  the  academy  of  inscriptious. 
His  son,  a  very  learned  young  man,  who  had  also  a  place 
in  the  royal  library,  was  unfortunately  drowned  a  few  years 
ago,  while  sailing  in  a  pleasure-boat  with  some  friends.  * 

CAPRIATA  (Peter  John),  a  Genoese  advocate,  who 
lived  in  the  seventeenth  century,  and  acquired  much  fame, 
as  a  lawyer,  is  now  only  known  as  a  historian.  His  Italian 
history  comprehends  the  transactions  that  occurred  in  Italy 
<iuring  his  own  time,  which  he  has  related  with  clearness,^ 
and  with  sagacity  traced  to  their  causes  ;  maintaining  at  the 
.same  time,  as  he  says,  a  perfect  impartiality  between  the 
powers  of  France  and  Spain,  that  were  concerned  in  theoi. 
The  two  first  parts  of  this  history  were  published  by  Ca* 
priata  in  his  life»time,  from  1613  to  1644;  and  the  third 
part,  extending  to  1660,  was  published  by  his  son  after 
his  death.  The  whole  was  translated  into  English  by 
Henry  earl  of  Monmouth,  and  published  Lond.  1663,  foL* 

CARACCI  (Lewis,  Augustine,  and  Hannibal),  were 
<;elebrated  painters  of  the  Lombard  school,  all  of  Bologna, 
in  Italy,  and  the  founders  of  the  Bologna  school.  Lewis 
Caracci  was  bolrn  in  1555,  and  was  cousin-gernian  to  Au* 
gustine  and  Hannibal,  who  were  brothers.  He  discovered 
but  an  indifferent  genius  for  painting  under  his  first  master^ 
Prospero  Fontana ;  who  therefore  dissuaded  him  from  pur* 

1  Mprcri.  •  Diet  Hiftt.— Dibdia'i  CiMiict.  &  Qca.  Dict^— M^itr^ 

C  A  R  A  C  CI.  «13 

'suing  it  any  fiurther,  and  treated  him  so  roughly  that  Lewis 
left  bis  school.  However,  he  was  determined  to  supply 
Ae  defects  of  nature  by  art ;  and  henceforward  had  re- 
course to  no  other  master  but  the  works  of  the  great  pain- 
ters. He  went  to  Venice,  where  the  famous  Tintoret, 
seeing  something  of  his  doing,  encouraged  him  to  proceed 
in  his  profession,  and  foretold,  that  he  would  one  day  be 
the  first  in  it«  This  prophetic  applause  animated  him  in 
bis  resolutions  to  acquire  a  mastery  in  his  art ;  and  he  tra- 
velled about  to  study  the  works  of  those  who  had  excelled 
in  it.  He  studied  Titian's,  Tintoret's,  and  Paulo  Vero- 
^nese's  works  at  Venice :  Andrea  del  Sarto's  at  Florence  ; 
Correggio's  at  Parma ;  and  Julio  Romano's  at  Mantua :  but 
Correggio's  manner  touched  him  most  sensibly,  and  he 
followed  it  ever  after. 

Augustine  Caracci  was  born  in  1557,  and  Hannibal  in 
1560.  Their  father,  though  a  taylor  by  trade,  was  yet 
very  carefnl  to  give  his  sons  a  liberal  education.  Augustine 
was  intended  to  be  bred  a  scholar ;  but  his  genius  leading 
him  to  arts,  he  was  afterwards  put  to  a  goldsmith.  He 
quitted  this  profession  in  a  little  time,  and  then  gave  him- 
self up  to  every  thing  that  pleased  his  fancy.  He  first  put 
himself  under  the  tuition  of  his  cousin  Lewis  ;  and  became 
a  very  good  designer  and  painter.  ^  He  gained  some  know- 
ledge likewise  of  all  the  parts  of  the  mathematics,  natural 
philosophy,  rhetoric,  music,  and  most  of  the  liberal  arts 
and  sciences.  He  was  also  a  tolerable  poet,  t)nd  very  ac- 
complished in  many  other  respects.  Though  painting  waa 
the  profession  he  always  adhered  to,  yet  it  was  often  in- 
terrupted by  his  pursuits  in  the  art  of  engraving,  which  he 
learnt  of  Cornelius  Cort,  and  in  which  he  surpassed  all  the 
masters  of  his  time. 

Hannibal  Caracci  in  the  mean  time  was  a  disciple  of 
Lewis,  as  well  as  his  brother  Augustine  ;  but  never  deviated 
from  his  art,  though  he  wandered  through  all  those  places 
which  afforded  any  means  of  cultivating  and  perfecting  it. 
Among  his  many  admirable  qualities,  be  bad  so  pnKligious 
a  memory,  that  whatever  he  had  once  seen,  he  never  failed 
to  retain  and  make  his  own.  Thus  at  Parma,  he  acquired 
the  sweetness  and  purity  of  Correggio ;  at  Venice,  the 
strength  and  distribution  of  colours  of  Titian;  at  Romey 
the  correctness  of  desiscn  and  beautiful  forms  of  the  an- 
tique  :  and  by  his  wonderful  performances  in  the  Farnese 
palsice,  he  soon  made  it  appear,  that  all  the  several  per- 

214  e  A  E  A  e  c  I. 

fecdons  of  the  most  emiaent  maaters^  his  pre^cessofts, 
were  united  ia  himself  alone. 

At  length  these  three  painters,  having  qoacle  all  the  ad-> 
vantages  they  could  by  observation  and  practice,  formed  a 
plan  of  association,  and  continued  hencefosward  almo«t 
always  together.  Lewis  communicated  his  discoveries  freely 
to^his  cQusins ;  and  proposed  to  them  that  they  should 
r^mt^  their.  seQ,timeuts  and  their  manner,  and  aet  %s  it  were 
in  coofe4eracy^  The  proposal  was  accepted :  they  pa4nted 
"^riou^  pi<:ture6  in  several  places;  and  finding  their  crediib 
tQ  iacrease^  they  laid  the  foundation  of  that  celebrated 
school,  which  ever  since  has  gone  by  the  name  of  the 
Caracci's  academy.  Hither  all  the  young  students,  who 
had  ^  view  of  becoming  masters.,  resorted  to  be  instructed 
in  the  rudiments  of  painting  ;  and  here  the  Caracci  taught 
iVeeiy  an4;  vf ithout  reserve  to  all  that  came.  Lewises  eharge 
was  to  make  ;a.  collection  of  antique  statues .  and  bas-reli^fk. 
"^hey  had, designs  of  the  best  masters,  and  a  coUection  of 
curious  b^ks  on  all  subjects  relating  to  their  an :  and  they 
li^^d  a  skilftl  anatomist  always  ready  to  tdach  what  be** 
longed  to  the  knitting  and  motion  of  the  muscles,  fte^ 
There  were  often  disputations  in  the  academy ;  and  not 
qply  painters  but  men  of  learning  proposed  questions, 
wbich !  were  always  decided  by  Lewis.  Evefy-  body  was 
i|rell  received ;  and  though  stsLted  hours  were  allotted  to 
threat  of  di^erent  matters,  yet  improvements  might  be  made 
at, all  hoMHS'by  the  antiquities  and  the  designs .  which  were 
V);be  seen, 

.  The  fame  of  the  Caracci  reaching  Rome,,  the  cardinal 
Farnese  sejit  for  Hannibal  thither,  to  paint  the  gallery  of 
bis  palace. — Hannibal  was  the  more  willing  to  go,  because 
lie  had  a  great  desire  to  see  Raphael's  works,  with  the  an-, 
tique  statues  and  bas-reliefs.  The  gusto  which  he  took 
there  from  the  ancient  sculpture,  made  him  change  his 
Bolognian  manner  for  one  more  learned,  but  less  natural 
in  the  design  and  in  the  colouring.  Augustine  followed 
Hannibal,  to  assist  him  in  his  undertaking  of  the  Farnese 
gallery ;  but  the  brothers  not  rightly  agreeing,  the  car* 
dinal  sent  Augustine  to  the  court  of  the  duke  of  Parma, 
in  whose  service  he  died  in  1602,  being  only  forty- five 
years  of  age.  His  most  celebrated  piece  of  painting  is 
that  of  the  Communion  of  St.  Jerom,  in  Bologna :  *^  a 
piece,"  says  a  connoisseur,  "  so  complete  in  all  its  parts, 
that  it  was  much  to  be  lamented  the  excellaiit  author 

C  A  R  A  C  XJI.  ai5 

sliould  withdraw  himself  from  the  practice  of  an  art,  in 
which  his  abilities  were  so  very  extraordinary,  to  follow 
the  inferior  profession  of  a  graver."  Augustine  had  a  na- 
.tural  son,  called  Antonio,  who  was  brought  up  a  painter 
under  hia  uncle  Hannibal ;  and  who  applied  himself  with 
aq  much  success  to  the  study  of  all  the  capital  pieces  in 
Rome,  that   it  is  thought  he  would  have  surpassed  even 

.  Hannibal  himself,  if  he  had  lived ;  but  he  died  at  the  age 
of  thirty«.five,  in  1618. 

.  Meanwhile  Hannibal  continued  working  in  the  Farnese 
gallery  at  Rome ;  and,  after  inconceivable  pains  and  care^ 

.  finished  the  paintings  in  the  perfection  they  are  in  at  pre- 
sent He  hoped  that  the  cardinal  would  have  rewarded 
him  in  some  proportion  to  the  excellence  of  his  work,  and 
to.  the  time  it  took  him  up,  which  was  eight  years ;  but  he 
was  disappointed.  The  cardinal,  influenced  by  an  ignorant 
Spaniard  his  domestic,  gave  him  but  a  little  above  200 
}K>unds.  When  the  money  was  brought  him,  he  was  so 
surprised  at  the  injustice  done  him,  that  be  could  not  i^eak 
^  word  to  the  person  .who  brought  it.  This  confirmed  him 
in  a  melancholy  which  his  temper  naturally  inclined  to^ 
and  made  him  r^olve.  never  more  to  touch  his  pencil ;.  and 
this  resolution  he  had  undoubtedly  kept,  if  his  necessities 
had  not  compelledhim  to  break  it.  It  is  said  that  his  me- 
lancholy gained  so  much  upon  him  that  at  certain  times  it 
deprived  him  of  the  right  use  of  his  -  senses;  It  did  ino^ 
however,  put  a  stop  to  his  amours;  and  his  debi^ 
Naples,  whither  he.  bad > retired  for.  the  recovery; of  bi^ 
health,  brought  a:dtstemper  upoil^  him,  of  whidh  he  died 
atfoity-iiine  years  of  >  age. «  As  in  bis  life  he  h^d  ifnitated 
Raphael  in  his  works^  so  he  seems  tO'hdvb  copied  thaf 
gr^t  master  in  the  cause  .ai|d: manner'  of  his  death.'  :  liii 
venemtion  for  Raphaierl  was  indeed- so  great,'  that  M  wasihiii 
dcakih<rbed' request  to  be  buried  io/  the.^am^  tomb. with 
hiiiei ;  ^which  was  iaooosdingty  xbndvin.  tbe  opantbeon  ^r  tov  .Rome.  Tthere  are  extant' seveval'prints  of  the 
blessed riV^in^o,  and  of  ^tber  stsbjects,;  etched-  by  the  hand 
6f>:tfaps'4iioonipdrahlQb.:Biitis€i.  ^  He  x^ -said  i  to  have  been  a 
frieadkly;  plains  hbtreit,  atidiopen^heartedmn  ;  very  com-* 
HicmiteiiT€sto.his*«dholars,.  and  sae^tTiten^eJfyikind  to  them^ 
l3aftbe<gecieraUy.k(^iihii»' moneyi<in  th^  $ame  box  with 
Jbrascbli^i8,>wherGitWy'^  either  s^9 

thejiiiiad:oc'ciisioii.':^i   J;.o/.'i/}iin   ,/.....  i,  .     •.  -•  :-: 

..Wixi!i&^^^  Romey  Levris  wtttf 

ai6  C  A  R  A  C  C  L 

courted  from  all  parts  of  Lombardy,  especially  by  tbe 
clergy,  to  make  pictures  in  their  churches ;  and  we  may 
judge  of  his  capacity  and  facility,  by  the  great  number  c^ 
pictures,  he  made,  and  by  the  preference  that  was  given 
him  to  other  painters.  In  the  midst  of  these  employment!!^ 
Hannibal  solicited  him  to  come  and  assist  him  in  the  Far« 
nese  gallery;  and  so  earnestly  that  he  could  not  avoid 
complying  with  his  request.  He  went  to  Rome ;  corrected 
several  things  in  that  gallery ;  painted  a  figure  or  two  him* 
self,  and  then  returned  to  Bologna,  where  he  died,  161 9, 
aged  63. 

Had  the  Caracci  had  no  reputation  of  their  own,  yet  the 
merit  of  their  disciples,  in  the  acadenoy  which  they 
founded,  would  have  rendered  their  name  illustrious  in 
succeeding  times:  among  whom  were  Guido,  Domeni- 
cbino,  Lanfranco,  &c.  &c. 

In  the  excellent  lectures  of  sir  Jo^raa  Reynolds  are 
many  remarks  and  criticisms  on  the  Caracci ;  and  other  au« 
thors  may  be  referred  to  for  various  testimonies  to  their 
mierit  and  opinions  on  their  works*  It  may  be  sufEcient| 
however,  in  this  place,  to  conclude  with  that  of  Mn  Fuseli, 
who,  after  objecting  to  Pilkington's  arrangemeint  and  some 
of  his  criticisms,  proceeds  to  characterise  these  artists. 

Loduvico  Caracci,  far  from  subscribing  to  a  master's 
dictates,,  or  implicit  imitation  of  former  styles,  was  the 
sworn  pupil  of  nature.  To  a  modest  but  dignihed  design, 
to  a  simplicity  eminently  fitted  for  those  subjects  of  i«ii- 
giouS' gravity  which  his  taste  preferred,  he  joined  that:so- 
lemnity  of  hue,  that  sober  twiUght,  that  air  of  cloistered 
lnedits^too» .  whioh  has.  been  so  often  recommended  as  the 
proper  tone  of  historic  colour.  •  Too  often  content  to  rear 
the  humbler  graces  of  his  subject,  he.  seldom  courted  ele- 
gance, but  always,  wheli  he  did,' with  enviable  success. 
Even  now,  though  they  are.ji^aj^y  «in  a  state  of  .evan«Si- 
cence,  the  threge  uymphs  in  the.  garden  scene  of  .S.  Mi- 
cbele  in  Boscoy  «eem  moulded  byth^  hand,  itispired  hyr: 
the  breath,  of.  love ;  this;  genial  glow:  he  .coqamuhifvitesr 
tven  to  the  ^pen  isilverj  tone  jof  <freaeoi:  .ht^imasteuMpiiieofl 
in  oil  is  the  altar-piecCvOf  St.  John , the  Baptist,}  fofjnnrly 
in!the  Certosa  of  Bologoa,  now> ift theLouvte,  a-workralK 
sainted  by  this  solemn,  hue,  -  wfaofte^ligkftsi  seem  j&aabr&ifMA 
by  a  golden  veil.  But Xodovioo.s(9mi^time&  indulged- ami 
succeeded  in  tones  austere,  unmixed  and  hardy:  such  is 
th^  Flag^latioa  oC  Christ  in  l^e  smaet  church,,  of  which  the 

€  A  R  A  C  C  I.  217 

tvemendous  depth  of  tbe  flesh  tints  contrasts  with  the  stern 
blue  of  the  wide*expanded  sky;  and  less  cpnyeys,  than 
dmshes  its  terrors  on  the  astcoiished  sense. 

Agostino  Caracciy  with  a  singular  modesty,  which 
prompted  him  rather  to  propagate  the  fame  of  others  by 
his  graver,  than  by  steady  exertion  to  rely  on  his  own 
power  for  perpetuity  of  name,  combined  with  some  learn- 
ing a  cultivated  taste,  correctness  and  sometimes  elegance 
of  form,  and  a  Correggiesque  colour,  especially  in  fresco. 
His  most  celebrated  work  in  oil  is  the  Communion  of  St 
Jerome,  formerly  at  the  Certosa,  now  likewise,  with  its 
rival  picture  of  the  same  subject,  among  tbe  spoils  of  the 
Louvre.  These  two  pictures  have  often  been  compared 
without  much  discrimination  of  the  principles  that  distin« 
goish  either,  and  the  result  has  commonly  been  in  favour 
of  Domenichino ;  but  suri^y,  if  Agostino  yields  to  his 
scholar  in  repose,  and  the  placid  economy  of  the  whole, 
he  far  excels  him  in  the  principal  figure,  the  expression 
and  character  of  the  Saint* 

,  Annibale  Caracci,  superior  to  his  cousin  and  brother  in^ 
power  of  execution  and  academic  prowess,  was  inferior  ta 
c^fthei:  in  taste  and  sensibility  and  judgment :  of  this  the 
best  proof  .tbat  can  be  adduced  is  his  master-work,  that  on' 
which  he  rests  >his  fame,  the  f'arnese  gallery ;  a  work  whose 
uniform  vigour. of  execution  nothiug  can>  equal  but  its  \m-i 
becility  and  inOongruity  of  conception :  if  impropriety  of 
orpiun^ot  were  to  be  fixed  by  definition,  thei  subjects  of 
that  gallei!y.9)ight  be  quoted  as(  the  most  declMve  instan- 
ces: tbe  artt0|}  ii;iay  admire  the  splendor,  the  exuberance, 
the'conqent^^tian  of  powers,  displayed  by  Annibale  Ca- 
racci, but  th.atnan  of  sense  must  lament  their  misapplica- 
tion in.  the  Fari^ese  gallery,  ^ 

.f  CARACCJQr( Anthony),  baron  of  Gorano,  was  a  na- 
tive of  Niurdo  in  ithe  kingdom  of  Naples,  and  in  the  seven- 
teenth c^aMiry  a/?quired  much  fame  by  his  Italian  poems*^  tragedies  that  of  <M1  Corradino**  is  distin- 
guished above  tbe  rest,  printed  at  Rome  in  1694.  He 
employed  himself  in  a  work  of  far  greater  importance,  his 
^^  Imperio  vindicate,"  an  epic  poem  in  forty  cantos,  printed 
at  Rome  in  1  $90,  4to.  The  Italians  place  it  immediately 
after  Ariosto  and  Tassp  ;  but  persons  of  taste,  while  they 
admire  the  facility  and  abundance  of  the  author,  rank  his 

I  PilkfaigtOD,  and  Stratt,<^D'ArgenviIle. 

JTIS  <;  A  R  A  C  C  I  O. 

poem'  far  beneath  the  Orlando  Furio«o  and  the  Gtenisa- 
lemme  Liberata.    The  author  died  atr  Rome  in  1702.' 

CARACCIOLI,  or  CARACCIOLO  (Robbrt),  often 
called  HoBERTUs  de  Licio,  « from  Lqz6  or  Lecc^,  where 
be  was  born  in  1425,  descended  probably  from  the  illustti- 
cus  family  of  Caraccioli,  and  became  one  of  the  most  ce- 
lebrated preachers  of  his  time.  Having-  ai»  early  imdina* 
tioo.  to  the  churchy  he  entered  the  order  of  the  Fi^nciscans, 
but  finding  their  discipline  too  rigid,  he  removed  to  the 
Conventuals,  and  according  to  Erasmus^  lived  with  more 
freedom. .  He  was,  however,  distinguished  for  talents,  and 
occupied  some  honourable  offices,  and  was  appointed  pro* 
fessor.  of  divinity.  His  particular  bias  was  to  prea<shing, 
which  be  cultivated  with  such  success,  as  to  incline  all  hi^ 
brethren  to  imitate  one  who,  •  throughout  all  Italy,  wad 
hailed  sa  a  second  St  Paul,  ^e  displayed  his  pulpit  elo<* 
quence  not  only  in  the  principal  cities  of  Italy,  Assisa, 
Florence^  Venice,  Ferrary  Naples,  &c.  but  before  the 
popes,  and  is  said  to  have  censured  the  vicetr  and  luxury 
of  the  Roman  court  with  great  boldness  and  some  q^liaint 
humour.  This,,  however,  appears  not  to  have  given  sevi^ 
cms  offence,  as  he  was  employed  by  the  popes,  as  well  a^ 
by  the  king  of  Naples,  in  several  negociations  of  iisiport>^ 
»Bce^  and  was  made  auccessively  bistk>p' of  Aquino,  of 
Lecc6,  and  of  Aquila.  After  motfe  than  (fifty  yesirs^  exer<^ 
cise  of  his  talent  as'  a  preacher,  he  died  at  his-  native  pla'cti 
May  6,  1 49  i^.  Of  his  sermons  eight  votumel  bav6  been  oftett 
printed.  1,  "  Sermones  de  adventu,*'  V^ebiioe,  1496,  SW.* 
2.  "De  Quadragesima,'*  Cologne,  1475,  fel.  S.  *«Dd 
Quadragesima,  seu  Quadragesimale  perutriflii^simum  de  P^ 
nitentia,"  .  Venice,  1472,  4to.  There  jire  Ita^'ah  transht^ 
tions  of  some  of  these.  4.  *^  De  Tt^entpore,  &6.San6ttfi 
rum,"  Naples,  1489,  4to.  5^ /'De  SotenHiiitatibus^todus 
i^ani,"  Venice,  1471.  6.  ^*  De  Chrifste/"  &c.  Veniw; 
1489,  4to.  7i  *'  De  timore judiciorutn  Dei/'  ^^ij^led,  1 473^ 
fol.  8.  <*  De  amore  divinorum  officioruni,'^  iMd.  .  1473. 
There  is  another  volume  under  the  tid^''*<  Rttberti  de  Li** 
irio  ^Sermones,"  Leyden,,  1500,  4to.  He  wrote  also  somd 
theological  works,  of  which  a  catalogue  tiiay  be  seen  in 
our  authority.  DomeniCo  de  Angelis  wrofe  hife  life,  which' 
was  published  at  Naples  in  170S,'4to.*       - 

1  Moreri.--i.Dict.  Hist,  f  M«rcliand'«  l>ict.  llisU 

C  A  R  A  C  C  I  O  L  L  81:9 

CARAGCIOLI  (Lewis  Anthony)  Marquis,  wsis  amr 
live  of  Paris,  where  he  was  boro  in  1723»  and  having  emr 
braced  the  military  life,  became  a  coloael  in  the  Polish 
service.  Having  quitted  that,  he  travelled  in  Italy,  and 
afterwards  returned  to  his  own  country,  where  he  passed  a 
considerable  part  of  his  time  in  writing  and  publishing,  and 
where  he  died  May  29,  1803.  His  works,  which  are  ra- 
ther numerous  than  valuable,  are  of  the  moral  or  historic 
kind.  Of  the  first,  we  have,  1.  ^  Charactere  de  l'Amiti6." 
2.  "  Conversation  avec  Soi-meme.''  3.  "  Jouissance  de 
Soi-meroe."  4.  "Le  Veritable  Mentor,"  &c.  &c.;  and  of 
the  historic  or  biographical  kind,  are  the  lives  of  cardinal 
de  BeruUe,  Benedict  XIV.  Clement  XIV.  madame  de 
Maintenon,  &c. :  these  are  each  comprized  in  a  duodecimo 
volume,  a  quantity  and  form  for  which  he  appears  to  have 
had  a  predilection.  Above  twenty  other  works  are  entt-^ 
merated  in  the  Diot.  Hist,  of  which  the  only  one  worthy  of 
notice  is  *^  Ganganelli's  Letters,"  which  were  translated 
into  English  some  years  ago,  and  had  considerable  success 
in  raising  the  opinions  of  the  public  in  favour  of  that  pdn^ 
tiff;  but  it  is  now  generally  acknowledged  that  they  were 
th9  composition  of  Caraccioli.  His  life  of  Ganganelli,  ^ 
which  was  translated  into  English  in  1770,  is  esteemed 
more  authentic.  There  was  another  Caraccioli  in  this 
country  some  years  ago,  who  called  himself  Charles  Ca* 
raccioli,  gent,  and  published  a  confused  jumble  under  the 
tide  of  a  Life  of  L<^rd  Clive,  and,  if  we  mistake  not,  some 
novels.  * 

CARAMUEL  DE  LOBKOVITSH  (John),  a  Gister. 
cian  monk,  born  at  Madrid  in  1606,  was  at  first  abbot 
of  Melrose,  in  the  Low  Countries,  then  titulary  bishop  of 
Missi;  afterwards,  by  a  singular  turn,  engineer  and  in« 
tendant  of  the  fortifications  in  Bohemia,  from  having 
served  as  a  soldier.  The  same  capricious  and  inconstant 
humour  which  made  him  lay  down  the  crozier  to  take  up 
the  halberd,  now  led  him  from  being  engineer  to  become 
bishop  again.  He  had  successively  the  bishoprics  of  Ko* 
nigsgratz,  of  Campano,  and  of  Vigevano,  in  which  last^* 
mentioned  town  he  died  in  1682,  aged  76.  He  was  a  maa 
of  the  most  unbounded  mind,  and  of  whom  it  was  said, 
that  he  was  endowed  virith  genius  to  the  eighth  degree, 
with  eloquence  to  the  fifth,   and  with  judgment  to  the 

1  Diet.  Hist, 

220  C  A  R  A  M  U  E  L 

second.     He  wrote  scTeral  works  of  controversial  theology ; 
And  a  system  of  divinity^ in  Latin^  7  vols,  folio.  * 

CARAVAGIO  (Michael  An«elo  Amerigi  da),  a  ce- 
lebrated painter,  was  born  at  Caravagio,  a  place  in  the 
Milanese,  in  1569.  His  father  was  a  mason  by  trade,  and 
employed  bim  in  making  paste  for  the  fresco-painters  in 
Milan.  The  habit  of  being  constantly  among  painters, 
and  seeing  them  work,  produced  in  -him  a  taste  for  that 
JMTt,  and  without  a  teacher,  without  studying  either  an- 
tiques, or  the  master-pieces  of  the  modems,  he  became  a 
great  painter.  He  employed  himself  entirely  in  making 
portraits  for  four  or  five  years.  He  found  nature  the  surest 
guide  in  his  art,  and  he  followed  her  with  a  servile  obe- 
dience. He  painted  solely  after  her,  without  any  selec- 
tion, the  beautiful  as  well  as  the  ordinary ;  and  copied 
her  veiy  defects.  On  being  once  shewn  some  fine  antique 
figures,  **  See,**  said  he,  pointing  to  the  bystanders,  ^*how 
many  more  models  nature  has  given  me  than  all  your 
Ktatues !"  and  went  immediately  into  an  alehouse,  where 
he  painted  on  the  spot  a  gipsy  who  happened  to  be  in  the 
street,  so  as  none  could  find  any  thing  to  correct  in  it. 

It  was  difficult  to  be  upon  good  terms  with  him.  He 
was  naturally -quarrelsome,  despised  every  one,  and  found 
no  performances  good  but  his  own.  A  man  of  this  temper 
^uld  not  be  long  without  enemies.  Some  business  that 
he  had  at  Milan  obliged  bim  to  leave  this  city,  and  make 
a  journey  to  Venice,  where  he  adopted  Giorgioni*s  man- 
ner. His  stay  here  was  but  short,  and  he  repaired  to 
Rome.  He  was  in  such  poor  circumstances,  that  he  was 
forced  by  necessity  to  work  for  Josebino,  wlio  gave  him 
fruit  and  flowers  to  paint.  TfAs  department  was  not  that 
wherein  he  excelled  ;  he  therefore  left  Josehinb,  to  go 
and  paint  large  figures' for  Prospero,  a  painter  of  grotesque. 
Prospero  every  where  sounded  his  praise,  and  made  con- 
siderable profit  by  his  works.  A  picture,  the  gamester, 
diat  jGaravagio  had  painted,  so  highly  pleased  the  cardinal 
del  Monte,  that,  having  bought  it,  he  requested  to  see 
the  artist,  and  kept  him  in  his  palace,  where  he  caused 
him  to  paint  several  pieces  for  the  pavilion  in  his  garden. 
;  All  the  avails  of  the  work-room  of  Caravagio  were  black- 
ened, in  order  that  the  shades  of  objects  might  have  no 
nafleetions,  and  all  day  long  only  one  light  entered  it 

1  Morer}.--'Antouio  Bibl.  Hisp.-^ioeroiiy  yol.  XXiXj  who^girei  a  liit  of  hii 

.   C  A  R  A  y  A  G  I  O.  .  %2l 

tbrougb  the  uppermost  window.  Thus  he  succeeded  im 
f^iving  his  pictures  that  dimness  and  strength,  which,  at 
.first  sight,  excelled  and  eclipsed  all  others.  Even  Rul>en8 
himself  acknowledged  Caravagio  to  be  his  master  in  tb^ 
€lar*obscure.  Caravagio  gave  all  his  objects  so  striking 
and  extraordinary  a  truth  as  could  not  be  exceeded,  and 
it  was  not  possible  to  carry  the  natural  any  fiurther.  But 
all  these  beauties  disappeared  in  large  compositions :  his 
style  was  then  hard  and  insupportable.  He  placed  hid 
figures  all  on  the  same  plan,  without  gradation,  without 
perspective ;  and  his  light  to  every  •bject  is  uniformly  the 
same.  ' 

All  the  painters  of  the  time  combined  against  Caravagio : 
they  objected  to  him  that  he  had  neither  genius,  nor  pro- 
priety, nor  grace,  nor  sagacity,  and  that  he  knew  not  hov^ 
to  make  a  good  choice;  and  it  is  certain  that  his  figures  aro 
not  noble.  He  used  to  paint  the  porters,  who  served  him 
for  models,  without  their  heads,  which  he  afterwards  put 
on  according  to  the  saints,  heroes,  and  other  great  per* 
sonages  they  were  to  represent.  The  altar-pieces  that  he 
executed  for  churches  and  monasteries  were  obliged  fre& 
quently  to  be  taken  down  again  from  their  places ;  this  was> 
particularly  the  case  with  a  St.  Matthias,  who,  instead  of 
a  haggard  old  fellow,  looked  like  a  jolly  clown ;  and  the 
Peath  of  the  holy  Virgin,  who  had  the  appearance  of  a  low 
drunken  woman.  But  all  these  affronts,  were  unable  to 
correct  him..  At  last,  all  the  painters,. following  the  stream 
of  the  fashion,  imitated  his  exampi^^. 

When  Annibal  Caracci  came  to  Rome,  Caravagio  was 
80  forcibly  struck  with  his  colouring,  that,  in  spite  of  faia 
canity,  he  exclaimed,  ^^  God  be  thanked,  at  last  I  have 
found  one  painter  in  my  life-time !"  Caravagio  used  ta 
say  of  his  works,  that  the  merit  of  every  stroke  of  the  pen« 
cil  be  made  belonged  to  nature,  and  not  to  him.  With« 
out  genius,  without  reading, .  without  the  study  of  his  artj^ 
she  was  his  only  assistant  and  guide.  He  was  therefora 
usually  called  ^^  The  naturalist  ;*'  a  name  given  likewise  ta 
all  the  painters  who,  like  him,  adhered  (slavishly  to  n^ure< 

His  vindictive  temper  allowed  him  to  gain  but  fern 
friends,  excepting  Civoli  and  Pomeranci.  He  lived. in 
continual  strife  with  Caracci,  and  particularly  with  Jose<» 
hino.  Qn  the  latter's  refusing  to  fight  with  him,  as  hev 
was  not  a  knight,  he  took  the  resolution  to  go  to  Malta, 
and  cause  himself  to  be  admitted  servientOi^  ia 

929  C  A  R  A  Y  A  G  I  O. 

Qtdfcr  to  compel  Josehino  to  give  up  all  fsrtbef  evasion* 
He  killed  a  young  noan  at  Rome,  with  whom  be  quarrelled 
at  t;ejiQis,  and  fled,  though  sorely  wounded,  to  Zagardes, 
4o  the  duke  Maria  Coionna,  from  thence  to  Naples,  and 
afterwards  to  Malta.  As  liis  reputation  had  now  made  its 
way  into  all  parts,  he  was  never  permitted  to  be  idle, 
especially  at  Msdta,  where  he  finished  several  pieces  for 
the  church  of  St.  John  and  the  grand  master.  The  grand 
master  made  him  a  cavaliero  serviente,  presented  him  with 
a  golden  chain,  and  gave  him  two  slaves  for  his  attendants. 

.  He  affirooted  a  knight  of  some  consequence,  and  was 
therefore  thrown  into  prison.  He  found  means  to  escape 
by  night,  and  went  to  Sicily ;  where  not  thinking  himself 
safe,  he  {»x>ceeded  to  Naples.  Here  he  chose  to  remain 
'  till  the  grand  master,  to  whom  he  had  sent  as  a  present  an 
Herodias  with  the  head  of  St  John,  should  procure  his 
pardon.  But  one  day,  as  he  was  going  out  of  his  inn,  he 
was  attacked  at  the  door  by  armed  people,  and  wounded 
in  the  face.  Though  severely  smarting  with  the  wound,  he 
got  immediately  on  board  a  felucca,  and  went  to  Rome, 
knowing  that  cardinal  Gonzaga  had  obtained  his  pardon 
from  the  pope.  On  his  landing  from  the  vessel,  be  was 
seized  upon  by  the  Spanish  guard,  who  took  him  for  ano* 
ther  cavalier,  and  carried  him  to  prison,  'from  whence  he 
was  not  discharged  till  they  had  convinced  themselves 
of  their  mistake.  He  now  returned  to  the  felucca,  in 
prder  to  fetch  his  baggage,  but  found  it  no  longer  there. 
Quite  dejected  under  the  pressure  of  so  many  misfortunes, 
be  wandered  about  upon  the  shore,  and  at  length,  in  the 
extreme  heat  of  the  sun,  reached  on  foot  the  gate  Porto 
Ercole,  where  his  courage  entirely  forsook  him ;  a  violent 
fever  ensued,  of  which  he  died,  1609,  in  the  fortieth  year 
of  his  age. 

Caravagio's  life  was  one  continued  series  of  misfortunes : 
he  did  not  dare  to  go  home  to  his  country ;  on  all  bands  he 
saw  ^  himself  proscribed ;  he  had  scarcely  a  friend  in  the 
world,.. and  died,  4]uite  destitute,  on  the  common  road. 
He  uanally  went  very  ill  clothed ;  he  lived,  without  the  or- 
dinary accommodations,  in  any  alehouse  that  would  har- 
bour him ;  and,  once,  when  he  had  not  wherewith  to  pay 
his:  reckoning,  he  painted  the  sign  for  the  alehouse,  which, 
some  time  afterwards,  was.  sold  for  a  considerable  sum. 
For  many  years  tbe  canvas  of  a  portrait  served  him  for  a 
lable-doth  at  his  dinner. 

C  A  R  A  V  A  G  I  O^  22» 

Mr.  Fttseli  observes  of  this  great  artist,  that  he  esta- 
blished a  style  of  his  own,  in  which  energy  and  truth  wer^ 
to  recover  the  rights  supplanted  by  variety  and  manner.  Of 
litis  style,  the  model,  or  what  the  Italians  call  ^^  11  vero,^ 
dictated  the  forms,  from  which  to  deviate,  or  which  to  imv 
jirore,  was  equally  high  treason'  against  the  art,  or  matter 
of  derision  in  the  eye  of  Caravagio.  But  to  forms  thus 
indiscriminately  picked  from  the  dregs  of  the  street,  he 
contrived  to  give  energy  and  interest,  by  ideal  light  and 
shade.  So  novel  a  combination,  substantiated  by  powers 
so  decisive,  could  not  fail  to  draw  after  it  a  number  of  fol- 
lowers. The  great  excellence  of  Caravagio  consisted  in 
truth  of  colour :  he  penetrated  the  substance  of  the  thing 
before  him,  whether  still  life,  fruit,  flowers  or  flesh.  Hig 
tints  are  few,  but  true,  with  little  help  from  cinnabar  or 
azure.  Hence  Hannibal  Caracci  declared,  that  he  did  not 
paint,  but  grind  flesh.     (Che  cestui  macinava  carne.) 

Rome  possesses  few  pictures  of  this  great  master.  There 
yet  remains  at  the  Spada  palace,  in  half  figures,  a  St. 
Anna  with  the  Virgin  by  her  side,  busied  in  female  work : 
vulgarity  discriminates  their  features ;  both  are  dressed  in 
the  vulgar  Roman  dress.  Another  picture,  an  altar-piece 
of  entire  figures,  is  our  Lady  of  Loretto,  with  two  Pilgrims, 
in  the  church  of  St.  Augustine.  What  Shakspeare  would 
have  called  ^^  a  dying  ray,"  imbrowns  rather  than  illu- 
minates the  silent  scenery,  and  consecrates  the  whole.  Iii 
the  palace  of  the  Bo rghesi  there  was  the  Supper  at  £maus; 
a  S.  Sebastian  in  theCanipidoglio ;  and  in  the  Pamphili  col- 
lection, Hagar  with  Ishmael  dying,  and  a  Fruit-girl.  But  the 
master-piece  of  all  his  works,  the  Intombing  of  Christ, 
formerly  in  the  Chiesa  Nuova,  before  which  the  rival  altar- 
pieces  of  Baroccio,  Guido,  and  Rubens,  with  all  theii^ 
bloom,  their  suavity,  and  colour,  remained  unobservefd  ; 
this  work,  the  knot  of  Caravagio^s  powers,  is  now  trans- 
ported to  the  Louvre. ' 

CARAVAGGIO  (Polidoro  Caldara  da),  another 
eminent  artist,  was  born  in  1492,  at  Caravaggio  in  the 
Milanese  ;  from  a  labourer  he  became  an  assistant  of  Ra- 
phael in  the  works  of  the  Vatican,  and  acquired  supreme 
celebrity  for  unrivalled  felicity  in  imitating  the  antique 
basso-relievos  with  a  power  little,  if  at  all,  inferior  to  that 
of  the  ancients  themselves.     These  admirable  works  he 

^  Lif^  m  the  preceding  edition  vf  this  Diet.— I)*ArjenTille,-^PilkiDgtQn. 

;^24  C  A  R  A  V  A  G  G  I  O. 

executed  in  chiaroscuro.  He  was  the  inventor  of  a  style 
which  rose  and  perished  with  him.  His  deaign  was  without 
manner^  compact,  correct.  He  had  the  art  of  transposing 
himself  into  the  times  of  which  he  represented  the  trans*- 
actions,  the  costume,  and  rites :  nothing  modem  swims  on 
bis  works.  .  Rome  once  abounded  in  friezes,  facades,  supra* 
portas,  painted  by  him  and  Maturino  of  Florence  his  com- 
panion, of  which,  to  the  irreparable  detriment  of  the  art,, 
scarcely  a  fragment  remains,  if  we  except  the  Fable  of 
Niobe,  left  in  ruins  by  time  and  the  rage  of  barbarians. 
This,  one  of  his  most  classic  labours,  once  decorated  the 
outside  of  the  Maschera  d'Oro.  All  the  compensation  we 
have  for  these  losses  are  the  prints  of  Cberubino  Albert!, 
and  Henry  Golzius,  who  engraved  his  Gods,  the  Niobe, 
and  the  Brennus ;  beside  the  etchings  of  Santes  Bartoli 
and  Gallestruzzi. 

When  Bourbon  stormed  and  pillaged  Home  in  .1527]^ 
Polidoro  fled  to  Naples,  but  did  not  live.there,  as  Vasari  was 
misinformed,  in  a  starving  condition.  Having  been  re* 
ceived  in  the  house  of  Andrea  da  Salerno,  'and  introduced 
by  him  to  general  notice,  he  soon,  was  furnished  with  com- 
missions sufficiently  numerous,  and  even  had  begun  to 
form  a  school,  when  he  .resolved  to  pass  over  to  Sicily.  He 
bad  now  exchanged  chiaroscuro  for  colour,  and  painted  at 
Messina  a  numerous  composition  of  ^^  Christ  led  to  CaU 
vary,"  extolled  by  Vasari  to  the  skies,  but  he  did  not  long 
survive  this  work,  being  strangled  in  bed,  in  1543,  by  aser« 
vant  of  bis,  who  wanted  to  possess  himself  of  his  property. 
The  merits  of  Polidoro  as  a  colourist  can  only  be  learned 
in  Sicily.  To  judge  from  some  pieces  once  in  the  posses-* 
sion  of  Gavin  Hamilton,  his  manner,  for  some  time  at 
least,  was  dim  and  pallid.  ^ 

CARDAN,  or  CARD  ANUS  (Jerom),  an  Italian  physi- 
cian, mathematician,  and  philosopher,  watt  born  at  Pavia^- 
Sept.  24,  1501.  It  appears  that  his  father  and  mother 
were  not  married,  and  the  latter,  a  woman  of  violent  pas* 
sions,  endeavoured  to  destroy  him  by  procuring  abortion* 
He  was,  however,  safely  born,  and  his  father  who  was  a 
lawyer  by  profession,  at  Milan,  and  a  man  well  ski4led  ii) 
what  were  then  called  secret  arts,  instructed  him  very  early 
in  the  mysteries  of  numbers,  and  the  precepts  of  astrology. 
9e  taught  him  also  the  elements  of  geometry^  and  waa 

)  Pilkipgtom<— Anf«iTiil«i  vol.  IF« 

'  r 

CARDAN.  225 

desirous  to  have  engaged  hicn  in  the  study  of  jdrispru- 
deoce.  But  his  own  inclination  being  rather  to  mediciue 
and  mathematics,  at  the  age  of  twenty  he  went  to  the  uni'^. 
▼ersity  of  Pavia,  where,  two  years  after,  be  explained 
Euclid.  He  then  went  to  Padua,  and,  in  1524,  was  ad« 
mitted  to  the  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  in  the  follow- 
ing year  to  that  of  doctor  in  medicine.  In  \529f  he  re^ 
turned  to  Milan,  where  although  he  obtained  little  fame  as 
a  physician,  he  was  appointed  professor  of  mathematics, 
for  which  he  was  better  qualified;  and  in  1539,  he  became 
one  of  the  medical  college  in  Milan.  Here  he  attempted 
to  reform  the  medical  practice  by  publishing  his  two  first 
works,  *^  De  malo  recentiorum  medicorum  medendi  usu,*' 
Venice,  1536;  and  *<  Contradiceutium  Medicorum  libri 
duo,"  Lyons,  1548;  but  he  was  too  supercilious  and 
peevish  to  profit  by  the  kindness  of  his  friends,  who  made 
repeated  efforts  to  obtain  an  advantageous  establishment 
for  him  ;  and  he  had,  in  1531,  formed  a. matrimonial  con- 
nection of  which  he  bitterly  complained  as  the  cause  of  alt 
his  subsequent  misfortunes. 

In  1 547,  an  ofier  was  made  to  him  of  the  honourable 
post  of  physician  to  the  king  of  Denmark^  with  an  annual 
salary  of  eight  hundred  crowns,  and  a  free  table,  which  he 
refused  on  account  of  the  climate  and  the  religion  pf  the 
country.  This  offer,  which  was  made  by  the  advice  of 
Vesalius,  is  a.  proof  that  his  medical  reputation  was  con- 
siderably high  ;  and  we  find  that  it  was  likewise  very  ex- 
tensive, for  in  1552,  he  was  invited  into  Scotland  by  Ha- 
milton, archbishop  of  St  Andrew^s,  who  had  consulted  the 
most  eminent  physicians  in  Europe  withput  effect.  Of 
his  disease,  which  was  of  the  asthmatic  kind,  he  began  to 
recover  from  the  time  that  Cardan  prescribed  for  him ;  and 
in  less  than  two  months  Cardan  left  him  with  fair  pro- 
spects of  recovery,  and  gave  him  some  prescriptions,  which 
in  two  years  effected  a  complete  cure.  For  this  he  wai^ 
amply  rewarded  by  his^  patient,  and  great  offers  were  made 
to  persuade  him  to  reside  in  Scotland.  These,  however, 
he  rejectod,  and  took  an  opportunity  to  visit  France  and 
Germany,  from  which  he- passed  into  England,  and  at 
London  he  exercised  his  astrological  knowledge  in  calcu- 
lating the  nativity  of  Edward  VI.  The  most  remarkable 
part  of  it  was,  that  the  young  monarch  should  die  a  violent 
death ;  for  which  reason,  he  says,  he  left  the  kingdom  for 
fear  of  further  danger  which  might  follow  on  it.     He  drew 

Vol.  VIII.  Q 

»?6  C  All  D  A  ^f. 

a  very  favourable  character  of  Edward,  which  was  proba- 
bly just  and  sincere,  because  it  was  afterwards  published 
in  one  of  his  works,  in  Italy,  where  Edward  was  detested 
as  a  heretic,  and  where  Cardan  could  have  no  motive  for 
flattering  his  memory.  While  at  the  English  court  Ed- 
ward was  solicitous  to  retain  him  in  England,  and  appears 
to  have  honoured  him  with  frequent  conferences;  but  Car- 
dan refused  all  his  offers,  and^  returned  to  Milan,  after  an 
absence,  in  all,  of  only  ten  months,  and  resided  there  un- 
til 1559,  practising  physic  and  teaching  the  mathematics. 
He  then  went  to  Pavia,  where  he  filled  the  chair  of  pro- 
fessor of  medicine  until  1562,  when  he  removed  to  Bo- 
logna, and  there  likewise  became  professor  of  medicine 
until  1570.  About  this  time  he  was,  for  some  reason  with 
which  we  are  unacquainted,  thrown  into  prison,  which  was 
exchanged  soon  after  for  a  milder  confinement  in  his  own 
house.  On  his  release,  he  was  invited  to  Rome,  and  ad- 
mitted into  the  college  of  physicians  there^  with  a  pension 
from  the  pope.  Here  he  died  Sept.  21,  1576,  "more," 
.says  Brucker,  "like  a  maniac  than  a  philosopher/'  Thu- 
anus  and  Scaliger  both  are  of  opinion  that  he  starved  him- 
self, in  order  to  verify  his  own  prediction  of  his  death. 

His  life  was  a  series  of  adventures,  which  he  has  com- 
mitted to  writing  in  his  work  •*  De  vita  propria*"  with 
great  freedom,  and  probably  great  truth,  but  with  a 
thorough  contempt  for  fame  or  decency.  It  would  ap-» 
pear  as  if  he  had  written  this  history  of  his  life  for  no  other 
purpose  than  to  give  the  public  a  proof  that  he  was  a  most 
uncommon  compound  of  wisdom  and  folly,  and  it  is  certainly 
not  often  that  a  character  is  to  be  met  with  so  capricious  and 
unequal.  He  congratulates  himself  that  he  had  not  a 
friend  in  the  world  ;  but  that  to  make  up  for  the  loss,  he 
was  attended  by  an  aerial  spirit,  an  emanation  from  Saturn 
and  Mercury,  which  was  the  constant  guide  of  his  actions, 
and  teacher  of  every  duty  to  which  he  was  bound.  When 
nature  did  not  visit  him  with  any  bodily  pain,  he  would 
procure  to  himself  that  disagreeable  sensation,  by  biting 
his  lips  so  strongly,  or  pulling  his  fingers  to  such  a  degree, 
as  sometimes  to  force  the  tears  from  his  eyes ;  and  the 

*  In  ibis  work,  which  was  published  that  he  dr^w  the  horoscope  of  Jesut 

1654,  12mo,  he  has  collected  all  the  Christ;  and  that  his  description  of  the 

lestimooies  of  his  contemporaries  rela-  unicorn  is  exactly  correspondent  to  that 

ling  to  bis  own  character,  and  has.  en-  fictitious  animal  which  is  one  of  tli% 

lixled    them    **  Testimooia    de  me.''  •  supporters  of  the  royal  arios*" 
Mr.  Grander  sayi^  "  It  is  remarkable 

CARDAN.  227 

reason  he  assigned  was,  in  order  to  moderate  certain  impe- 
tuous sallies  of  his  mind^  whose  violence  was  far  more  ia« 
supportable  than  bodily  pain ;  and  that  the  sure  conse* 
quence  of  such  a  severe  practice  was  his  better  enjoying 
the  pleasure  of  health. 

He  makes  no  scruple  of  owning  that  he  was  revengeful  *, 
envious,  treacherous,  a  dealer  in  the  black  art,  a  back- 
biter, a  calumniator,  and  unreservedly  addicted  to  all  the 
foul  and  detestable  excesses  that  can  be  imagined.  Yet| 
with  all  this,  he  was  perhaps  the  vainest  of  human  beings  ; 
and  speaks  thus  of  his  talents.  — "  I  Have  been  admired  by 
many  nations ;  and  an  almost  infinite  number  of  panegy<^ 
rics  in  prose  and  verse  have  been  composed  to  celebrate  my 
fame.  I  was  born  to  release  the  world  from  the  manifold 
errors  under  which  it  groaned.  What  I  have  found  out 
could  not  be  discovered  either  by  my  predecessors,  or  my 
contemporaries ;  and  that  is  the  reason  why  those  authors, 
who  write  any  thing  worthy  of  being  remembered^  blush, 
not  to  t)wn  that  they  are  indebted  to  me  for  it.  I  have 
composed  a  book  on  the  dialectic  art,  in  which  there  is 
neither  a  superfluous  letter,  nor  one  deficient.'  I  finished 
it  in  seven  days,  which  s^ms  a  prodigy.  Yet  where  i^ 
there  a  person  to  be  found,  that  caii  boast  of  his  having 
become  master  of  its  doctrine  in  a  year  ?  And  he,  that 
shall  have  comprehended  it  in  that  time,  must  appear  tp 
have  been  instructed  by  a  familiar  demon.'* 

Cardanus  certainly  instructed  himself  in  every  species  of 
knowledge,  and  made  very  considerable  improvements  ia 
medicine,  mathematics,  and  philosophy.  Scaliger,  who 
wrote  against  him  with  great  warmth,  owns  that  he  was  en- 
dowed with  a  very  comprehensive  and  penetrating  mind* 
He  has  been  accused  of  impiety,  and  even  of  atheism.  Of 
impiety  it  will  not  be  easy  to  remove  the  imputation,  many, 
of  his  actions  being  grossly  impious  and  iounoral;;  but  he 
appears  to  have  thought  better  than  he  acted,  and  was  ra- 
ther a  superstitious  man  than  a  free-thinker.     He  owns 

*  One  of  his  sods  married  a  woman  left  two  treatises  "  De  fulgore,"  an4 

of  looM  ckaracter,  and  administered  *<  De  abscinentia  ab'  usu  cibonim  fo^« 

poisoa  to  her,  for  which  be  was  cob-  dorum.*'    The  first  is  in  tile  soeMiA 

-demned   and    executed.    Cardan  at-  ▼otame  of  his  father's  works.    The  se» 

tempted  to  justify  this  crime,  on  the  cond  was  added  by  bis  father  to  atrea« 

plea  of  the  woman's  infidelity,   and  tise  whkh  be  wrote  on  his  son's  deatb^ 

says  that  divine  vengeance  porsoed  his  *'  De  militate  ez  adversis  oapienda^ 

son's  judges  for   having   condemned  1560,"  the  year  in  which  that  «t««| 

i^    Ttiu  so*  was  a  physkiair,  and  took  placn 

228  CARDAN. 

himself  that  he  was  not  a  devotee,  parum  pius ;  but  at  the 
same  time  he  declares,  that  though  he  was  naturally  very 
vindictive,  he  often  let  slip  the  occasion  t)f  satisfying  his 
resentment,  out  of  veneration  for  the  Deity,  Dei  ob  venera- 
ttonem.  He  says,  "  There  is  no  form  of-  worship  more 
pleasing  to  the  Deity,  than  that  of  obeying  the  law,  not- 
withstanding the  strongest  impulses  of  our  nature  to  tres* 
pass  ag^nst  it.^'  He  says  he  was  sometimes  tempted  to  lay 
violent  hands  on  himself,  which  he  calls  heroic  love;  and 
iniagined  that  several  other  persons  have  been  possessed 
with  it,  though  they^did  not  own  it.  Nothing  gave  him 
more  pleasure,  than  to  talk  of  things  which  made  the  whole 
company  uneasy  :  he  spoke  on  all  subjects,  in  season  and 
out  of  season  ;  and  was  so  fond  of  games  of  chance,  as  to 
spend  whole  days  in  them,  to  the  great  prejudice  of  his 
family  and  reputation;  for  he  even  staked  his  furniture 
and  his  wife's  jewels.  He  observes,  that  the  poverty  to 
which  he  was  reduced,  never  compelled  him  to  do  any 
thing  beneath  his  birth  or  virtue  ;  and  that  one  of  the  me- 
thods he  took  to  earn  a  subsistence,  was  the  making  of 

He  wrote  a  great  number  of  books,  now  comprised  in 
10  vols,  folio,  Lyons,  1663.  His  poverty,  he  tells  us,  was 
one  reason  why  he  wrote  so  many  treatises,  the  digressions 
and  obscurity  of  which  puzzle  the  reader,  who  often  finds 
in  them  what  he  did  not  expect  to  meet  with.  In  his  arith- 
metic he  introduces  several  discourses  concerning  the  mo-» 
tion  of  the  planets,  the  creation,  and  the  tower  of  Babel ; 
and  in  bis  logic  he  has  inserted  a  criticism  on  historians 
and  letter- writers.  He  owns  that  he  made  these  digres- 
sions to  fill  up ;  his  bargain  with  the  booksellers  being  for 

*  so  much  a  sheet :  and  he  wrote  as  much  for  bread  as  for 
reputation.  With  regard  to  the  obscurity  of  his' writings, 
Naudseus  alleges  the  following  among  other  reasons  for  it : 
that  Cardan  imagined,  that  many  things  being  familiar  to 
him  needed  not  to  be  expressed,  and  the  heat  of  his  ima- 

•  gination  and  his  extensive  genius  hurried  him  from  one 
thing  to  another,  without  staying  to  explain  the  medium 
or  connection  between  them.  Naudseus  adds,  that  the 
amazing  contradictions  in  his  writings  are  an  evident  proof, 
that  he  was  not  always  in  his  senses ;  that  they  can  neither 
be  imputed  to  a  defect  of  memory,  nor  to  artifice ;  and  that 
the  little  relation  there  is  between  his  several  variations, 
proceeded  firom  the  difi^rent  fits  of  madness  with  which  he 
was  seized. 

CARDAN.  229 

In  the  midst  of  all  this  weakness^  Cardan  is  universally 
acknowledged  to  have  been  a  man  of  great  erudition  and 
fertile  invention,  and  is  celebrated  as  the  author  of  many 
new  and  singular  observations  in  philosophy  and  medicine. 
His  discoveries  in  mathematics  may  be  seen  in  Dr.  Hut- 
ton^s  Dictionary,  or  the  Cyclopaedia,  art  Algebra  ;  and 
bis  treatise  ^^  De  Methodo  Medendi*'  discovers  a  mind  ca- 
pable of  detecting  and  renouncing  established  errors.     His 
book  ^^  De  subtilitate  et  varietate  rerum^'  shews,  in  the 
opinion  of  Brucker,  that  if  he  could  have  preserved  his 
judgment  free  from  the  influence  of  a  disordered  imagina- 
tion, be  was  able  to  have  contributed  to  the  improvement 
of  natural  philosophy.     Of  the  dogmas  of  this  philosopher, 
the  following  are  a  specimen  :  *^  Primary  matter,  which 
remains  immutably  the  same,  fills  every  place;  whence, 
without  the  annihilation  of  matter  there  can  be  no  vaciuum. 
Three  principles  subsist  every  where ;  matter,  form,  and 
mind.    There  are  in  matter  three  kinds  of  motion ;  the  first, 
from  form  to  element ;  the  second,  the  reverse  of  this ;  the 
third,  the  descent  of  heavy  bodies.    The  elements  pr  pas- 
sive principles  are  three ;    water,  earth,  and  air,  for  na- 
turally'all  things  are  oold,  that  is,  destitute  of  heat.    The 
agent  in  nature. is  celestial  heat;  the  air,  being  exposed  to 
the  action  of  the  solar  rays,  is  perpetually  in  motion.     The 
moon  and  all  the  other  heavenly  bodies  are  luminous  from 
themselves.    The  heavens  are  animated  by  an  ever-active 
principle,  and  are  therefore  never  quiescent.    Man,  having 
mind  as  well  as  soul,  is  not  an  animal.    The  dispositions. of 
men  are  produced,  and  all  moral  affairs  are  directed,  by  the 
influence  of  the  stars.     Mind  is  universally  diffused ;  and 
though  it  appears  multiplied,  is  but  one ;  it  is  extrinsically, 
and  for  a  time,  attached  to  human  bodies,  but  never  pe* 

Innumerable  other  sijugular  metaphysical  and  physical 
notions  are  to  be  found  in  the  works  of  Cardan ;  lyid  they 
are  accompanied  with  many  experiments  and  observations 
on  natural  phenomena.  But  the  whole  is  thrown  together 
in  sucii  a  confused  mass,  as  plainly  proves  that,  though  the 
author'6  head  was  replete  with  ideas,  he  wanted  j^hat  sound 
understanding  and  cool  judgment,  without  which  the  most 
ingenious  and  original  conceptions  must  prove  abortive. 
He  was  too  fond  pf  mysticism,  too  credulous^  too  i^uper- 
stitious,  and,  id  a  word,  too  much  of  an  astrologer,  to  be 
a  true  philosopher.    Cardan^  therefore,  notwithstanding 


all  the  variety  and  apparent  origiimUty  of  his  writingS|  miisl 
be  ranked  among  the  iinsuccessiiil  adventurers  in  philo- 

.  sophy.' 

CARDI  (Lev^tis),  called  also  Cigoli  and  Ciyou,  an 
eminent  painter,  was  born  in  1559,  at  the  castle  of  Cigoli^ 
in  Tuscany,  and  became  the  scholar  of  Santi  di  Titi,  but 
after  travelling  into  Lombardy,  studied  the  works  of  the 
first  masters,  and  particularly  Correggio,     He  had  some 

.  taste,  also,  for  poetry  and  music,  but  soon  became  exclu- 
sively attached  to  his  particular  art.  He  was  employed  by 
the  grand  duke  in  the  palace  Pitti,  and  afterwards  at  Rome 
and  Florence  exhibited  some  excellent  specimens  of  his 
genius.  He  gave  a  new  style  to  the  Florentine  school ;  but 
to  say  that  perhaps  he  was  superior  to  all  his  contempora- 
ries, that  he  approached  nearer  than  any  other  the  style  of 
Correggio,  are  expressions  of  Baldinucci,  which  none  will 
believe  who  has  seen  the  imitations  of  that  master  by  Ba- 
roccio,  the  Caracci,  or  Scbidone.  Cardi,  to  judge  from 
his  pictures  as  they  are  now,  availed  himself  with  success 
of  Correggio's  chiaroscuro,  joined  it  to  learning  in  design, 
and  set  it  off  by  judicious  perspective  and  a  far  livelier 
colour  than  that  of  the  Tuscan  school ;  but  his  pictures  do 
not  exhibit  that  contrast  of  tints,  tl^t  impastp,  that  splen- 
dour, that  graceful  air,  those  bold  fore-shortenings,  which 
constitute  the  character  of  the  head]  of  .Lombard  art.  In 
short,  he  was  the  inventor  of  an  original  but  not  a  steady 
style;  that  which  he  adopted  at  Rome  differs  from  his 
former  one.  If  the  general  tone  of  his  colour  be  Lom- 
bardesque,  his  draperies  resemble  those  of  Paolo  Veronese^ 
and  sometimes  he  approaches  the  depth  of  Guercino. 

Besides  the  many  pictures  which  the  grand  duke  an4 
the  Pecori  family  possess  of  this  master,  a  few  are  dispersed 

'  through  private  collections  at  Florence.  Excellent  are  his 
<«  Trinity"  in  the  church  of  St.  Croce,  his  "  St.  Albert''  in 
that  of  S.  Maria  Maggiore,  aqd  the  ^^  Martyrdom  of  Ste- 
phen" at  the  Sisters  of  Monte  Domini,  which  Pietro  da 
Cortona  ranked  with  the  principal  pictures  of  Flor«i9oe* 
"  St.  Anthony  converting  a  Heretic,"  at  Cortona,  ^  con- 
sidered as  superior  to  any. other  pencil  at  Cortona.  His 
**  St.  Peter  healing  the  Cripple,"  in  the  Vatican  at  Rom^i 

'  Oen,  Diet. — Bmcker. — Hutt«ii's  Math,  Diet— Saxii  O^ofnast. — Robert- 
ton's  Hilt  of  Sootiand.—- Heylin't  Hist,  of  the  Beformation,  p.  141. — Niceron, 
ToU  XIV.  corrected  in  n  few  parti^iUrA  k>y  freytag»  i&  bis  Adpftaius  Literaritts.. 

-  C  A  R  D  I.  2Sl 

Andrea  Sacchi  placed  next  the  *'  Transfiguration"  of  Ra- 
phael, and  the  *'  St.  Jerom"  of  Domenichino ;  but  this 
master-piece,  by  the  humidity  of  the  place,  the  bad 
priming,  and  the  brutality  of  the  cleaner,  is  entirely  de-. 
stroyed.  Its  merit  procured  him  the  title  of  Cavaliere.' 
Another  work  of  his,  the  fresco  of  the  dome  in  S.  Maria 
Maggiore,  still  remains :  in  this,  by  some  error  in  per- 
spective, he  appeared  inferior  to  himself ;  it  displeased,, 
and  be. was  not  suffered  to  correct  it,  notwithstanding  his 
eager  supplications ;  but  had  this  perished,  and  the  pic- 
ture in  the  Vatican  survived,  the  fame  of  Cigoli  would  rest 
on  a  firmer  basis,  and  the  assertions  of  Baldinucci  deserve 
more  credit.  It  is  supposed  that  chagrin  at  not  succeeding 
in  painting  the  dome,  hastened  his  death,  which  happened 
in  1613.  He  also  engraved  a  few  plates  in  a  slight,  Reat 
style,  which,  however,  evinces  the  hand  of  the  master* 
Strutt  mentions  bis  engraving  of  ^^  Mary  Magdalen  washing 
the  feet  of  Christ,"  as  containing  beads  of  great  beauty*^ 

CARDONA  (John  Baptist),  bishop  of  Tortosa,  in  Ca-.- 
talonia,  was  a  native  of  Valencia,  in  Spain,  of  which  ca- 
thedral he  waa  made  a.  canon.  He  went  to  Rome,  with 
great  fame  for  learning,  during  the  pontificate  of  Gregory 
Xni.  ai\d  was  promoted  to  the  bishopric  of  Elne,  a  town 
of  Roussillon,  die  seat  of  which  see  wa»  afterwards  removed 
to  Perpignan.  He  was  then  translated  to  the  bishopric 
of  Vich  y  and  lastly  to  that  of  Tortosa  wb<^re  he  died^  in 
1590.  In  1587  he  published  at  Tarracon.&i  a  quarto  vOk 
lume,  contiaiining,  1.  ^' De  regia  Sancti  Laurentii  Biblio- 
theca."  2.  *^  De  Bibliothecis  (ex  Fulvio  Ursiuo)  et  t)e 
Bibliotbeca  Vaticana(exOnuphfii  Scedis.")  3.  "De  ex-* 
purgandis  haereticorum  propriis  nominibus.'.'  4.  "  De? 
Dyptichis."  Of  these,  the  firdt,  iii  which  he  treats  of  col- 
lecling  all  manner  of  useful  booksy  and  having  able  libra-^ 
rians,  and  in  which  be  strongly  exbortis  Philip  II;  to  put 
the  Escurial  library  into  gpod  order,  is^  of  ccH>siderab]e 
yalpe  to.  bibliographers*  His  treatise  *'  D4  Dyptichip,'* 
those  at>ciient  pubiie  registers,  is  alsov^ry  dUrious.  Cor 
pies,  if  .we  may  so  speak,  of  thesse  registers^  a^e  still  to  be 
&een  in  France,  at  Sens,  Dijon,  and  Besan^on,  the  latt^ 
of  which  has  been  well  described  b^  M.  Coste,  the  librarian, 
of  that  city.'  .         , 

*  Argenvllte,  vol.  I.— Wlkingtoii.  , 

«  AntoBio  Bibi.  Hisp.^-I^oreri.'^Dfbdii^s  fiiliUofflati^^.-^iit  H'^t^^S^cK: 

233  C  A  R  E  W. 

CAREW  (George),  afterwards  earl  of  Totness  (de- 
scended from  an  ancieitt  family  in  the  West  of  England, 
originally  so  named  from  Carew-castle  in  Pembrokeshire) 
was  born  in  1557.  His  mother  was  Anne,  daughter  of  sir 
Nicolas  Harvey,  knight,  and  his  father,  George,*  archdea- 
con of  I'otness,  and  successively  dean  of  Bristol,  of  the 
queen's  chapel,  of  Windsor,  of  Christ  Church,  Oxon,  and 
of  Exeter;  besides  several  other  preferments,  most  of  which 
he  resigned  before  his  decease,  which  occurred  in  1585. 
George  Carew  in  1 572  was  admitted  gentleman  commoner 
of  Broadgate-hall  (now  Pembroke  college)  in  Oxford ; 
where  he  made  a  good  proficiency  in  learning,  particularly 
in  the  study  of  antiquities,  but  being  of  an  active  temper, 
he  left  the  university  without  a  degree;  and  applying 
himself  to  military  affairs,  went  and  served  in  Ireland 
against  the  earl  of  Desniond.  in  1580  he  was  made  go- 
vernor of  Asketten-castle,  and  in  1589  was  created  master 
of  arts  at  Oxford,  being  Uien  a  knight.  Some  time  after, 
being  constituted  lieutenant-general  of  the  artillery,  or 
master  of  the  ordnance  in  Ireland,  he  was  one  of  the  com- 
linantiers  at  the  expedition  to  Cadiz,  in  1596 ;  and  again, 
the  next  year^  in  the  intended  expedition  against  Spain. 
Having  in  1599  been  appointed  president  of  Muqfter,  he 
was  in  1600  made  treasurer  of  the  army,  and  one  of  the 
lords  justices  of  Ireland.  When  he  entered  upon  his  go* 
vernment,  he  found  every  thing  in  a  deplorable  ccHidition  ; 
all  the  country  being  in  open  and  actual  rebellion,  except- 
ing a  few  of  the  better  sort,  and  himself  having  for  his 
defence  but  three  thousand  foot  and  two  hundred  and  fifty 
horse  ;  yet  he  behaved  with  so  much  conduct  and  bravery, 
that  he  reduced  many  castles  and  forts,  took  James  Fitz 
Thomas,  the  titular  earl  of  Desmond,  and  O'Connor,  pri- 
soners ;  and  brought  the  Bourkes,  Obriens,  and  many  other 
Irish  rebels,  to  submission.  He  also  bravely  resisted  the 
Ax  thousand  Spaniards,  who  landed  at  Kinsale,  October 
I,  1601,  and  had  so  well  established  the  province  of  which 
he  was  president,  by  apprehending  the^chief  of  those  he 
mistrusted,  and  taking  pledges  of  the  rest,  that  no  person 
of  consideration  joined  the  Spaniards.  In  1602  he  made 
himself  master  of  the  castle  of  Donboy,  which  was  a  very 
difficult  undertaking,  and  reckoned  almost  impracticable ; 
and  by  this  means  prevented  the  arrival  of  an  army  of 
Spaniards,  which  were  ready  to  sail  for  Ireland.  He  had 
fpr  some  time  been  desirous  of  quitting  his  burdensome 

C  A  R  E  W.  ass 

office  of  president  of  Munster,  but  he  could  not  obtain 
permission  till  the  beginning  of  1603,  when,  leaving  that    . 
province  in  perfect  peace,  he  arrived  in  England  the  2l8t 
of  March,  three  days  before  queen  Elizabeth's  death.    His 
merit  was  so  great,  that  he  was  taken  notice  of  by  the  new  ^ 

king,  and  made  by  him,  in  the  first  year  of  his  reign,  go« 
vernor  of  the  isle  of  Guernsey,  and  Castle  Comet :  and 
having  married  Joyce  *,  the  daughter  and  heir  of  William 
Clopton,  of  Cloptou,  CO.  Warwick,  esq.  he  was  June  4^ 
J  605,  advanced  to  the  degree  of  a  baron,  by  the  title  of  lord 
Carew,  of  Clopton.  Afterwards  he  was  made  vice-cham-> 
berlain  and  treasurer  to  king  James's  queen  ;  and  in  160S 
constituted  master  of  the  ordnance  throughout  England  for 
life;  and  sworn  of  the  privy-council  to  the  king,  as  he  had 
before  been  to  queen  Elizabeth.  Upon  king  Charles  Ist's 
acce'ssion  to  the  crown^  he  was  created,  Feb.  I,  1625,  earl 
of  Totness.  At  length,  full  of  years  and  honours,  he  de- 
parted this  life  at  the  Savoy  in  London^  Maroh  27,  1629, 
aged  seventy-three  years  and  ten  months ;  and  was  buried 
at  Stratford  upon  Avon,  near  Clopton  :  leaving  behind  him 
the  character  of  a  faithful  subject,  a  valiant  and  prudent  "^ 
commander,  an  honest  counsellor,  a  genteel  scholar,  a 
lover  of  antiquities,  and  a  great  patron  of  learning.  A 
stately  monument  was  erected  to  his  memory,  by  his  ifpi- 
dow,  with  a  long  inscription  reciting  his  actions. 

He  wrote,  or  rather  caused  to  be  written  under  his  di- 
rection, a  book  entitled  -'<  Pacata  Hibernia,"  or  the  his- 
tory of  the  wars  in  Ireland,  especially  within  the  province 
of  Munster,  in  the  years  1599,  1600,  1601,  and  1602; 
which,  after  his  death,  was  printed  at  London  in  1633,  fol. 
with  seventeen  maps  ;  being  published  by  his  natural  son, 
Thomas  Stafford.  Harris,  in  his  edition  of  Ware's  Ireland, 
appeals  to  the  preface,  to  p.  367,  and  other  parts  of  this 
work,  as  proofs  that  Carew  was  not  the  author  of  it. — Sir 
George  Carew  collected  also,  in  four  large  volumes,  several 
chronologies,  charters,  letters,  monuments,  maps,  &c.  re- 
lating-to  Ireland ;  which  are  preserved  in  the  Bodleian  J^^  Jg^ 

f  la  a  biographical  account  of  Uia  Carew,  which  was  without  his  know-    Qh^-^ —    Q 

family  placed  on  the  back  of  a  picture  ledge  and  consent,  and  intended  to  ^^^^^  ^ 

cHF  lord  Totness,  in  the  possession  of  disinherit  her;  but,  upon  an  accidental 

his  descendant,  t^e  late  Boothby  Clop-  conversation  with  captain  Caraw,  found  A\^     *X/A 

ton,  esq.  this  la^»s  name  is  Anne,  and  him  a  gentleman  of  superior  genius  ^  *^  *^  ^^ 

not  Joyce :  and  it  is  added,  that  Mr.  and  fine  address,  and  settled  bis  estata, 

Clopton  was  extremely  displeased  with  which  was  very  considerable,  upon  him 

his  4aughter'8  marrii^ge  with  captain  and  bis  dadghter. 

234  C  A  R  E  W. 

librafy :  and  made  collections,  notes,  and  extracts  for  wri^ 
ting  The  History  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  V .  which  w^re 
inserted  in  J.  Speed's  Chronicle.  Sir  James  Ware  says,  that 
the  earl  of  Totness  translated  into  English  <*  A  History  of 
the  affairs  of  Ireland,"  written  by  Maurice  Regan,  servant 
and  interpreter  to  Dermot,  9on  of  Murchard  king  of  Lein- 
Ster,  in  1171,  and  which  bad  been  turned  into  French 
verse  by  a  friend  of  Regan.  Bishop  Nicolson  describes 
this  history  as  extant  in  the  duke  ofChandos^s  library, 
under  the  title  of  ^^  Mauritii  Regani,  servi  et  interpretift 
Dermitii,  filii  Murchardi,  &c.  Historise  de  Hibernia  frag-> 
mentum  Anglice  reddilum  a  D.  Georgio  Carew,  Memo- 
nine  preside  sub  Elizabetba;''  and  Mr.  Harris  mentions 
another  MS  copy  among  the  bishop  of  Clogher's  MSS.  in 
the  college  library,  Dublin.  Nicolson  also  informs  ns  that 
this  learned  nobleman  wrote  forty*two  volumes  relating  to 
the  affairs  of  Ireland,  which  are  in  the  Lambeth  library, 
and  four  more  of  collections  from  the  originals  in  the  Cot- 
ton library. 

The  natural  son  of  the  earl  of  Totness,  afterwards  sir 
Thomas  Stafford,  was  secretary  to  that  nobleman  when 
president  of  Munster ;  and  the  earl  bequeathed  by  bis  will 
(femaining  at  Doctors'  Commons,  dated  Nov.  30,  1625)  all 
his^books  and  MSS.  to  sir  Thomas;  who,  in  1633,  pub- 
lished the  earPs  history,  as  already  mentioned,  which  he 
dedicated  to  Charles  I.  ^^  to  whom  nothing  (xrald  pads 
through  the  publisher's  hands  which  was  not  justly  due, 
both  by  common  allegiAnce  and  particular  service.'*  Ta 
sir  Thomas  the  esarl  also  gave  bis  lease  of  an  annuity  or 
pension  of  500i.  received  from  the  Alienation  office;  ^nd  if 
sir  Thomas  survived  him,  he  wished  his  eoantess  tot^onvey 
utito  him  all  his  estates  of  Wocdgrove  in  Esses,  at  Sal- 
combe,  Abberto»,  and  Lanceston,  or  ekewfaere,  in  De- 
von and  CornwaU.  Sir  Tboinas  survived  bodi  him;  and  his 
cmnkess;  the  latter  of  whom  died  Jan.  14,  1636*7^  and 
by  her  will  (in  the  Couiniions,  dated  June  9,  1636)  she  de- 
sires her  trusty  and  good  friend  and  chaplaia,  Richard 
^^^  Wright,  clerk,  dwelling  in  Warwickshire,  and  Richard 
Wootton,  of  Fleet-street,  London,  gent,  to  peruse  alt  her 
^  deeds  and  evidences,  and  deliver  unto  sir  Thomas  Stafford 
. »     f ucb  as  belonged  to  him. ' 

*  Biog.  Brit. — ^Park's  edition  of  the  Royal  and  NoMe  Auttiors. — ^Wood's  Ath. 
TOT.  I.  and  Colleges  and  Halls,  art.  "  Deans  of  Christ  Charch."" — Arcfiaeologia, 
▼ol.  I.  p.  xviii.— Nicolson^s  Uifit.  libraiy. — Gent.  Mag.  toI.  LXXXH.  partIL 
|>.  314. 

C  A  R  E  W.  23S 

C  AREW  (George),  brother  to  Richard,  hereafter  men- 
tioned, aod  second  son  of  Thomas  Carevtr,  esq.  and  Eliza- 
beth his  wife,  was  probably  born  at  his  father^s  seat  at  East 
Anthony,  but  in  what  particular  year  we  are  not  able  to 
ascertain.     He  was  educated  in  the  university  of  Oxford^ 
after  which  he  studied  law  in  the  inns  of  court,  and  then 
set  out  on  his  travels.     On  his  return  to  bis  native  country 
he  was  called  to  the  bar,  and  after  some  time  was  appointed 
secretary   to  sir  Christopher  Hatton,  lord  chaucellor  of 
England,  by  the  especial  recommendation  of  queen  EU«« 
zabeth,  who  gave  him  a  prothonotaryship  in  the  chancery^ 
and  conferred  upon  him  the  honour  of  knighthood.    la 
1597,  being  then  a  roaster  in  chancery,  he  was  sent  am« 
bassador  to  the  king  of  Poland.     In  the  next  reign,  he  was 
one  of  the  commissioners  for  treating  with  the  Scotch  con^* 
corning  an  union  between  the  two  kingdoms ;  after  which 
he  was  appointed  ambassador  to  the  court  of  France,  where 
he  continued  from  the  latter  end  of  the  year  1605  till  1609* 
During  his  residence  in  that  country,  he  was  regarded  by 
the  French  ministers  as  being  too  partial  to  the  Spanish 
interest,  but  probably  their  disgust  to  him  might  arise  front 
his  not  being  very  tractable  in  some  points  of  his  nego* 
tiation,  and  particularly  in  the  demand  of  the  debts  due  t6 
the  king  his  master.     Whatever  might  be  hb  political  prin«« 
ciples,  it  is  certaiUj  that  he  sought  the  conversation  of 
men  of  letters;  and  formed,  an  intimacy  with  Thuimua,  te 
whom  he  communicated  an  account  of  the  transactions  in 
Poland,  whilst  be  was  employed  tbere»  whidi  was  of  great 
service  to  tjt^at  admirable  author  in  drawing  up  the  121at 
book  of  his  History.     After  sir  George  Carew's  retuFR 
from  France^  he  was  advanced  to  the  post  of  master  of  the 
court  of  ward^  which  honourable  situation  he  did  not  long 
live  to  enjoy ;  for  it  appears  from  a  letter  wiritten  by  Thu- 
anus  to  Camden,  in  the  spring  of  the  j^ar  (613,  that  ha 
was  then  lately  deceased.     In  this  letter,  Thuanus  laments 
hill  death  as  a  great  misfortune  to  himself;  for  he  cousin 
dered  sir  George's  friendship  not  only  as  a  per&onal  ko-r 
nour,  but  as  very  useful  in  his  work,  and  especially  in  ve** 
moving  the  calumnies  and  misrepresentations  which  might 
be  raised  of  him  in  the  court  e>f  England.     Sir  George 
Care w  married  Thomasine^  daughter  of  sir  Francis  Godtftl" 
phin,  great  grandfather  of  the  lord  treadurer  Gofloiphi% 
^nd  had  by  her  two  sons  and  three  daughters.    Francis,  the 
elder  soc^,  was  created  knight  of  the  bath  at  the  corona- 
tion of  king  Charles  tlie  First,  and  attended  the  earl  of 

236  C  A  R  E  W. 

Denbigh  in  the  expedition  for  the  relief  of  Rochelie,  where 
he  acquired  great  reputation  by  his  courage  and  conduct ; 
but,  being  seized  with  a  fit  of  sickness  in  bis  voyage 
homeward,  he  died  in  the  Isle  of  Wight/  on  the  4th  of 
June,  1628,  at  the  age  of  twenty-seven. 

When  sir  George   Carew  returned  in  1609  from   his* 
French  embassy,  he  drew  up,  and  addressed  to  king  James 
the  First,  "  A  Relation  of  the  state  of  France,  with  the 
characters  of  Henry  the  Fourth,  and  the  principal  persons 
of  that  court ;''  which  reflects  great  credit  upon  his  sa- 
gacity and  attention  as  an  ambassador,  and  his  abilities  as 
a  writer.     In  this  piece  are  considered,  1.  The  name  of 
France.     2.  Its  ancient  and  modern  limits.    3.  Its  quality, 
strength,  and  situation.  4.  Its  riches.  5.  Its  political  orders. 
6.  Its  disorders  and  dangers.    7.  The  persons   governing, 
with  those  who  are  likely  to  succeed.     8.  In  what  terms  the 
French  live  with  their  bordering  neighbours.     And  lastly, 
the  state  of  matters  between  the  king  of  England's  domi- 
nions and  theirs.     These  heads  are  divided,  as  occasion 
requires,  into  other  subordinate  ones.     The  characters  are 
drawn  from  personal  knowledge  and  close  observation,  and 
Blight  be  of  service  to  a  general  historian  of  that  period. 
The  composition  is  perspicuous  and  manly,  and  entirely 
free  from  the  pedantry  which  prevailed  in  the  reign  of  king 
James  L  his  taste  having  been  formed  in  a  better  sera,  that 
of  Queen   Elizabeth.     The  valuable  tract  we  are  speaking 
of  lay  for  a  long  time  in  manuscript,  till  happily  falling 
into  the  hands  of  the  late  earl  of  Hardwicke,  it  was  com- 
municated by  him  to  Dr.  Birch,  who  published  it  in  1749, 
at  the  end  of  his  ^'Historical  view  of  the  Negotiations 
between  the  Courts  of  England,  France  and  Brussels,  from 
the  year  1592  t«.  1617."     That  intelligent  and  industrious 
writer  justly  observes,  that  it  is  a  model,  upon  which  am- 
bassadors may  form  and  digest  their  notions  and  represen- 
tations ;  and  the  late  celebrated  poet,  Gray,  spoke  of  it  as 
an  excellent  performance.  ^ 

CAREW  (NiCHOtAS>j  of  the  Carews  of  Beddington,  in 
Surrey,  was  the  son  of  sir  Richard  Carew,  knight  banneret, 
and  Magdalen,  daughter  of  sir  Robert  Oxenbridge.  At  an 
early  age  he  was  introduced  to  the  court  of  king  Henry 
VIIL  where  he  soon  became  a  favourite,  and  was  made 
^ne  of  the  gentlemen  of  the  privy  chamber.     Having  been 

^  Biof.  Brit.— Birch's  Prince  Htniy.-^Mason's  lifo  of  Grey, 

C  A  R  £  W.  237 

employed  upon  some  public  business  in  France,  he. be- 
came, as  many  other  young  men  have  been,  so  enamoured 
of  French  fashions  and  amusements,   that,  when  he  re- 
turned to  his  own  country,  he  was  continually  liiaking  in- 
'Tidious  comparisons  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  English 
court.     His  majesty,  who  was  too  much  of  a  &riton  not  to 
be  disgusted  at  this  behaviour,  removed  him  from  his  per- 
son, and  sentenced  him  to  an  honourable  banishment,  ap« 
pointing  him  governor  of  Ruysbank  in  Picardy ;  to  which 
government  he  was  forthwith  commanded  to  repair,  much 
against  his  inclination.    This  little  offence,  however,  was 
soon  passed  over,  and  we  find  him  again  employed  by  the 
king,  and  for  several  years  his  constant  companion,  and  a 
partaker  with  him  in  all  the  justs,  tournaments,  masques, 
and  other  diversions  of  the  same  kind,  with  which  that  reigH 
abounded,  and  which  are  described  very  much  at  large  in 
Hairs  Chronicle :  and  as  a  more  substantial  mark  of  his 
favour,  the  king  appointed  him  master  of  the  horse,  an 
office  of  great  honour,  being  reckoned  the  third  in  rank 
about  the  king's  household,  and  afterwards  created  him 
knight  of  the  garter.     His  promotion  may  probably  be  at- 
tributed in  some  measure  to  the  interest  of  Anne  Bullen, 
to  whom  he  was  related  through  their  common  ancestor, 
lord  Hog.     His  good  fortune  was  not  of  long  continuance ; 
for  in  1539  he  engaged  in  a  conspiracy,  as  we  are  told  by 
our  historians,  with  the  marquis  of  Exeter,  the  lord  Mon- 
tacute,  and  sir  Edward  Neville ;  the  object  of  which  was 
to  set  cardinal  Pole  upon  the  throne.     The  accuser  was  sir 
Geffrey  Poole,  lord   Montacute's  brother;  the  trial  was 
summary,  and  the  conspirators  were  all  executed.     Sir  Ni- 
cholas Carew  was  beheaded  on  Tower-hill,  March  3, 1539, 
when  he  made,  says  Holinshed,  ^*  a  godly  confession,  both 
of  his  fault  and  superstitious  faith.'^     Fuller  mentions  a 
tradition ,  of  a  quarrel  which  happened  at  bowls  between 
the  ki^g  and  sir  Nicholas  Carew,  t^  which  he  ascribes  his 
majesty's  displeasure,  and  sir  Nicholas's  death.     The  mo- 
narch's known  caprice,  his  hatred  of  the  papists,  to  whom 
sir  Nicholas  was  zealously  attached,  the  absnrdhy  of  the 
plot,  and  the  improbability  of  its  success,  might  incline  us 
to  hearken  to  Fuller's  story,  if  sir  Nicholas  alone  had  suf-r 
fered ;  but  as  he  had  so  many  partners  in  his  punishment, 
with  whom  it  is  not  pretended  that  the  king  had  any  quar- 
rel, it  will  be  more  safe,  perhaps,  to  rely  upon  the  account 
given  by  our  annalists.     Sir  Nicholajs  Carew  was  buried  in 

e»8  C  A  R  E  W. 

the  church  of  St.  Botolph,  Aldersgate,  in  the  same  tomb 
with  Thomas  lord  Darcy,  and  others  of  his  family.  ^ 

CAREW  (Richard),  author  of  the  Survey  of  Cornwall 
and  brother  of  the  preceding  sir  George  Carew,  the  am- 
|>assador,  was  the  eldest  son  of  Thomas  Carew,  of  Eatst 
Anthony,  esq.  by  Elizabeth  Edgecombe,  daughter  of  Ri- 
chard Edgecombe,  of  Edgecombe,  esq.  both  in  the  same 
county,  and   was  bom  in  1555.     When  very  young,  he 
became  a  gentleman  commoner  of  Christ  Church  college, 
Oxford ;  and  at  fourteen  years  of  age  had  the  honour  of 
disputing,  extempore,  with  the  afterwards  famous  sir  Philip 
Sydney,  in  the  presence  of  the^  earls  of  Leicester,  War- 
wick, and  other  nobility.     After  spending  three  years  at 
the  university,  he  removed  to  the  Middle  Temple,  where 
ke  also  resided  three  years,  and  then  travelled  into  France, 
and  applied  himself  so  diligently  to  the  acquisition  of  the 
French  .language,  that  by  reading  and  conversation   he 
gained  a  complete  knowledge  of  it  in  three  quarters  of  a 
year.     Not  lon^  after  his  return  to  England  he  married,  in 
1577,  Juliana  Arundel,  of  Trerice.     In  1581,  Mr.  Carew 
was  made  justice  of  the  peace,  and  in  1586  was  appointed 
high  sheriff  of  the  county  of  Cornwal;  about  which  time 
he  was,  likewise,  queen's  deputy  for  the  militia.     In  1589 
he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  college  of  antiquaries,  a 
distinction  to  which  he  was  entitled  by  his  literary  abilities 
and  pursuits.     What  particularly   engaged  his  attention 
was  his  native  county,  his  "  Survey'*  of  which  was  published 
in  quarto,  at  London,  in  1 602.    It  has  been  twice  reprinted, 
first  in  1723,  and  next  in  1769.     Of  this  work  Camden 
speaks  in  high  terms,  and  acknowledges  his  obligations  to 
the  author.     In  the  present  improved  state  of  topogra- 
phical knowledge,  and  since  Dr.  Borlase's  excellent  publi- 
eations  relative  to  the  county  of  Cornwall,  the  value  of  Mr. 
Garew's  "  Survey*'  must  have  been  greatly  diminished. 
Mr.  Gougb  remarks,  that  the  history  and  monuments  of 
this  county  were  faintly  touched  by  Mr.  Carew;  but  it  is 
added,  that  he  was  a  person  extrfemely  capable  of  descri- 
bing them,  if  the  infancy  of  those  studies  at  that  time  had 
afforded  him  light  and  materials.     Another  work  of  our 
author  was  a  translation  from  the  Italian,  but  originally 
written  by  Huarte  in  Spanish,  entitled  "  The  Examination 

1  Lysons't  fioTironsj  vol  L;  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  the  whole  of  thi»  ar- 
ticle, aod  where  there  is  a  fiae  portrait  of  sir  Nicholas,  and  maay  particulars  of 
Hie  fhmiJy, 

C  A  R  E  W.  239 

«f  Men's  Wits.  In  which,  by  discovering  the  variety  of 
natures,  is  shewed  for  what  profession  each  one  is  apt,  and 
how  far  he  shall  pro6t  therein."  This  was  published  at 
London  in  1594,  and  afterwards  in  1604;  and,  though 
Richard  Carew^s  name  is  prefixed  to  it,  has  been  princi- 
pally ascribed  by  some  persons  to  his  father.  According 
to  Wood,  Mr.  Carew  wrote  also  "  The  true  and  ready  way 
to  learn  the  Latin  Tongue,"  in  answer  to  a  query,  whether 
the  ordinary  method  of  teaching  the  Latin  by  the  rules  of 
grammar,  be  the  best  mode  of  instructing  yotitbs  in  that 
language  i  This  tract  is  involved  in  Mr.  Samuel  Hartlib'g 
book  upon  the  same  subject,  and  with  the  same  title.  It 
is  certain  that  Mr.  Carew  was  a  gentleman  of  considerable 
abilities  and  literature,and  that  he  was  held  in  great  estima- 
tion by  some  of  the  most  eminent  scholars  of  his  time.  He 
was  particularly  intimate  with  sir  Henry  Spelman,  wha 
extols  him  for  his  ingenuity,  virtue^  and  learning.  Amongst 
his  neighbours  he  was  celebrated  as  the  most  excellent 
manager  of  bees  in  Cornwall.  He  died  Nov.  6,  1620,  and 
was  buried  with  his  ancestors,  in  the  church  of  St.  Anthony, 
where  a  $plen,did  monument,  with  a  large  inscription,  in 
Latin,  was  erected  to  his  memory.  In  an  epigram  writ- 
ten upon  him  he  was  styled  "  another  Livy,  another 
Maro,  another  Papinian,*'  epithets  somewhat  too  high  for 
his  real  merit.  An  English  translation  of  "  Godfrey  of 
Bulloigne,"  from  Tasso,  by  him,  was  published  in  159^4, 
4to.  Of  this  an  ample  specimen  has  lately  been  given  iii 
the  Bibliographer.  * 

CAREW  (Thomas),  an  English  poet,  was  the  younger 
brother  of  sir  Matthew  Carew,  a.  zealous  adherent  to  the 
fortunes  of  Charles  I.  and  of  the  family  of  Carews  in  Glou* 
cestershire,  but  descended  from  the  more  ancient  family 
of  that  name  in  Devonshire.  He  is  supposed  to  have  been 
born  in  1589*  According  to  Anthony  Wood,  he  received  his 
academical  education  at  Corpus  Christi  college,  Oxford,^ 
but  was  neither  matriculated,  nor  took  any  degree.  After 
leaving  college  he  improved  himself  by  travelling,  accord- 
ing to  the  custom  of  the  age,  and  by  associating  with  men 
of  learning  and  talents  both  at  home  and  abroad ;  and 
being  distinguished  for  superior  elegance  of  manners  and 
taste,  be  was  received  into  the  court  of  Charles  I.  as  gen- 

^  Bipg.  Brit.-~-Faller'8  Worthies.<-*Ath.  Qx«  vol.  I.^Bibliographer,  vol.  U 
jf.  30. — Gou^h's  Topography,  vol,  t 

240  C  A  R  E  W. 

tieman  of  the  privy-chamber,  and  sewer  in  ordinary.  His 
wit  had  recommended  him  to  his  sovereign,  who,  however. 
Clarendon  informs  us,  incurred  the  displeasure  of  the 
Scotch  nation  by  bestowing  upon  him  the  place  of  sewer, 
in  preference  to  a  gentleman  recommended  upon  the  in- 
terest of  the  courtiers  of  that  nation.  He  appears  after  this 
appointment  to  have  passed  his  days  in  affluence  and  gaiety. 
His  talents  were  highly  valued  by  his  contemporaries,  par- 
ticularly Ben  Jonson  and  sir  William  Davenant.  Sir  John 
Suckling  only,  in  his  Session  of  the  Poets,  insinuates  that 
his  poems  cost  him  more  labour  than  is  consistent  with  the 
fertility  of  real  genius.  But  of  this  there  are  not  many 
marks  visible  in  his  works,  and  what  sir  John  mistakes  for 
the  labour  of  costiveness,  may  have  been  only  the  laudable 
fare  he  employed  in  bringing  his  verses  to  a  higher  degree 
of  refinement  than  many  of  his  contemporaries.  His  death 
is  said  to  have  taken  place  in  163^9,  which  agrees  with  the 
information  we  have  in  Clarendon's  Life.  *^  He  was  a 
person  of  a  pleasant  and  facetious  wit,  and  made  many 
poems  (especially  in  the  amorous  way)  which  for  the  sharp- 
ness of  the  fancy,  and  the  elegance  of  the  language  in 
which  that  fancy  was. spread,  were  at  least  equal,  if  not 
superior  to  any  of  that  time.  But  his  glory  was,  that  after 
j^ty  years  of  h\s  life  spent  with  less  severity  or  exactness 
than  it  ought  to  have  been,  he  died  with  great  remorse  for 
that  licence,  and  with  the  greatest  manifestation  of  Chris- 
tianity, that  his  best  friends  could  desire.''  It  is  pleasing 
to  record  such  ampl^  atonement  for  the  licentiousness  of 
some  of  his  poems,  which,  however,  most  of  his  editors 
have  persisted  in  handing  down  to  posterity. 

It  does  not  appear  that  any  of  his  poems  were  published 
during  his  life-time,  except  such  as  were'  set  to  mtisic. 
The  first  collection  was  printed  in  1640,  12mo,  the  second 
in  1642,  the  third  (not  in  1654  as  Cibber  asserts,  but)  in 
1651,  and  a  fourth  in  1670.  In  1772  Mr.  Thomas  Davies 
published  an  edition,  with  a  few  notes,  and  a  short  cha- 
racter, in  which  the  writer  has  taken  for  granted  some 
particulars  for  which  no  authority  can  be  found.  Carew's 
Coelum  Britannicum,  at  one  time  erroneously  attributed 
to  Davenant,  was  printed  with  the  first  editions  of  his 
poems,  and  afterwards  separately  in  1651.  Langbaine, 
and  Cibber  after  him,  say  that  our  author  placed  the  La- 
tin motto  on  the  front,  when  printed,  but  no  edition  printed 
in  his  life-time  is  now  known.  The  distich,  however,  might 

C  A  R  E  W.  241 

*  > 

fcav6.been  prefixed  to  the  music  of  the  masque.  Oldys,  in 
bis  MS^  notes  on  Langbaine,  informs  us,  that  ^'  Carew\ 
sonnets  were  more  in  request  than  any  poet's  of  hi^  time^ 
that  is,  between  1630  and  1640.  They  were  many  of 
them  set  to  music  by  the  two  famous  composers,  Henry 
Und  William  Lawes,  and  other  eminent  masters,  and  sung 
at  coilrt  in  their  masques.'*  It  may  be  added,  that  Carew 
t^ras  one  of  the  old  poets  whom  Pope  studied,  and  from 
tvhom  he  borrowed.  Dr.  Percy  honours  him  with  the  com« 
pliment  of  being  an  "  elegant,  and  almost  forgotten  writer, 
whose  poems  deserve  to  be  revived."  But  no  modera 
critic  appears  to  have  estimated  his  merit  with  more  libe- 
rality than  Mr.  Headley  :  his  opinion,  however,  is  here 
copied,  not  without  suspicion  that  his  enthusiasm  may  be 
thought  to  have  carried  him  too  far. 

**  The  consummate  elegance  of  this  gentleman  entitles 
him  to  very'  considerable  attention.  Sprightly,  polished^ 
and  perspicuous,  every  part  of  his  works  displays  the  man 
of  sense,  gallantry,  and  breeding;  indeed  many  of  his 
productions  have  a  certain  happy  fiqish,  and'bQ.tray  a  dex- 
terity both  of  thought  and  expression  much  superior  to 
any  thing  of  his  contemporaries,  and,  on  similar! subjects, 
rarely  surpassed  by  his  successors.  Carew  has  tfie  ease 
without  the  pedantr^^  of  Waller,  and  perhaps  les^  conceit. 
He  reminds  us  of  the  best  manner  of  lord  Lytteltoq,  Wal- 
Ifer  is  too  exclusively  considered  as  the  first  man*  who 
brought  versification  to  any  thing  like  its  present  standard. 
Carew's  pretensions  to  the  same  merit  are  seldom  suf- 
ficiently either  considered  or  allowed.  Though  love  had 
long  before  softened  us  into  civility,  yet  it  was  of  a  formal  j 
ostentatious,  and  romantic  cast ;  and,  with  a  very  few  ex- 
ceptions, its  effects  upon  composition  were  similar  to  those 
on  mannet-s.  Something  more  light,  unaffected,  and  al- 
Ihring,  was  still  wanting :  in  every  thing  but  sincerity  of 
ifitefition  it  was  deficient.  Panegyric,  declamatory  and 
nauseous,  was  rated  by  those  to  whom  addressed.  On  thd 
principle  of  Rubens's  taste  for  beauty,  by  its  quantity, 
not  its  elegance.  Satire,  dealing  in  rancour  rather  than 
reproof,  was  m6r6  inclined  to  lash  than  to  laugh  us  out  ojf . 
our  vices ;  and  nearly  counteracted  her  intentions  by  her 
^ant  of  good  manners.  Carew  and  Waller  jointly  begaa 
to  remedy  these  defects.  In  them,  gallantry,  for  the  first 
time,  was  accompanied  by  the  graces,  the  fulsomeness  of' 
panegyric  forgot  its  gentility,  and  the  edge  of  satire  r€p«" 

yoL,viiu  K       ' 

242  C  A  R  E  W^ 

dered  keener  in  proportion  to  its  smoothness.     Suckling, 
says  of  oilr  author,  in  his  Session  of  the  Poets,  that 

•  '         *  the  issue  of  his  hrain 
Was  seldome  brought  forth  but  with  labour  and  pain.* 

*^  In  Lloyd's  Worthies,  Carew  is  likewise  called  *  elabo-' 
rate  and  accurate/  However  the  fact  might  be,  the  in- 
ternal evidence  of  his  poems  says  no  such  thing.  Hume 
has  properly  remarked,  that  Waller's  pieces  *  aspire  not  to 
th^  sublime,  still  less  to  the  pathetic'  Carew,  in  his 
beautiful  masque,  has  given  us  instances  of  the  former; 
and,  in  his  Epitaph  on  Lady  Mary  Villiers,  eminently  of 
the  latter.*'  * 

CAREY  (Henry),  earl  of  Monmouth,  was  the  eldest 
son  of  Robert,  the  first  earl  of  Monmouth,  who  died  in 
1639,   and  whose    **  Memoirs,"  written  by  himself,  and 
containing  some  curious  particulars  of  secret  history  of  the 
Elizabethan  period,  were  published  from  a  manuscript  in 
the  possession  of  the  late  earl  of  Corke  and  Orrery,  in 
1759;  8vo.     Henry,  his  son,  was  bprn  in  1596,  admitted 
d  fellow  commoner  of  Exeter  college,  Oxford,  at  the  age 
of  fifteen,  and  took  the  degree  of  B.  A.  in  1613,  after 
'which  he  was  sent  to  travel  into  foreign  countries.    In  1616 
he  was  made  a  knight  of  the  bath  at  the  creation  of  Charles 
prince  of  Wales.     In  1625  he  was  known  by  the  name  of 
lord  Lepington,  his  father's  title  before  he  was  created  earl 
of  Monmouth,''  and  was  noted.  Wood  says,  as  "  a  person 
well  skilled  in  modern  languages,  and  a  general  scholar." 
This  taste  for  study  was  his  consolation  when  the  depres-  • 
sion  of  the  nobility  after  the  death  of  Charles  I.  threw  many 
of  them  into  retirement.     He  died  June  13,   1661.     lu' 
Chauncey's  Hertfordshire  is  the  inscription  on  his  monument, 
in  the  church  at  Rickmanswortb,  which  mentions  his  livings 
forty-one  years  in  marriage,  with  his  countess,   Martha, 
daughter  of   the  lord  treasurer   Middlesex.     He   was  a 
most  laborious  writer,  but  chiefly  of  translations,  and,^  as 
l6rd  Orford  observes,  seems  to  have  distrusted  his  abilities,, 
and  to  have  made  the  fruits  of  his  studies  his  amusement 
rather  than  his  method  of  fame.     Of  bis  lordship's  publica- 
tions we  have,  1.  '^  Romulus  andTarquin  ;  or  De  Principe 
et  Tyraniio,"  Lond.  1637,  12mo,  a  translation  from  Mai- 
rezzi,  in  praise  of  which  sir  John  Suckling  has  some  versea 

^  niog.  Brit.-*^Cibber'g  Lives,  vdl.  I.— Censura  Literaria,  vol.  III.  and  IX. 
*-*Elti9'8  SpecimenB. — Ath.  OtL,  t«1.  l.-^Headley'i  BeauUeL-^Johttion  wni  Ghai« 
Herd's  Englifb  PoeU,  ISIO. 

CAREY.  243 

hi  his  "  Fragmenia  Aurea,"  and  others  were  prefixed  by 
Stapylton,  Davenant,  Carew,  &c.  It  came  to  a  third  edi* 
tioii  in  1648.  2.  **  Speech  in  the  house  of  peers,  Jan. 
30,  1641,  upon  occasion  of  the  present  distractions,  and 
of  his  Majesty's  removal  from  Whitehall,"  London,  1641. 

3.  <*  Historical  relations  of  the  United  Provinces,  aiid  of 
Flanders,*'  London,  1652,  fol.  translated  from  Ben tivoglio, 

4.  "  History  of  the  Wars  in  Flanders,"  ibid.  1654,  fol.  fronn 
the  same  author,  with  a  portrait  of  the  translator.  5.  ^^  Ad- 
vertisement from  Parnassus,  in  two  Centuries:  with  the 
politic  touchstone,^*  ibid.  1656,  fol.  from  Boccalini.  6. 
"  Politic  Discourses,  in  six  books,"  ibid.  1657,  fol.  7. 
"  History  of  Venice,"  ibid.  1658,  fol.  both  from  Paul  Pa* 
ruta,  a  noble  Venetian.  8.  **  The  use  of  Passions,"  ibid. 
1649  and  1671,  8vo,  from  the  French  of  J.  F.  Senault.  9. 
"  Man  become  guilty  ;  or  the  corruption  of  his  nature  by 
sin,"  ibid,  from  the  same  author.  10.*  "  The  History  of 
the  late  Wars  of  Christendom,*'  1641,  fol.  which  lord  Or- 
ford  thinks  is  the  same  work  with  his  translation  of  **  Sir 
Francis  Biondi's  History  of  the  Civil  Wars  of  England, 
between  the  houses  of  York  and  Lancaster."  1 1.  *'  Ca- 
priata's  "  History  of  Italy,"  1663,  fol.  His  lordship  began 
also  to  translate  from  the  Italian  ."  Priorato's  History  of 
France,"  but  died  before  he  could  finish  it.  It  was  com- 
pleted by  William  Brent,  esq.,  and  printed  at  London, 
1677. » 

CAREY  (Henry),  a  musical  composer  and  poet,  once 
of  great  popular  reputation,  was  an  illegitimate  son  of 
George  Savile,  marquis  of  Halifax,  who  had  the  honour  of 
presenting  the  crown   to  William  IIL     Car^y  is  said  to 
have  received  an  annuity  from  a  branch  of  that  family  till 
the  day  of  his  death,  and  he  annexed  the  name  of  Savile 
to  the  Christian  names  of  all  the  male  part  of  his  own  family. 
At  what  period  he  was  born  is  not  known.    His  first  lessons 
in  music  he  had  from  one  Lennert,  a  German,  and  had  some 
instructions  also  from  Roseingrave  and  Geminiani,  but  he 
liever  attained  much  depth  in  the  science.     The  extent  of 
his  abilities  seems  to  have  been  the  composition  of  a  ballad 
air,  or  at  most  a  little  cantata,  to  which  he  was  just  able 
to  set  a  bass ;  yet  if  mere  popularity  be  the  test  of  genius, 
Carey  was  one  of  the  first  in  his  time.     His  chief  employ- 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  U.    Park's  Royal  and  Nohle  Authors. -^Lloyd's  MemoirSt 
Ibl.  p.  650. — Ccnsura  Ut.  vol.  II.  and  III. 

K  2 

^44  e  A  R  E  Y. 

ment  was  teaching  the  boarding-schools,  and  aiiu)i»g  peo*. 
pie  of  middling  rank  in  private  families,  before  tradesmen's 
daughters,  destined  to  be  tradesmen's  wives>  were  put 
under  the  tuition  of  the  first  professors. 

Though  Carey  bad  but  little  skill  in  music,  he  had  a 
prolific  invention,  and  very  early  in  his  li£e  distingntsbed. 
himself  by  the  composition  of  spngs,  being  the  author  both 
of  the  words  and  music.     One  of  these,  beginning  ^^  Of  all 
the  girls  that  are  so  smart,'*  and  since  its  late  revival,  known 
by  the  name  of  ^  Sally  in  our  alley,''  be  set  to  an  air  so 
very  pleasant  and  original,  as  still  to  retain  its  popular  cfaa« 
racter.     Addison  praised  it  for  the  poetry,  and  Geminiani 
for  the  tune.     In  1715  he  produced  two  farces>  one  of 
which,  '^  The  Contrivances,"  had  considerable  success.    In 
1720  he  pub  lilted  a  small  collection  of  '^  Poems;"  and  ia 
1722,  a  farce  called  ^*  Hanging  and  Marriage."     In  1732 
he  published  six  ^^  Cantatas,*'  written  and  composed  by 
himself;  and  about  the  same  time  composed  several  songs 
for  the  ^'  Provoked  Husband"  and  other  modern  coiftediea* 
In  172^,  he  published,  by  subscription,  bis  poems  much 
enlarged,   with  the  addition   of   one  entitled  ^'  Namby 
Pamby,"  in  ridicule  of  Ambrose  Phillips^s  lines  on  the  in- 
iknt  daughter  of  lord  Carteret.  Carey's  talent  lay  in  broad, 
burlesque  humour ;  and  in  ridicule  of  the  bombast  of  mo- 
dern tragedies,  he  produced  his  ^^  Chrononhotontliologos," 
in  1734,  which  will  always  be  in  season,  as  long  as  extras 
vagance  and  bombast^  are  encouraged  on  the  stage.     He 
also  wrote  a  farce  called  the  ^  Honest  Yorkshireman,^ 
which  was  very  successful :  two  interludes,  "  Nancy,"  and 
^  Thomas  and  Sally ,'^  and  two  serious  operas,  ^^  Amelia,'* 
set  to  music  by  John  Frederic  Lampe,  and  ^^  Teraminta," 
by  John  Christopher  Smith,  Handel's  disciple,  friend,  and 
successor,    in  superintending  the    performance   of   ora** 
torios.   The  year  1737  was  rendered  memorable  at  Covent- 
garden  theatre  by  the  success  of  the  burlesque  op^ra  of  th^ 
**  Drstgon  of  Wantley,"  written  by  Carey,    and  set    by 
Lampe,  '^  after  the  Italian  manner."     This  excellent  piec« 
of  humour  had  run  twenty-two  nights,  when  it  was  stopped^ 
with  all  other  public  amusements,  by  the  death  of  her  ma* 
jesty  queen   Caroline,   November  20,   but  was  resumed 
again  on  the  opening  of  the  theatres  in  January  fellowing, 
and  supported  as  many  representations  as  the  Beggar'a 
^pera  had' done,  ten  years  before.     And  if  Gay's  original 
intention  in  writing  his  musical  drama  was  to  ridicule  the 

c  A  R  I;  Y.  us 

*  opera,  the  execution  of  hi*  plan  was  not  so  happy  as  that 
of  Carey  ;  in  which  the  mock  heroic,  tuneful  monster,  reci- 
tative, splendid  habits,  and  style  of  music,  all  conspired  to  re- 
mind the  audience  of  what  they  bad  seen  atid  heard  at  the  lyric 
theatre,  more  effectually  than  the  most  Tdlg^ir  street  tunes 
could  do ;  and  much  more  innocently  than  the  tricks  and 
transactions  of  abandoned  tliievcs  ana  prostitutes.  Lampe's 
music  to  this  farcical  drama,  was  not  only  excellent  fifty 
years  ago,  but  is  still  modern  and  in  good  taste.  In  1738^ 
**  Margery,  or  the  Dragoness,"  a  sequel  to  the  "  Dragon 
of  Wantley,"  written  with  equal  humour,  and  as  well  set 
by  Lampe,  came  out ;  but  had  the  fate  of  all  sequels. 
When  the  novelty  of  a  subject  is  faded  away,  and  the 
ebaracters  have  been  developed,  it  is  difEcult  to  revive  the 
curiosity  of  the  public  about  persoris  and  things  of  which 
opinions  are  already  formed.  The  "  Dragoness"  appeared 
but  few  nights,  and  was  ne^'er  revived. 

As  Carey  was  an  entertaining  companion,  he  shaded  the 
fate  of  those  who  mistake  the  roar  of  the  tabl^  for  friend- 
ship. At  first,  however,  he  was  not  altogether  disappointed. 
The  publication  of  his  songs  in  1740  in  a  collection  en- 
titled **The  Musical  Century,"  and  of  his  dramatic  Works  in 
1743,  in  a  small  quarto  volume,  was  encouraged  by  a  nu- 
merous subscription.  But  he  who  administered  to  the 
mirth  of  others,  was  himself  unhappy;  afid  whether  from 
embarrassed  circumstances,  domestic  uneasiness,  or,  as  has 
been  supposed,  the  malevolence  of  some  of  his  own  pro- 
fession, he  sunk  into  despondency,  and  put  an  end  to  his 
life  by  a  cord,  Oct.  4,  1743,  at  his  house  in  Warner-street, 
Cold  Bath  Fields.  Carey's  humour,  however  low,  was  never 
offensive  to  decency,  and  all  his  songs  have  a  moral  or 
patriotic  tendency.  As  to  his  claim  to  the  honour  of  hav- 
ing composed  our  great  national  air  of  *^  God  save  the 
King,"  which  his  son,  the  subject  of  the  next  article,  fre- 
quently brought  forward.  Dr.  Burney  is  of  opinion  that  it 
wa*  of  prior  date,  written  for  James  II.  while  the  prince 
of  Orange  was  hovering  over  the  coast ;  and  when  th^  lat- 
ter became  king,  was  forgot.  It  is  certain  that  in  1745, 
when  Dr.  Arne  harmonized  it  for  Drury-lane  theatre^  and 
Dr.  Bumey  for  Covent- garden,  the  original  author  of  the 
melody  was  wholly  uukuowu. — ^The  wTiter  of  a  "  Succinct 
Account"  of  Carey,  says  that  be  wa^be  principal  pro- 
jector of  the  fund  for  decayed  musicians,  which  was  held. 

246  C  A  HE  y. 

when  first  established^  at  the  Turk's  head  in  Gerrard-street^ 
Soho.  * 

CAREY  (George  Savile),  son  of  the  above,  inherited 
a  considerable  portion  of  his  father's  taste  and  spirit,  and 
much, of  his  misfortunes.  He  was  intended  for  a  printer, 
but  his  **  stage-struck  mind"  led  him  to  the  theatres,  in 
which  he  had  little  success^  yet  enough  to  give  him  a  wan- 
dering unsettled  disposition.  For  forty  years,  he  employ- 
ed himself  in  composing  and  singing  a  vast  number  of 
popular  songs,  chiefly  of  the  patriotic  kind,  in  which  there 
was  not  much  genuine  poetry,  or  cultivated  music.  These 
he  performed  from  town  to  town,  in  what  he  called  '^  Lec- 
tures.*' He  wrote  also  from  1766  to  1792,  several  farces, 
a  list  of  which  may  be  seen  in  the  Biographia  Dramatica, 
and  by  the  performance  of  which  he  earned  temporary 
supplies.  Like  his  father,  he  excluded  every  thing  inde-> 
cent  or  immoral  from  his  compositions.  Besides  these 
dramatic  pieces,  he  wrote,  1.  ^^  Analects  in  prose  and 
verse,"  1771,  2  vols.  2.  **  A  Lecture  on  Mimickry,"  ^ 
^alent  in  which  he  excelled,  1776.  3.  ^^  A  Rural  Ramble," 
1777  ;  and  4.  "  Balnea,  or  sketches  of  the  different  Water- 
ing-places in  England,"  1799.  He  died  July  14,  18©7, 
aged  sixty-four,  being  born  the  year  his  father  died,  and 
was  buried  by  a  subscription  among  his  friends,  having 
never  realized  any  property,  or  indeed  having  been  ever 
anxious  but  for  the  passing  hour. ' 

CARITEO,  whose  family  name  has  been  lost  in  his 
poetical  appellation,  was  a  distinguished  literary  ornament 
of  Naples  in  the  fifteenth  century.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  a  native  of  Barcelona,  and  was  related  to  Corvinus, 
bishop  of  Massa,  who  was  also  a  member  of  the  academy 
of  Napl«;^.  Of  his  friendly  intercourse  with  the  first  scho- 
lars and  chief  nobility  of  Naples,  and  even  with  the  indi- 
viduals of  the  reigning  family  there,  his  works  aiford  innu- 
merable instances,  whilst  in  those  of  Sanazzarius  and  Pon- 
tanusj,  he  is  frequently  mentioned  with  particular  affection 
and  commendation.  His  writings,  which  are  wholly  in 
the  Italian  tongue,  were  collected  and  published  by  his 
surviving  friend  Peter  Summonte,  at  Naples,  1509,  4to ; 
but  before  this  were  published  ^*  Sonetti  e  Canzoni  del 

**  Hawkins  and  Btimey's  Hist,  of  Music,  and  the  latter  in  Rees's  Cyclopaedia* 
-»4!^Dt.  Ma|^.  vol.  LXV,  -  p.  544. — ^Biographia  Dramatica. 
9  Biog.  Dramatica.— Gent  Mag.  voL  LXXVLt 


C  A  R  I  T  E  O.  247 

Gbariteo  intitolati :  Endimione  a  la  Liina,''  Naples,  1506, 
4to;  Venice,  1507,  8 vo;  and  in  1519,  appeared  "Opera 
nuova,  e  amorosa  composta,  &c.'*  8vo,  a  very  rare  book.  His 
writings  are  characterised  by  a  vigour  of  sentiment,  and  a 
genuine  vein  of  poetry;  and  without  rivalling  the  ele« 
jgance  of  the  Tusoan  poets,  they  possess  a  considerable 
share  of  ease  and  harmony.  One  of  his  Canzone  may  be 
seen  in  our  authority.  * 

CARISSIMI  (GiACOMO,  or  Jam£s),  a  Roman  musical 
composer  of  the  seventeeo^  century,  whose  productions 
were  not  only  the  delight  of  his  contemporaries,  but  are 
still  sought  and  hoarded  by  the  curious  as  precious  relics, 
was,  \ety  early  in  life,  appointed  master  of  the  cha- 
|>el  to  the  Getman  college  at  Rome,  in  preference  to  all 
other  candidates.  Alberto  delle  Valle,  an  excellent  judge 
of  music,  speaking  of  the  compositions  of  Carissimi,  which 
he  heard  at  Rome,  without  knowing  his  name,  says,  that 
he  had  heard  the  vespers  performed  on  Easter  Monday,  by 
the  niins  only,  at  the  church  dello  Spirito  Santo,  in  florid 
music,  with  such  perfection  ^  he  never  in  his  life  had 
heard  before  ;  and  on  the  last  Christmas-eve,  in  attending 
the  whole  service  at  the  church  of  St.  Apollinare,  where 
every  part  of  it  was  performed  agreeably  to  so  solemn  an 
occasion ;  though,  by  arriving  too  late,  he  w^  obliged  to 
stand  the  whole  time  in  a  very  great  crowd,  he  remained 
(here  with  the  utmost  pleasure,  to  hear  the  excellent  music 
that  was  performed.  In  the  beginning,  lie  was  particularly- 
enchanted  by  the  "  Venite  exultemus,^'  which  w^as  more 
/exquisite  than  words  can  describe.  **  I  know  not,"  says 
Valle,  '^  who  was  the  author  of  it,  but  suppose  it  to  halve 
been  the  production  of  the  Maestro  di  Capella  of  that 
church."  There  was  no  master  in  Italy  at  this  time,  1640, 
whose  compositions  this  description  will  so  well  suit,  as 
those  of  the  admirable  Carissimi,  who  was  now,  in  all  pro- 
bability, the  Maestro  di  Capella  in  question.  It  was  in 
composing  for  this  church  that  he  acquired  that  great  and 
extensive  reputation  which  be  enjoyed  during  a  long  life, 
and  which  his  offspring,  or  musical  productions,  still  de- 
servedly enjoy.  * 

Kircher,  in  his  Musurgia,  (tom.i.  p.  603.)  after  de- 
scribing his  music  and  its  effects  in  terms  of  high  panegyric, 
ppesks  of  him  as  a  master  then  living,  1 650,  who  had  long 

'  Roscoe*8  Life  of  l^eo. 


filled  the  j)lace  ,of  composer  to  the  CoUegio  ApoIUnariB  wiU| 
great  reputation,  and  according  to  Mattheson,  he  was  living 
IQ  1672.  His  sacred  and  secular  cantatas,  and  motets^ 
have  always  had  admission  into  every  collection  of  goo4 
music.  It  has  been  often  asserted  by  musical  writers  th^t 
vhe  vvas  the  inventor  of  cantatas ;  but  these  monodies  had 
a  pore  early  origin.  Carissimi,  however,  must  be  allowed 
not  only  the  merit  of  transferring  the  invention  from  the 
chamber  to  the  church,  where  he  first  introduced  cantatas 
on  sacred  subjects,  but  of  greatly  improving  recitative  in 
general,  rendering  it  a  more  expressive,  articulate,  and 
intelligible  language,  by  its  approximation  to  speech  and 
declamation.  Many  of  Carissimi^s  works  are  preserved  in 
the  British  Museum,  and  in  Dr.  Aldrich^s  collection  at 
Christ  church,  Oxford.  * 

CARLETON  (Sir  Dudley),  Lord  Dorchester,  aq 
eminent  statesman  in  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  the  eldest  surviving  son  of  Anthony  Carleton,  esq. 
of  Baldwin  Brightwell,  near  Watlington,Oxon.  was  born  at  his 
father^s  seat,  March  10,  1573.  He  was  educated  at  West- 
ininster  school,  and  at  Oxford,  where  he  became  a  student 
of  Christ  church  about  1591,  and  distinguished  as  a  young 
man  of  parts.  From  hence,  after  taking  a  bachelor's  de- 
gree in  1595,  he  set  out  on  his  travels,  and  on  his  return 
to  Oxford,  was  created  master  of  arts  in  July  1600.  Iq 
the  same  year  we  find  him  appointed  secretary  to  sir  Tho- 
mas Parry,  our  ambassador  in  France ;  and  in  1 603  he  served 
in  the  same  capacity  in  the  house  of  Henry  earl  of  Nor- 
thumberland. He  probably  became  afterwards  a  courtier^ 
as  he  speaks  in  one  of  his  letters  of  holding  the  place  of 
gentleman  usher.  In  the  first  parliament  of  James  I.  he 
represented  the  borough  of  St.  Mawes  in  Cornwall,  and 
ivas  considered  as  an  active  member  ^nd  an  able  speaker. 
In  April  1605,  he  accompanied  lord  Norris  into  Spain,  but 
in  the  latter  end  of  that  year  was  suifimoned  to  £ngland| 
;:nd  on  his  arrival  imprisoned,  as  being  implicated  in  th<^ 
gunpowder  treason ;  but  his  innocence  being  proved,  be 
was  honourably  discharged.  In  1 607  he  married  a  piece 
of  sir  Maurice  Carey,  with  whom  he  resided  some  time  iii 
Chancery -lane,  and  afterwards  in  Little  St.  l^artholomew's, 
near  West  Smith  field.  At  this  period  he  appears  to  have 
been  unprovided  for^  as  in  one  of  his  letters  h,e  complain^ 

'  Hawkini  and  Burney'i  Hitt  of  Moste,  a»d  Dr.  Burj^ey  in  Re€i*f  Cyclopadia. 

•       p  A  H  L  5  T  O  N.  «» 

p{  aa  "  luripy  ff  difficmHips,  »  (Jisajr  yf»r«  a  pldgi^y  towo,  a 
growing  wife,  a.iwj  a  poor  pui^."  Atltf  r  ]^eing4i9ftpppiBttedi, 
/rpm  political  reasons,  in  two  ;prQsqpf<^,  that  pf  going  to 
IreJanjci^  ap.d  th^t  of  goiiig  to  J^rvsseis,  in  ao  official  ca^ 
pacitjy  he  \^:as  nominated  to  the  eipt^assy  at  V^nipe,  and 
.before  setting  out,  in  Sept.  1610,  received  die  botiaiir  of 
,!knigbthood.  Tiie  functions  of  this  apppiiHiaisnt  h^  4is^ 
charged  with  great  ability,  and  4^oon  proved  tWt  he  w^ 
qualified  for  diploanatic  affairs.  In  1615,  h^  returaed  to 
England,  ^ir  Henry  Wotton  being  appointed  in  hi^  roon^ 
and  on  bU  arrival  found  all  ministerial  ppyver  and  favour 
/^entered  in  sir  Qeorge  Vitliers,  afterwards  duke  of  Bu^ki- 
ingham.  Soon  after,  on  the  recommendation  of  sir  Kalph 
Winwood,  one  of  the  secretaries  of  atat^,  he  was  employed 
in  what  was  then  one  of  the  most  important  embassies  ift 
the  gift  of  the  crown,  that  to  th^  States  Gieoeral  of  Hc^Und^ 
and  in  this  he  continued  from  1616  to  1|S26,  and  was  the 
}ast  English  minister  who  had  the  honour  of  sitting  in  the 
council  of  state  for  the  United  Provinces,  a  privilege  wbieb 
queen  Elizabeth  had  wisely  obtained,  when  she  undertook 
the  protection  of  these  provinces,  and.whiqiji  wa^  aonesied 
jl;o  the  possession  of  the  pautipn^^ry  tpWQ$. 

On  his  arriv^  in  Holland,  h^  wa$  sppa  involyed  m  ibe 
disputes  which  then  raged  between  the  Ara^Qiani  audi 
Calvinists;  and  as  the  Frenc)i  supported  t.h0  pemaio^arf 
Baruevelt,  sir  Dudley  topk  the  part  pf  pripee  MaUriicew 
His  situation  liere,  owing  to  the  poli|;ic§  of  tk^  d^ike  of 
Buckingham  and  other  events,  which  belong  to  the  hi»i)ory 
of  the  tunes,  was  one  of  peculiar  delicacy  aod  dif^uUy ; 
yet  he  appears  to  have  conducted  himself  as  aoftba^sador 
from  England,  fA^ith  great;  wisdoni,  fir^m^cts,  and  prudooice. 
Tbinl^ing  tlxat  such  services  merited  some  reward,  and  aa 
every  thing  of  that  kind  depended  on  the  duke  of  Buckings 
bam,  sir  Dudley  addressed  his  grac^  on  tb^  subject  in  a 
strain  of  servility  and  adulation,  which  might  diminish  our 
respect  (ox  his  character,  if  we  were  to  forget  the  relative 
state  of  the  parties.  We  do  npt  find,  hpwever,  that  hia 
application  w£^  at  this  time  successful. 

In  December  1625,  soon  after  his  return  to  England,  he 
was  appointed  vice  chamberlain  of  his  m^esty's  household^ 
^nd  at  the  same  time  was  joined  with  earl  lioliaod  in  am 
embassy  to  France,  respecting  the  restitutiop  of  the  ships, 
yi^hich  had  been  lien t  to  Louis  XIII.  and  w^re  employed 
f gs^nst  the  Ilocbeller^ ;  tp  obtai^i  i^  p^ce  fojr  the  Frenohi 

850  C  A  R  L  E  T  O  N.      ' 

protestants  agreeably  to  former  edicts,  and  to  obtain  the 
French  accession  to  the  treaty  of  the  Hague.  Although  all 
these  objects  were  not  attained  in  the  fullest  intention^  yet 
the  ambassadors  were  thought  entitled  to  commendation 
for  their  firm  and  prudent  management  of  the  various  con* 
ferences.  On  their  return  in  March  1625*6,  they  found 
the  parliament  sitting,  and  the  nation  inflamed  to  the 
highest  degree  at  tha  mismanagement  of  public  affairs* 
At  this  crisis,  sir  Dudley  Carleton,  who  represented  Has- 
tings in  Sussex,  endeavoured  to  mitigate  the  violence  of 
the  commons  in  their  impeachment  of  the  duke  of  Buck- 
ingham ;  but  his  arguments,  although  not  well  suited  to 
the  humour  of  the  times,  were  acceptable  at  court,  and 
immediately  after  he  was  called  up  to  the  house  of  peers 
by  the  style  and  title  of  Baron  Carleton  of  Imbercourt  in 
the  county  of  Surrey :  and  his  next  employment  was  more 
fully  adapted  to  his  talents.  This  was  an  embassy-extraor- 
dinary to  France  to  justify  the  sending  away  of  the  queea 
of  England's  French  servants^  which  he  managed  with  his 
usual  skill. 

In  March  1626-7,  he  was  ordered  to  resume  his  cha- 
racter of  ambassador  in  Holland,  where  our  interest,  from 
various  causes,  was  on  the  decline,  and  required  all  his 
address  and  knowledge  to  revive  it.  He  had  many  con- 
versations with  the  states  on  the  existing  differences,  his 
conduct  in  all  which  received  the  approbation  of  his  royajl 
master,  but  he  had  not  the  same  influence  with  the  States 
as  on  former  occasions ;  and  returned  in  May  or  June  1628, 
leaving  as  his  deputy,  Mr,  Dudley  Carleton,  his  nephew, 
i¥ho  had  discharged  that  trust  before  during  bis  absence, 
with  diligence  and  capacity.  Soon  after  his  arrival  in 
England,  king  Charles  bestowed  an  additional  mark  of  his 
approbation,  by  creating  him  viscount  Dorchester;  and 
in  the  mean  time  he  continued  to  attend  the  court  in  his 
office  of  vice  chamberlain,  and  was  employed  in  foreign 
affairs  of  the  most  secret  nature,  as  assistant  to  the  duke 
of  -Buckingham.  »*  When  that  minister  set  out  for  Ports- 
mouth to  take  the  command  of  the  fleet  and  army,  which 
was  preparing  for  the  relief  of  Rochelle,  lord  Dorchester 
accompanied  him,  and  was  entrusted  by  Contarini,  the 
Venetian  Ambassador  here,  to  manage  the,  first  overtures 
of  an  accommodation  with  France,  which  was. interrupted 
by  the  murder  of  the  duke  of  Buckingham.  King  Charles 
then  declared  be  would,  for  thefuturej  be  his  own  first 

C  A  R  L  E  T  O  N.  251 

minister,  and  leave  the  executive  part  of  the  administraw 
tion  to  every  man  within  the  compass  of  his  province.  The 
iirst  question  of  importance  which  came  before  the  coun- 
cil was,  whether  the  parliament  should  sit  on  the  day  ap- 
pointed, the  20th  of  October.  Some  were  of  opinion,  that 
it  would  be  the  most  probable  method  of  restoring  a  happy 
union  between  the  king  and  his  people ;  but  his  majesty 
declared  his  pleasure  for  a  further  prorogation  till  the  20th 
of  January,  162S«9,  which  lord  Dorchester,  says  he  thought 
the  wisest  course. 

The  king  was  now  determined  to  give  the  seals  of  se- 
cretary of  $tate  to  lord  Dorchester ;  and  as  the  measure 
was  taken,  though,  not  yet  divulged,  of  making  peace  as 
soon  as  possible  bota  with  France  and  Spain,  he  judged  it 
of  the  utmost  consequence  to  have  one  in  that  department, 
whosp  judgment  and  skill  in  negotiation  had  been  exercised 
in  a  long  course  of  foreign  employment.  Lord  Conway 
hful  for  several  years  discharged  tdat  great  trust,  ac- 
cording to  the  earl  of  Clarendon's  expression,  with  notable 
insufficiency,  s^nd  a$  old  age  and  sickness  were  now  added 
»to  his  original  incapacity,  the  court  and  nation  must  with 
great  satisfaction  have^seen  him  succeeded  by  so  able  a 
minister  as  lord  Dorchester,  but  the  parliament,  when  it 
met  00  the  day  appointed,  agreed  no  better  with  the  court 
^an  it  had  done  in  the  preceding  session.  The  lord  trea- 
surer Weston,  and  Dr.  Laud,  bishop  of  London,  were 
become  as  great  objects  of  national  dislike  as  Buckingham 
had  ever  been,  while  the  commons  shewed  their  aversion 
to  Westpn  in  the  state,  and  to  Laud  in  the  church,  by 
Warm  remonstrances  against  the  illegal  exaction  of  tonnage 
and  poundage,  and  the  increase  of  Popish  and  Arminian 
doctrines  ;  on  which  account  the  king  dissolved  the  house 
on  the  10th  of  March.  According  to  some  writers,  lord 
Dorchester  in  this  parliament  proposed  the  laying  an  ex- 
jcise  upon  the  nation,  which  was  taken  so  ill,  that  though 
he  was  a  privy  counsellor,  and  principal  secretary  of  state, 
he  with  difficulty  escaped  being  committed  to  the  Tower. 
Of  this  story,  which  we  believe  originated  in  Howel's  let- 
ters, and  is  referred  to  in  Lloyd's  State  Worthies,  we  find 
no  traces  in  the  parliamentary  history,  or  in  the  lords  and 
commons  journals.  It  is,  however,  generally  inferred  from 
the  authority  of  the  ^arl  of  Clarendon,  that  lord  Dorchester 
was  better  acquainted  with  the  management  of  foreign  af- 
fairs,, than  with  the  gonstitution.  Laws,  and  customs  of  his 

P*8  CARL  Et  on; 

jown  country.  In  his  capadty  of  secretary  of  statei  he  w^ 
a  chief  agent  in  carrying  on  and  completing  the  treaties 
with  France  and  Spain ;  and  besides  these,  be  directed  in 
the  course  of  the  years  1629  and  1630,  the  negociations 
of  sir  Henry  Vane  in  tiolland,  and  sir  Thomas  Roe  in 
Poland  and  the  maritime  parts  of  Germany.  The  former 
was  sent  to  the  Hague,  to  explain  to  the  States  the  motives 
of  our  treaty  with  Spain,  and  to  sound  their  dispositions 
•about  joining  in  it;  and  the  latter  was  employ^  as  me- 
dicitor  between  the  kings  of  Sweden  and  Poland;  after 
which  he  was  very  instrumental  in  persuading  the  heroic 
Gubtavus  Adoiphus  to  undertake  his  German  expeditioif. 
Lord  Dorchester  appears,  likewise,  to  have  kept  up  a  pri- 
vate correspondence  with  the  queen  of  Bohemia,  who  rising 
superior  to  her  misfortunes,  he  used  the  best  ofiEices  in  his 
power  to  prevent  misunderstandings  between  her  and  the 
king  her  brother ;  and  he  gave  her  advice,  when  the  occa- 
sion reqtiired  it,  with  the  freedom  and  sincerity  of  an  old 
friend  and  servant. 

Lord  Dorchester  did  not  live  to  see  an  end  of  the  per- 
plexed negociations  on  the  affairs  of  Germany,  and  the 
restitution  of  the  Palatinate;  for«  having  long  struggled 
with  the  disorders  occasioned  by  frequent  returns  of  the 
stone  and  gravel,  he  died  Feb.  15,  16S1-32,  in  the  fifty- 
ninth  year  of  his  age,  and  was  interred  in  Westminster- 
abbey.  Having  no  heirs,  his  title  became  extinct,  but 
was  revived  in  1786,  in  the  person  of  general  sir  Guy 
Carleton,  of  another  family. 

With  regard  to  the  general  abilities  and  character  of 
lord  Dorchester,  it  appears  from  all  his  political  remains, 
that  he  was  a  judicious,  faithful,  and  diligent  noinister,  and 
better  qualified  for  his  department  than  any  who  were  his 
immediate  predecessors  or  i^uccessors  in  the  same  office* 
King  Charles  himself,  who  wa^  a  good  judge  of  bis  ser- 
vants' abilities,  used  to  say,  as  sir  P.  Warwick  relates  ia 
his  jyiemoirs,  ^^  that  he  had  two  secretaries  of  state,  the 
lords  Dorchester  and  Falkland ;  onQ  of  whom  was  a  dull 
man  in  comparison  of  the  other,  and  yet  pleased  him  the 
best ;  for  he  always  brought  him  his  own  thoughts  in  his 
own  words ;  the  latter  cloathed  them  in  so  fine  a  dress,  that 
he  did  not  always  know  them  again/*  Allowing  for  some 
defects  of  stiffness  and  circumlocution,  which  are  commoa 
to  all  the  writings  of  that  time,  lord  Dorchester's  dispatches 
fure  drawn  up  in  th^t  plain,  perspicuous,  and  unaffected 

C  A  R  L  E  T  O  N;  »5* 

slile  which  was  fittest  for  basiness.     Domestie  concetnsr 
were  ik)  part  of  his  proTUice,  but  entively  managed  by  the 
Iprd  ureasurer  Westoa  and  archbishop  Laud.     He  held  the 
pen  singly  in  foreign  sifFairs,  and  was  regretted  by  those 
Tpho  were  used  to  receive  the  instructions  of  govern  meut 
from  a  secretary  of 'state^  upon  whom  they  could  depend 
that  he  would  make  a  just  report  of  their  services,  and  tbeft 
he  would  not  mislead  or  misrepresent  the  ministers  with 
whom  he  corresponded.     That  he  died  much  lamented  by 
the  public  in  general,  and  with  the  reputation  of  an  honest 
and,  well- deserving  statesnany  is  declared  by  sir  Thomas 
Hoe^  in  a  manuscript  letter  to  a  friend  in  Holland.     The 
earl  of  Clarendon's  assertion^   that  lord   Dorchester  was 
unacqnaiuted  with  the  government,  laws,  and  customs  of 
his  own  country,  and  the  nature  of  the  people,  is  disputed 
by  Dn.Birchv  mhis  **  Review  of  the  Negociations,"  who 
considers  it  as  absohitely  incompaitible  with  the  experience 
wUeh  he  must  have  acquired  in  the  house  of  commons. 
Biut^  not  to  mention  that  the  noble  historian,  who  had  no 
pvcgiudice  against  his  lordship,  could  not  well  b^  deceived 
iu  the  fact,  it  is,  we  think,  confirmed  by  the  figure  he 
made  in  the  parliament  of  16*29,  and  by  his  acquiescence 
in  all  the  obnoxious  measures  of  Buckingham,  Weston, 
and  Laud.     The  following  articles  are  attributed   to  his 
pen,  by  Anthony  Wood  and  lord  Orford  :  1.  "  Balance 
pour  peser  en  toute  equit^  &  droicture  la  Harangue  fait 
vagiteres  en  P Assemblee  des  illustres  &  puissans  Seignoures 
Messeigneurs  les  Estats  generaux  des  Provinces  Unies  du 
Pjaisbas,  &c."  1618, 4to.    2,  «*  Harangue  fait  au  Counseile 
de  Mess,  les  Estats  generaux  des  Provinces  Unies,  tou- 
chant  le  Discord  &  te  Troubles  de  TEglise  &  la  Police, 
€ius6s  par  la  Doctrine  d'Arminius,"  6  Oct.  1617,  printed 
with  the  former.     3.  Various  Letters  in  the  ^^  Cabala,  or 
Strinia  sacra,^*  London,  1663,  fol.     4.  Various  ^Letters  to 
<Jeoi^e,  duke  of  Buckingham,  in  "  Cabal$i,  or  Mysteries  of 
State,**  London,  1654,  4to.     5.  Several  French  and  Latin 
Letters  to  the  learned  Vossius,  printed  in  "  Ger.  Jo.  Vossii 
&  clarorum  Virorum  ad  eum  Epistolae,"^  London,  1690,  foL 
6^  Several  Speeches  in   Parliament,   in  1626,   in   Rush- 
worth's  Collections.     7.  Several  Letters  in  the  three  vo- 
lumes of  **  Sir  Ralph  Winwood*s  Memorials,"  published  at 
London,  in  folio,  1725.     8.  A  Letter  to  the  earl  of  Salis- 
bury, printed  in  "  Howard's  Collection."      9.    Memoirs 
for  Disjpatches  of  political  Affairs  relating  to  Htdland  and* 

«64  G  A  R  L  E  T  O  N- 

England,  ann«  1618;  with  several  Propositions  made  to  tbe 
States. — Manuscript.     10.  Particular  Observations  of  the 
military  Affairs  in  the  Palatinate,  and  the  Low  Countriesi 
annis   1621,   1622. — Manuscript.     11.  Letters  relating  to 
State  Affairs,  written  to  the  king  and  viscount  Rochester^ 
from  Venice,  ann.   1613. — Manuscript.     The  manuscript 
pieces  here, mentioned,  are  probably  no  more  than  parts  of 
the  collections  preserved  in  the  Paper  office.  :  The  letters 
from  and  to  sir  Dudley  Carleton,  during  his  embassy  in 
Holland,  from  January  1615-16,  to  December  1620,  pro- 
perly selected,  and  as  occasion  required,  abridged,  or  only 
noted,  'Were  published  by  the  late  earl  of  Hardwicke,  in 
1757,  in  one  vol.  4to,  with  an  historical  preface.    The  se- 
cond edition  of  the  same  work,  with  lar^e  additions  to  the 
historical  preface,  appeared  in  1775,  and  has  been  twice 
reprinted  since.  These  letters,  if  some  allowances  be  made 
for  parjy  violences  and  prejudices,   contain  more  clear, 
accurate,  and  interesting  accounts  of  that  remarkable  pe- 
riod of  Dutch  history  to  which  they  relate,  than  are  any 
where  extant.      There  are,    likewise,    discussed    in   the 
course  of  them,  many  points  of  great  importance,  at  that 
time,  to  the  English  commerce.     Lord  Hardwicke's  excel- 
lent preface  has  furnished  the  materials  of  the  present 
sketch.  * 

CARLETON  (George),  a  learned  bishop  in  the  seiven- 
teenth  century,  son  of  Guy,  second  son  of  Thomas  Carle- 
ton,  of  Carleton-hall,  in  Cumberland,  was  born  at  Norham, 
in  Northumberland,  of  whose  important  castle  his  father 
was  then  governor.  By  the  care  of  the  eminent  Bernard 
Gilpin,  he  was  educated  in  grammar-learning ;  and  when 
fit  for  the  university,  sent  by  the  same  generous  person  to 
Edmund-hall  in  Oxford,  in  the  beginning  of  the  year 
1576,  and  was  by  him  chiefly  maintained  in  his  studies. 
On  the  12th  of  February  1579-80,  he  took  his  degree  of 
B.  A.  at  the  completing  of  which,  he  exceeded  all  tliat 
performed  their  exercises  at  that  time.  ^  The  same  year 
he  was  elected  probationer  fellow  of  Merton-coUege,  and 
remained  in  that  society  above  five  years  before  he  pro- 
ceeded in  his  faculty,  not  taking  the  degree  of  M.  A.  till 
June  the  14th,  1585.  While  he  remained  in  college,  he 
was  esteemed  a  great  orator  and  poet,  and  in  process  of 

1  Preface  as  above.— Biog.  Brit. —Lloyd's  SUte  Worthies.— Ath.  Ox.  rol.  I. 
Birch's  View  of  the  Negociatiohs,  and  Life  of  Prince  Henry.— Park's  Royal  and 
Noble  Author8.-^larendoB's  Hist 

C  A  R  L  E  T  O  N.  25ft 

time  became  a  better  disputant  in  divinity,  than  he  had  be*i* 
fore  been  in  philosophy^  What  preferments  he  had,  is  not 
mentioned,  nor  does  it  appear  that  he  was  possessed  of  any 
dignity  in  the  church  till  he  became  a  bishop.  After 
having  continued  many  years  in  the  university,  and  takea 
the  degree  of  B.  D.  May  16,  1554,  and  that  of  Doctor, 
t>ecember  1,  1613,  he  was  advanced  to  the  bishopric  of 
LandafF,  to  which  he  was  confirmed  July  11,,  1618,  and 
consecrated  at  Lambeth  the  next  day.  The  same  year  he 
was  sent  by  king  James  I.  with  three  other  English  divines. 
Dr.  Hall,  afterwards  bishop  of  Exeter,  Dr.  Davenant,  af- 
terwards bishop  of  Salisbury,  and  Dr.  Ward,  master  of 
Sidney-college,  Cambridge,  and  one  from  Scotland,  Dr* 
Walter  Balcanqual,  afterwards  dean  of  Durham,  to  the 
synod  of  Dort ;  where  he  stood  up  in  favour  of  episcopacy, 
and  behaved  so  well  in  every  respect  to  the  credit  of  our 
nation,  that  after  his  return  he  was,  upon. the  translatioa 
of  Dr.  Harsnet  to  Norwich,  elected  to  succeed  him  in 
the  see  of  Chichester,  Septembers,  1619,  and  confirmed 
the  20ih  of  the  same  month.  He  departed  this  life  in  May 
1628,  and  was  buried  the  27th  of  that  month  in  the  choir 
of  his  cathedral  church  at  Chichester,  near  the  altar.  He 
was  a  person  of  solid  j,udgment,  and  of  various  reading ; 
well  versed  in  the  fathers  and  schoolmen  ;  wanting  nothing 
that  could  render  him  a  complete  divine  ;  a  bitter  enemy 
to  the  Papists,  and  in  the  point  of  Predestination  a  rigid 
Calvinist.'  "I  have  loved  him,"  says  Mr.  Camden,  "for 
his  excellent  proficiency  in  divinity,  and  other  polite  parts 
of  learning.''  Echard  and  Fuller  also  characterize  him  in 
very  high  terms. 

He  perhaps  wrote  upon  a  greater  variety  of  subjects 
than  any  other  clergyman  of  his  time.  Among  his  works 
are  enumerated :  1.  "  Heroici  characteres,  ad  illustriss. 
eijuitem  Henricum  Nevillum,"  Oxon.  1603,  4to.  Several 
of  his  Latin  verses  are  also  in  the  university-book  of  verses 
made  on  the  death  of  sir  Philip  Sidney,  in  "  Bodleiom-  • 
nema,"  and  in  other  books.  2.  ^^  Tithes  examined,  and 
proved  to  be  due  to  the  Clergy  by  a  Divine  Right,"  Lond. 
li606,  and  1611,  4to.  3.  ^Jurisdiction  Regal,  Episcopal, 
Papal :  Wherein  is  declared  how  the  Pope  hath  intruded  upon 
the  jurisdiction  of  Temporal  Prince8,and  of  the  Church,  &c.'* 
I^ond.  1610,  4to.  4.  ^^  Consensus  Ecclesiss  Catholicae  con- 
tra Tridentinos,  de  Scripturis,  Ecclesia,  fide,  &  gratia,'* 
«fec.  Lond.  1613,  Svo.     5.  ^^  A  thankful!  Remembrance  of 

656  C  A  R  L  E  T  O  M;  ^ 

GocPs  Mercy.     In  an  MistoricaU  CfoHectidri  of  t\\€  gt^il 
and  niercifuil  Deliverances  of  the  Church  arid   State  of 
England,  since  the  Gospel  beganne  here  to  flourish,  from 
me  beginning  of  queene  Elizabeth,"  Lond.    1614  ;   the 
third  edition  came  out  in  1627,  and  the  fourth  in  1630. 
The  historical   part  is  chiefly  extracted  from  Camden's 
Annals  of  queen   Elizabeth ;  and  the  latter  editions  are 
adorned  at  the  beginning  of  each  chapter,  with  figures  en- 
graved in  copper,  representing  the  most  material  things 
contained  in  the  ensuing  description.     6.  ^^  Short  Direc^ 
tiotis  to  know  the  true  Church,'*  Lond.  1615,  &c.  12mo. 
7.  *^  Oration  made  at  the  Hague  before  the  prince   of 
Orange,  and  tlie  Assembly  of  the  high  and  mighty  lords, 
the  States  General,''  Lond.  1619,  in  one  sheet  and  a  half, 
4ta.      8.  **  Astrologimania- ;    or,    the   Madness  of  Astro- 
logers ;  or,  an  Examination  of  sir  Christopher  Heydon's 
book  entitled  *  A  Defence  of  judicial  Astrology*,"  written 
aboat  the  year  1604,  and  published  at  Londop,  1624,  4to, 
by  Thomas  Vicars, .  B.  D.  who  bad  manied   the  author's 
daughter.     It  was  reprinted  at  London,   16^1.     9.  ^^  £xa« 
raination  of  those  things  wherein  the  Author  of  the  late 
Appeal    (Mimtague    afterwards    bishop    of    Chichester) 
holdeth  the  Doctrine  of  Pelagian^  and  Anninians,  to  be 
the  Doctrines  of  the  Church  of  England,"  Lond.  1626, 
and  16S6,  4«o.     10.  "  A  joy nt  Attestation,  avowing  that 
the  Discipline  of  fhe  Church  of  England  was  not  im« 
peached  by  the  Synod  of  Dort,"  Lond.  1628,  4to.     11. 
*<  Vita  Bernardi  Gilpini,  viri  sanctiss.  famaque  apud  Anglos 
aquilontres  celeberrimi,**  Lond.  1626,  4to,  inserted  in  Dr. 
W.  Bates's  Collection  of  Lives,  Lond.  1681,  4to.   .  It  was 
also  published  in  English,  under  this  title,  ^'  The  Life  of 
Bernard  Gilpin,  a  man  most  holy  and  renowned  among 
the  Northerne  English,'*  Lond.  1629,  4to,  and  1636,  Svo. 
12,  "  Testimony  concerning  the  Presbyterian  discipline 
in  the  Low-countries,  and  Episcopal  government  in  Eng- 
land," printed  several  times  in  4to  and  Svo,  and  at  Lon- 
don in  particular,  in  1642,  in  one  sheet     13.  Latin  Letter 
ko  Mr.  Camden,  containing  some  Notes  and  Observatioas 
on  his  Britannia.     Printed  by -Dr.  Smith  amongst  "  Cam- 
deni   Epistolie,"    N°  80.     14.  Several  Sermons.     15.  He 
had  also  a  hand  in  the  Dutch  Annotations,  and  in  the  new 
translation  of  the  Bible,  undertaken  by  order  of  the  Synod 
of  Dort,  but  not  completed  and  published  till  1637.     Two' 
o£  bis  letters  to  sir  Dudley  Carlcton,  are  in  lord  Hai-d- 

C  A  R  L  ^  T  O  N.  257 

wicke's  publication  of  sir  Dudley's  correspondence.  By 
his  first  wife,  Anne,  daughter  of  sir  Henry  Killegrew,  knt. 
and  widow  of  sir  Henry  Neville,  of  Billingbere,  in  Berk- 
shire, he  had  a  son,  Henry,  who  was  chosen  representative 
for  Arundel,  in  Sussex,  in  the  short  parliament  which  met 
at  Westminster  on  the  13th  of  April  1640.  Mr.  Henry 
Carleton  embraced  the  cause  of  the  house  of  commons  in 
the  civil  war  with  king  Charles  the  First,  accepted  a  cap- 
tain's commission  in  the  parliamentary  army,  and  in  other 
respe&ts  did  no  honour  to  his  father.^ 

CARLETON  (Sir  Guy),  late  lord  Dorchester,  de- 
scended from  an  ancient  northern  family,  which  removed 
to  Ireland,  was  the  third  son  of  Christopher  "Carleton,  of 
Neivry,  co.  Down,  esq.,  who  died  in  Ireland  about  1738, 
leaving  a  widow  who  became  the  third  wife  of  the  rev. 
Thomas  Skelton,  brother  to  the  late  rev.  Philip  Skelton, 
and  died  in  1757.  Mr.  Carleton  was  born  at  Strabane,  in 
Ireland,  Sept.  3,  1724,  and,  according  to  the  biographer 
of  Philip  Skelton,  owed  his  future  eminence  in  a  great 
degree  to  the  care  which  his  step-father  took  of  his  educa- 
tion. Having  embraced  a  military  life,  he  entered  into  the 
guards,  in  which  corps  he  continued  until  the  year  1748, 
when  be  was  promoted  to  be  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  72d 
regiment.  In  1758  he  embarked  with  general  Amherst 
for  the  siege  of  Louisburg,  where,  and  at  the  siege  of 
Quebec,  in  the  following  year>  he  was  distinguished  for 
his  bravery  and  good  conduct.  He  was  afterwards  wounded 
for  the  first  time,  at  the  siege  of  Belleisie,  where  he  acted 
as  brigadier- general.  In  Feb.  1762,  he  was  promoted  to 
the  rank  of  colonel  in  the  army, 'and  soon  after  embarked 
for  the  siege  of  the  Havannah,  where  he  was  likewise  dis- 
tinguished for  his  bravery,  and  was  wounded  in  investing 
the  Mdro  castle.  In  Nov.  1766  he  was  appointed  colonel 
of  the  47th  regiment  of  foot  In  April  1772  he  arrived  jtt 
the  rank  of  major-general,  and  in  May  following  \Vas  ap- 
pointed governor  of  Quebec,  and  was  supposed  to  have 
been  instrumental  in  passing  the  celetfrated  Quebec  bill, 
for  the  government  of  that  settlement. 

In  1775,  when  the  American  war  broke  out,  general 
Carleton  had  an  ample  field  for  the  display  of  his  military 
talents.     The  American  congress,  having  resolved  to  resort 

.  1  9i<^g;  Brit-^FoUet^t  Worlhkfl.— £cbard'»  Hist,  of  £D|f1and>— A^i.  Ox. 
vol.  I. 

Vol.  VIII.  S 

25g  C  A  R  L  E  T  a  K 

to  arms,  began  soon  to  turn  their  eyes  to  Canada,  where 
they  knew  the  late  acts  were  very  unpopular,  not  only 
among  the  British  settlers,  but  the  French  Canadians  them- 
selves, who  having  experienced  the  ditference  between  a 
French  and  British  constitution,  gave  t^e  preference  to  the 
latter.  To  co-operate  with  the  disaffected  in  Canada,  and 
to  anticipate  the  probable  and  suspected  designs  of  general 
Carletou,  the  congress  formed  the  bold  project  of  invading 
this  province.  General  Montgomery,  their  commander^ 
headed  the  expedition,  and  proceeded  with  such  vigour^ 
that  he  compelled  the  fort  of  St.  John's  to  surrender  at 
discretion  on  the  2d  of  November.  Hence,  crossing  St. 
Laurence,  he  proceeded  to  Montreal,  which  being  inca- 
pable of  defence  against  the  American  force,  general 
Carleton  evacuated  it,  and  retired  to  Quebec.  '  Having 
taken  possession  of  Montreal,  Montgomery  made  disposi- 
tions for  advancing  to  besiege  the  capital  of  Canada,  and 
there  were  several  circumstances  favourable  to  his  hopes  of 
success.  The  works  of  the  town  had  been  neglected  for  a 
long  time  of  peace ;  the  garrison  did  not  exceed  1 100,  of 
which  few  were  regulars,  and  tho  majority  of  the  inha- 
bitants were  disaffected  to  the  framers  of  their  new  consti- 
tution, and  particularly  to  general  Carleton,  who  was 
supposed  to  have  had  a  chief  hand  in  that  measure.  While 
he  was  endeavouring  to  defend  Quebec  amidst  all  these 
disadvantages,  the  American  generals  Montgomery  and 
Arnold  summoned  him  to  surrender,  wbidi  he  treated  with 
contempt,  and  refused  to  hold  any  correspondence  witli 
rebels.  The  inhabitants  too,  displeased  as  they  were  with 
their  new  constitution,  joined  the  British  troops  with  cor- 
dial unanimity,  and  the  American  commander,  unprepared 
for  a  regular  siege,  endeavoured  to  take  the  place  by  storm* 
In  this  attempt  Montgomery  fell  at  the  head  of  his  troops, 
whom  the  garrison,  after  an  obstinate  resistance,  drove 
from  the  town  with  great  loss;  and  although. Arnold  en- 
camped on  the  heights  of  Abraham,  where  he  fortified 
himself,  and  continued  tbe  siege  of  Quebec  in  the  following 
year,  1776,  he  thought  proper  to  retire  on  the  arrival  of 
an  English  squadron.  General  Carleton  being  now  rein- 
forced by  troops,  which,  added  to  what  he  had,  formed  a 
body  of  13,000,  prepared  for  offensive  operations,  and  tbe 
Americans  evacuated  their  conquests,  stationing  themselves 
at  Crown  Point,  whither  the  British  commaijtder  did  dq| 
follow  them  for  the  present.   , 

C  A  R  L  E  T  O  N.  ,       659 

Ab  armament  was  now  prepared  for  crossing  Lake 
Champlain,  in  order  to  besiege  Crown  Point  and  Ticon* 
derago.  The  Americans  had  a  considerable'  fleet  on  Lake 
Champlain,  whereas  the  British  had  not  a  single  vessel. 
The  general,  therefore,  used  every  effort  to  procure  the 
requisite  naval  force ;  but  October  was  begun  before  this 
was  ready  to  oppose  tlxe  enemy.  On  Oct.  11,  the  British 
fleet,  commanded  by  capt.  Pringle,  and  under  the  general 
direction  of  Carleton,  discovered  the  American  armament; 
and  engaging  them,  the  conflict  continued  on  both  sides 
for  several  hours  with  great  intrepidity,  but  a  contrary 
wind  preventing  the  chief  British  ships  from  taking  a  party 
and  night  comjng  on,  it  was  thought  prudent  to  discontinue 
the  action,  and  Arnold  took  advantage  of  the  night  to  re- 
treat. The  British  pursued  them  the  next  day  and  the 
following,  and  overtook  them  a  few  leagues  from  Grown 
Point;  where,  after  a  furious  battle  of  two  hours,  they 
yielded  to  our  superior  force  and  skill.  General  Carleton 
remained  at  Crown  Point  till  Nov.  3,  and  as  the  winter  was 
commencing,  did  not  think  proper  to  besiege  Ticonderago. 
He  returned  therefore  to  St.  John's,  whence  he  distributed 
his  army  into  winter  quarters. 

In  the  following  year,  1777,  an  expedition  being  plan- 
ned from  Canada,  to  effect  a  co-operation  with  the  prin** 
cipal  British  force,  the  command  of  the  armament  wasf 
conferred  on  general  Burgoyne.  Sir  Guy  Carleton  (for 
be  had  been  made  knight  of  the  Bath  in  July  1776),  from 
his  official  situation  in  Canada,  his  conduct,  and  espe-* 
cially  his  defence  of  Quebec,  might  have  reasonably  ex* 
pected  this  appointment;  he  was  an  older  general,  of 
mote  military  experience,  and  better  acquainted  with  the 
country,  its.  inhabitants,  and  resources.  His  character 
commanded  greater  authority  than  Burgoyne's  had  hitherto 
established,  and  as  no  military  grounds  could  be  alleged 
for  superseding  Carleton  to  make  room  for  Burgoyne,  his 
pi*oraotion  was  imputed  to  parliamentary  influence  more 
than  to  his  official  talents.  Carleton,  disgusted  with  a 
preference  by  no  means  merited,  as  soon  as  he  heard  of 
the  appointment,  resigned  his  government,  in  which  he 
was  succeeded  by  general  Haldimand,  but  before  he  de- 
parted, exerted  himself  to  the  utmost  to  enable  Burgoyne 
to  take  the  field  with  advantagre. 

In  August  1777,  sir  Guy  was  made  a  lieutenant-general 
ill  the  army,  and  in  1781  was  appojnted  to  succeed , sir 

s  2 

tea  C  A  R  L  E  T  OT  N. 

Henry  Clinton  as  commander  in  chief  in  America,  where 
be  remained  until  the  termination  of  the  contest,  when, 
after  an  interview  with  general  Washington,  he  evacuated 
New-York,  and  returned  to  England.     In  April  1786,  h« 
was  once  more  appointed  governor  of  Quebec,  Nova  Scotia, 
and  New  Brunswick,  and,  as  a  reward  for  his  long  services, 
was  in  August  following  raised  to  the  peerage,  by  the  title 
of  lord  Dorchester,  of  Dorchester  in  the  county  of  Oxford. 
His   lordship  remained  in  this  extensive  government  for 
several  years ;  and  returning  at  length  to  England,  passed 
his  old  age  in  the  bosom  of  his  family ;  first  at  Kempshot^ 
near  Basingstoke,  in  Hampshire,  and  afterwards  at  his  seat 
near  Maidenhead.     He  died  Nov.  10,   1808,  aged  eighty- 
five,  at  which  time  he  was  colonel  of  the  fourth  regiment 
of  dragoons,  and  a  general  in  the  army.     In  1772  his  lord- 
ship married  lady  Maria,  third  daughter  of  Thomas  Howard 
earl  of  Effingham,  by  whom  he  had  a  numerous  issue,  and 
was  succeeded  in  titles  and  estate  by  his  grandson  Arthur 
Henry  Carleton,  a  minor.' 

CARLONI  (John Baptist),  an  eminent  painterof  history, 
was  a  native  of  Genoa,  and  having  prosecuted  the  study  of 
his  art  at  Rome,  and  in  the  school  of  Passignano  at  Florence^ 
he  became  one  of  the  most  fertile,  original,  and  seducing 
machinists  of  Italy.  The  most  splendid  works  of  this  artist, 
and  of  his  brother  John,  are  the  frescoes  of  the  cathedral 
del  Guastato  at  Grenoa,  which  exhibit  a  wonderful  effect  of 
colouring.  He  survived  his  brother  50  years,  and  distin- 
guished Ibimself  by  this  novel  style  in  the  churches  and 
collections  of  Liguria  and  Lombardy.  It  is  not  easy  to 
conceive  why  a  painter  should  not  have  acquired  greater 
celebrity,  who  united  with  so  many  opportunities  so  many 
diverging  powers  ;  who  had  equal  felicity  in  oil  and  fresco, 
'  colour  and  design,  velocity  and  correctness,  and  had  in- 
cessant employment,  and  unrivalled  diligence  and  perse- 
verance. After  a  prolonged  life  of  86  years,  he  died  in 
1680. » 

CARLYLE  (Rev.  Joseph  Dacre),  B.  D.  vicar  of  New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, chancellor  of  Carlisle,  professor  of 
Arabic  in  the  university  of  Cambridge,  chaplain  to  the 
bishop  of  Durham,  and  F.  R.  S.  E.  was  born  at  Carlisle  in 
1759,  where  his  father  was  a  physician,  and  after  receiving 

.   \  Sir  £.  Brydges's  edition  of  ColHns's  Peerage. — Bardy's  Life  of  Skelton, 
p«42.  ?  jyAr^euviWe,  vol.  IL--Pilkington. 

C  A  R'L  Y  L  E.  261 


bis  early  education  at  the  grammar-school  of  his  native 
city,  was  in  1775  entered  of  Christ's-coliege,  Cambridge, 
whence  after  two  years  he  removed  to  Queen's,  took  his 
bachelor's  degree  in  1779,  and  was  elected  a  fellow.  Be>. 
sides  an  industrious  and  successful  application  to  the  usual 
branches  of  study,  he  entered  upon  that  of  the  Arabic  lan- 
guage with  unusual  avidity,  availing  himself  of  a  very  fine 
collection  of  Arabic  writings  in  the  university  library,  and 
assisted  hy  David  Zamio,  who,  Mr^  Carlyle  informs  us, 
was  born  at  Bagdad,  and  resided  with  him  some  time  at 
Cambridge.  Mr.  Carlyle,  after  taking  his  master's  de- 
cree in  1783,  left  college,  married,  and  obtained  some 
church  preferment  in  his  native  city.  In  1793  he  took  his 
degree  of  B.  D.  and  succeeded  Dr.  Paley  (by  resignation) 
in  the  chancellorship  of  Carlisle.  Jn  1794  he  was  elected 
Arabic  professor  in  the  university  of  Cambridge. 

In  1799,  he  was  appointed  chaplain  of  lord  Elgin's  em- 
bassy to  Constantinople,  an  office  which  afforded  him  an 
opportunity  of  inspecting  the  libraries  of  that  city,  and 
afterwards  of  travellipg  through  Asia  Minor,  and  through 
countries  generally   unknown   to   Europeans;  and  before 
his  return  he  made  a  tour  through  the  principal  parts  of 
Italy,  and  through  Tyrol  and  part  of  Germany,  and  landed 
in  England  in  Sept.  1801.     After  his  return  he  was  pre- 
sented by  the  bishop  of  Carlisle  to  the  living  of  Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne,  which  he  did  not  long  enjoy.     His  health  had 
probably  been  injured  by  the  fatigues  of  his  travels,  and 
he  laboured  for  a  considerable  time  under  a  painful  and 
distressing  malady,  which  proved   fatal  April  12,    1804. 
He  was  known  to  the  learned  world  by,   1.  "  Maured  Al-  . 
latafet  Jemaleddini  Filii  Togri-JBardii,  sen  rerum  JEgyptia- 
carum  Annales,    ab  anno   Christi   971  usque  ad  annum* 
145?.  E  codice  MS  Bibliothecae  Acad.  Cantab."  Arab,  et 
Lat.  4to,   1792,  a  work  which  unquestionably  evinced   a 
laudable  desire  in  Mr.  Carlyle  to  revive  the  study  of  Arabic 
literature,  but  in  itself  contains  little   information,    and 
throws  very  little  light  on  a  period  darkened  by  ignorance 
and  superstition.     2.  **  Specimens  of  Arabic  poetry,  from 
the  earliest  time  to  the  extinction  of  the  Khalifs ;  with 
some  account  of  the  authors,"  4to.    In  this  too  the  commend- 
able industry  of  the  author  is  perhaps  more  apparent  than  his 
success,  in.  persuading  his  readers  to  an  equal  admiration 
of  Arabic  poetryi     The  work,  however,  is  amusing,  the 
ac(!:ounts  of  the  authors  constitute  a  very  useful  part,  and 

262  ,  ,e  A  R  L  Y  L  E. 

the. translator's  skill  in  selection  has  been  allowed  by  those 
who  are  acquainted  with  the  original.     Since  his  death  has 
been  published,  **  Poems,  suggested  chiefly  by  scenes  in 
Asia-Minor,  Syria,  and  Greece;  with  prefaces  extracted 
from  the  author's  journal,  embellished  with  two  views  of 
the  source  of  the  Scamander,  and  the  aqueduct  over  the 
Simois,"   1805,  4to.      This   elegant  volume   will   form   a 
lasting  monument  of  the  author's  learning  and  taste.     The 
poems  with  which  the  collection  opens  are  particularly  at- 
tractive.    They  relate  to  striking  scenes  in  the  East,  and 
are  prefaced  by  extracts  from  his  journal,  which,  it  has 
been  justly  remarked,  if  further  improved  by  the  author's 
hand,  might  have  formed  such  a  volume  of  travels  as  is 
rarely  seen.     The  premature  death  of  the  author  is  indeed 
to  be  regretted  on  many  accounts.     He  was,  among  other 
.  important  undertakings,  engaged  in  a  correct  edition  of 
the  Arabic  Bible,  at  the  request  of  a  society  of  eminent 
persons,  among  whom  the  present  bishop  of  Durham  is 
one  of  the  most  active ;  and  he  had  likewise  projected  a 
complete  edition  of  the  New  Testament  in  Greek,  which 
was  to  contain  the  various  readings  collected  by  Mill,  Ben- 
gelius,  Wetstein,  Griesbach,  &c.  and  also  those  of  more 
than  thirty  Greek  manuscripts,  which   he   had  collected 
during  his  travels,  together  with  a  new  and  accurate  col- 
lation of  the  Syriac  and  other  ancient  versions.     The  loss 
of  such  a  lAan  at  any  age  will  be  felt ;  but  in  the  prime  of 
life  is  deeply  to  be  regretted.  ^ 

CARMICHAEL  (Geurhom,  M.  A.)  was  born  at  Glas- 
gow in  1682,  and  educated  in  the  university  of  that  city, 
where  he  took  his  degrees,  and  was  ordained  minister  at 
Monidiail  in  Fifeshire.  In  1722  he  was  promoted  to  be 
professor  of  moral  philosophy  in  the  university  of  Glasgow ; 
and  for  the  use  of  his  students  wrote  some  learned  notes 
on  "  PufFendorfi  de  officiis  hominis."  He  intended  to 
have  published  a  system  of  moral  philosophy  on  a  new 
plan,  but  did  not  live  to  see  it  completed,  as  he  died  at 
Glasgow  in  17?8,  aged  56,  His  son  Frederick  Carmi- 
CHAEL  was  born  at  Monimail  in  1708.  He  received  his 
education  in  the  Marischal  college,  Aberdeen,  where  he 
took  his  degrees,  and  was  ordained  minister  at  Monimail 
in  1737,  on  the  presentation  of  the  earl  of  Leven.  In 
1743  he  was  translated  to  Inveresk;  and  in  1747  he  was 

1  Gent,  Mag.  l804,«**M<mth,  Rer.  and  British  Critio»  &c,  . 

C  A  R  M  I  C  H  A  E  L,  2« 

elected  one  of  the  ministers  of  Edinburgh,  having  pre- 
viously declined  an  offer  made  him  of  the  divinity  chair  in 
the  Marischal  college,  Aberdeen.  Jn  1751  he  was  seized 
with  a  fever,  which  put  an  end  to  bis  life,  aged  45.  He 
has  left  one  volume  of  sermons,  which  in  justness  of  senti- 
ment and  elegance  of  expression  are  equal  to  the  best  dis- 
courses in  the  English  language.  * 

CARNE,  or  KARNE,  or  KERNE  (Sir  Edward),  an 
eminent  civilian  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  of  a  Gla-» 
morganshire  family,  and  educated  at  Oxford.  Here  he 
chiefly  studied  the  civil  law,  of  which  he  took  the  degree 
of  doctor  in  June  1524,  being  about  that  time  principal  of 
Greek-hall  in  St.  Edward's  parish.  He  was  admitted  at 
Doctors'  Commons  Nov.  13,  1525,'  and  his  talents  being 
known  at  court,  he  was  sent  abroad  on  public  affairs,  and 
received  the  honour  of  knighthood  from  the  emperor 
Charles  V.  In  1530  he  was  joined  in  a  commission  with 
archbishop  Cranmer  and  others,  the  purpose  of  which  was 
to  argue  the  matter  of  king  Henry  VIII.'s  memorable  di- 
vorce at  the  courts  of  France,  Italy,  and  Germany.  Sir 
Edward  Carne  afterwards  remained  at  Rome  as  a  sort  of 
standing  agent  for  Henry,  and  appears  likewise  to  have 
continued  there  during  the  reign  of  Edward  VI.  and  had 
no  concern  in  the  reformation.  During  queen  Mary'g 
reign,  he  was  her  agent  in  the  same  situation  ;  but  on  the 
accession  of  Elizabeth,  the  pope  ordered  him  to  relinquish 
that  employment.  When  he  was  recalled  by  the  queen, 
with  offers  of  preferment,  he  thought  proper  to  remain  at 
Rome,  and  was  employed  by  the  pope  as  director  of  the 
English  hospital  in  that  city.  He  was  so  far  a  patriot  a« 
to  inform  ElizabjCth  of  the  machinations  of  the  catholic 
powers  against  her,  but  he  continued  inflexible  in  his  at- 
tachment to  popery,  and  died  iii  that  communion  Jan.  18, 
1561.  —  Several  of  his  letters  relating  to  the  divorce  are  in 
Burnet's  "  History  of  the  Reformation."  Wood  remarks 
that  sir  Edward  Oarne  was  accounted  the  last  ambassador 
of  the  kings  of  England  to  the  pope,  until  Roger  earl  of 
Castlemain  was  sent  to  him  by  king  James  II. ' 

CARNEADES,   a  celebrated   Greek   philosopher,  was* 
ap  African,  a  native  of  Cyrene,  and  is.  supposed  to  have 

1  From  the  l^st  edition  of  thi^  Dictionary. 

*  Wood's  Fasti,  vol.  I. — Dodd's  Church  Hist.— Coote's  Catalogrueof  Civilhnj. 
— Strype*8  Cranmer^  p.  9.— Camden's  Annals  of  Eliz.  sub  anno  \55S. — Fullers 

264  C  A  R  N  E  A  D  E  S. 

been  Ijprn  in  the  third  year  of  the  14 1st  olympiad,  orB.  C- 
214.     He  was  first  instructed  by  Diogenes  the  stoic,  and 
afterwards  becoming  a  member  of  the  academy,   he  at- 
tended upon  the  lectures  of  Egesinus,  and  by  assiduous 
study  acquired  great  skill  and  readiness  in  the  method  of 
disputing,    which  Arcesilaus  had  introduced.     He   suc- 
ceeded Egesinus  in  the  chair,  and  restored  the  declining 
reputation  of  the  academy.     With  Diogenes  the   stoic, 
find  Critolaus  the  peripatetic,  he  was  sent  on  an  embassy 
from  Athens  to  Rome,  complaining  of  the  severity  of  a 
fine  inflicted  upop  the  Athenians,  under  the  authority  of 
the  Romans,,  by  their  neighbours  the  Sicyonians,  for  hav-, 
ing  laid  waste  Oropus,  a  town  in  Bceotia.     The  three  phi- 
losophers whom  they  entrusted  with  their  embassy,  whilst 
they  were  in  Rome,  gave  the  Roman  people  many  speci- 
mens of  Grecian  learning  and  eloquence,  with  which  till 
then  they  had  been  unacquainted.     Carneades  excelled  in 
the  vehement  and  rapid,   Critolaus   in  the  correct    and 
elegant,  and  Diogenes  in  the  simple  and  modest  kind  of 
eloquence.     Carneades  particularly  attracted  the  attention 
and  admiration  of  his  new  auditors,  by  the  sul^tlety  of  his 
reasoning,  and  the  fluency  of  his  language.     Before  Galba^ 
and  Cato  the  censor,  be  harangued,  with  great  variety   of 
thought,  and  copiousness  of  diction,  in  praise  of  justice. 
The  next  day,  to  establish  his  doctrine  of  the  uncertainty 
of  human  knowledge,  he  undertook  to  refute  all  his  former 
arguments.     Many  were  captivated  by  his  eloquence ;  but 
Cato,  apprehensive  lest  the  Roman  youth  should  lose  their 
military  character  in  the  pursuit  of  Grecian  learning,  per- 
suaded the  senate  tp  send  back  these  philosophers,  without 
further  delay,  to  their  own  schools. 

Carneades  obtained  such  high  reputation  in  bis  school, 
that  other  philosophers,  when  they  had  dismissed  their 
scholars,  frequently  came  to  hear  him.  In  application  to 
study  he  was  indefatigable.  So  intensely  did  he  fix  his 
thoughts  upon  the  subject  of  his  meditations,  that  even  at 
meals  he  frequently  forgot  to  take  the  food  which  was  set 
before  him.  He  strenuously  opposed  the  stoic  Chrysippus, 
,  but  was  always  ready  to  do  justice  to  his  merit.  He  used 
to  say,  that  if  there  were  no  Chrysippus,  there  would  be 
no  Carneades;  intimating,  that  he  derived  much  of  his 
reputation  as  a  disputant  from  the  abilities  of  his  opponent. 
His  voice  was  remarkably  strong,  and  he  had  such  a  habit 
of  vociferation,  that  the  master,  of  the  gymnastic  exarcisesi 

C  A  R  N  £  A  D  E  S.  265 

in  the  public  field,  desired  him  not  to  speak  so  lou4:  in 
return,  he  requested  some  measure  to  regulate  his  voice  ; 
to  which  the  master  very  judiciously  replied,  you  have  a 
measure,  the  number  of  your  hearers.  As  Carneades  grew 
old,  he  discovered  strong  apprehensions  of  dying;  and 
frequently  lamented,  that  the  same  nature  which  had  com- 
posed the  human  frame  could  dissolve  it.  He  paid  the 
last  debt  to  nature  in  the  eighty-fifth,  or,  according  to 
Cicero  and  Valerius  Maximus,  in  the  ninetieth  year  of 
his  age. 

It  was  the  doctrine  of  the  new  academy,  that  the  senses, 
the  understanding,  and  the  imagination,  frequently  deceive 
us,  and  tlierefore  cannot  be  infallible  judges  of  truth;  but 
that,  from  the  impressions  which  we  perpeive  to  be  pro- 
duced on  the  mind,  by  means  of  the  senses,  we  infer  ap- 
pearances  of  truth,  or  probabilities.     These  impressions 
Carneades  called  phantasies,  or  images.     He  maintained, 
that  they  do  not  always  correspond  to  the  real  nature  of 
things,  and  that  there  is  no  infallible  method  of  determin- 
ing when  they  are  true  or  false,  and  consequently  that  they 
afford  no  certain  criterion  of  truth.     Nevertheless,   with 
respect  to  the  conduct  of  life,  and  the  pursuit  of  hap- 
piness, Carneades  held,  that  probable  appearances  are  a 
sufficient  guide,  because  it  is  unreasonable  not  to  allow 
some  degree  of  credit  to  those  witnesses  who  commonly 
give  a  true  report.     Probabilities  he  divided  into  three 
classes;  simple,  uncontradicted,  and  confirmed  by  accu- 
rate examination.     The  lowest  degree  of  probability  takes 
place,  where  the  mind,  in  the  casual  occurrence  of  any 
single  image,  perceives  in  it  nothing  contrary  to  truth  and 
nature ;   the  second  degree  of  probability  arises,  vwhen 
contemplating  any  object  in  connection  with  all  the  cir- 
cumstances associated  with  it,  we  discover  no  appearance 
of  inconsistency,  or  incongruity,  to  lead  us  to  suspect  that 
our  senses  have  given  a  false  report ;  as,  when  we  con- 
clude, from  comparing  the  image  of  any  individual  man 
with  our  remembrance  of  that  man,  that  he  is  the  person 
we  supposed  him  to  be.     The  highest  degree  of  proba- 
bility is  produced,  when,  after  an  accurate  examination  of 
every  circumstance  which  might  be  supposed  to  create 
uncertainty,  we  are  able  to  discover  no  fallacy  in  the  re- 
port of  our  senses.     The  judgments  arising  from   this 
operation  of  the  mind  are,  according  to  the  doctrine  of  the 
new  academy,  not  science,  but  opinion,  which  is  all  th^ 


knowledge  that  the  human  mind  is  capable  of  attaining! 
Carneadesi  as  Cicero  has  related  at  large,  strenuously  op- 
posed the  doctrine  of  the  Stoics  concerning  the  gods,  and 
was  likewise  desirous  of  refuting  their  doctrine  concerning 
fete.  On  this  subject,  he  assumed  on  the  ground  of  eiL- 
perience,  the  existence  of  a  self-determining  power  in  man, 
and  hence  inferred  that  all  things  did  not  happen,  as  the 
stoics  maintained,  in  a  necessary  series  of  causes  and 
effects,  and  consequently,  that  it  is  impossible  for  ths  gods 
to  predict  events  dependent  on  the  will  of  man.  As  the 
foundation  of  morals,  he  taught,  that  the  ultimate  end  of 
life  is  the  enjoyment  of  those  things,  towards  which  we  are 
directed  by  the  principles  of  nature.  Such,  according  to 
Brucker,  is  the  general  idea  which  the  ancients  have  left 
w  concerning  the  doctrine  of  Carneades  :  but  after  all,  it 
DDust  be  owned,  that  his  real  tenets  are  not  certainly  known. 
Even  his  immediate  successor,  Clitomachus,  confessed  that 
he  was  never  able  to  discover  them.' » 

CARO  (Hannibal),  an  Italian  poet,  was  born  in  1507, 
at  Civita  Nova,  in  the  march  of  Ancona,  of  poor  parents. 
After  his  first  studies  he  obtained  the  patronage  of  the 
illustrious  house  of  Gaddi  in  Florence,  a  branch  of  which, 
John  Gaddi,  legate  of  Romania,  appointed  him  secretary 
of  legation,  and  retained  him  in  his  service,  with  some 
interval,  until  his  death.  On  this  event  Caro  determined 
on  a  life  of  independence ;  but  unable  to  resist  the  liberal 
offers  of  Peter  Loiiis  Farnese,  accepted  the  place  of  con- 
fidential secretary  in  1543.  While  with  him,  Caro  had  an 
opportunity  of  forming  a  very  fine  collection  of  medals, 
and  wrote  a  treatise  on  the  subject.  Such  was  his  repu- 
tation tit  this  time  that  Onufrius  Panvinius  dedicated  his 
work  "  De  Antiquis  Romanorum  nominibus"  to  him,  as  the 
ablest  antiquary  in  Italy.  With  the  study  of  medals,  Caro 
united  that  of  the  sciences,  the  belles  lettres,  languages, 
and  the  Italian  particularly,  which  owes  great  obligations  to 
him.  He  composed  in  that  language  several  works  of  the 
light  kind,  such  as  the  "  Ficheide  del  P.  Siceo  (i.  e.  Francis 
Maria  Molza)  col  Commento  di  Ser  Agresto  (Annibal  Caro) 
sopra  la  prima  Ficata,'*  1539,  4to  ;  "  La  diceria  de  nasi  ;'* 
and  a  prose  comedy,  "  Gli  Straccioni,*'  Venice,  1582, 
12mo.  These  works  procured  him  the  friendship  of  per- 
sons of  rank  at  Rome,  and  the  esteem  of  the  learned 

I  Geo.  Dict.^— Bruoker. 

C  A  R  O.  267 

-throughout  Italy.  All  the  academies  were  opened  to  him, 
and  the  mo^t  celebrated  poets  acknowledged  hinsi  as  their 
master.  Sonnets  being  then  the  fashionable  poetry  of 
Italy,  Caro  acquired  great  reputation  by  his  performances 
in  this  style,  and  was  cojnpared  to  Petrarch  and  Bembo. 
Nor  were  his  talents  less  conspicuous  as  a  negociator.  In 
154-4  he  executed  a  very  important  commission  of  this 
kind,  with  which  be  was  intrusted  by  the  house  of  Farnese 
at  the  court  of  Charles  V.  After  the  death  of  his  patron 
Peter  Lewis  Farnese,  the  cardinals  Alexander  and  Ranu- 
tius,  and  the  duke  Octavius  Farnese,  Vied  with  each  other 
in  presenting  him  with  ecclesiastical  preferments,  and  even 
with  the  order  of  Malta,  of  which  he  was  made  commander. 
It  was  on  this  occasion,  in  order  to  pay  his  court  to  cardi- 
nal Alexander  Farnese,  that  he  composed  an  ode  in  honour 
of  the  royal  family  of  France,  which  was  almost  universally 
applauded.  Castelvetro  the  critic,  however,  attacked  it 
with  much  asperity,  and  Caro  answered  him  with  spirit ;  / 

but  the  controversy  unfortunately  became  personal,  and 
Caro,  in  1548,  published  a  gross  and  scandalous  attack  oa 
Castelvetro,  and  even  denounced  him  to  the  inquisition, 
from  which  he  narrowly  escaped,  as  will  be  noticed  in  his' 
life.     After  this  dispute  which  did  so  little  honour  to  either 
party,  Caro  resumed  his  studies,    and  at  the  request  of 
cardinal  St.  Croix,  afterwards  pope  Marcellus  II.  translated 
some  parts  of  the  worjcs  of  Gregory  Nazianzen  and  St, 
Cyprian.     He  likewise  translated  Aristotle's  Rhetoric,  but 
infirmities  coming  upon  him,  and  being  tired  of  a  court 
Jife,  he  requested  permission  of  bis  patrons  to  retire,  and 
the  cardinal  Ranutius  gave  him  a  small  house  at  Frescati, 
to  which  he  removed  his  library.     In  this  retreat  he  medi- 
tated the  composition  of  an  epic  po*m,  but  was  diverted 
from  the  design  by  his  friends,  and  made  a  translation  of 
Virgil  into  bhmk  verse,  which  has  been  very  much  ad- 
mired.    He  had  scarcely  finished  this  when  he  died,  Nov. 
21,  1566.     After  his  death  his  works  were  published  by 
bis  nephews ;  his  poetry  and  the  translations  frOm  Gregory 
of  Nazianzen  and  St.  Cyprian  in  1568;  Aristptle*s  Rhe- 
toric in  1570;  and  his  letters,  vol.  I.  and  II.  in   1572  and 
1575,  much  admired  for  ease  and  elegance.     The  trans- 
lation of  Virgil  was  not  published  until  1581.     One  of  the 
best  editions  is  that  of  Paris,   1765,  2  vols.  8vo;  and  in 
1725,  his  "  Letters"  were  reprinted  at  Padua,  with  a  life 
of  the  author,  by  Alexander  Zalioli,  and  notes  by  the  edi- 

268  CAR  O. 

tor^  2  vols.  8vo ;  but  the  most  complete  edition  is  in  6  voldl 
Padua,  1765.  Caro  also  translated  the  Pastorals  of  Lon-, 
gus,  of  which  Bodoni  printed  a  6ne  edition  at  Parma  in 
1786,  4to.  Among  his  unpublished  works  are  a  translation 
of  Aristotle's  "  History  of  Animals,"  and  his  treatise  above 
mentioned  on  medals.  ^ 

f  BENSTEIN),  one  of  the  reformers,  was  born  at  Carlolostadt, 
a  town  in  Franconia,  founded  by  Charles  the  Bald  in  the 
year  875.  The  time  of  his  birth  is  not  stated.  He  was 
partly  educated  at  home,  but  studied  afterwards  in  various 
celebrated  schools,  and  after  going  through  his  divinity 
course  at  ][lome,  was  admitted  doctor  of  divinity  at  Wittem- 
berg  in  ]  502,  and  was  appointed  professor  of  the  same, 
and  held  a  canoury  and  archdeaconry.  In  1512,  while  be 
was  dean  of  the  college,  Luther  was  admitted  to  his  doc- 
tor's degree,  which  appears  to  have  led  to  their  intimacy, 
as  in  1517,  we  find  Carolostadt  one  of  Luther's  most  zealous 
adherents  in  opposing  the  corruptions  of  popery.  In  1519, 
he  held  a  disputation  at  Leipsic  with  Eckius,  on  free  will, 
in  the  presence  of  George  duke  of  Saxony,  ^Luther,  and 
Melancthon,  and  acquitted  himself  with  so  much  credit, 
that  Eckius  could  think  of  no  other  retaliation  than  by  ap- 
plying to  the  court  of  Rome,  which  suspended  Carolostadt 
irom  all  communion  with  the  church. 

Thus  far  Carolostadt  appears'in  a  light  which  was  accept* 
able  at  least  to  the  friends  of  the  reformation ;  but  about 
1521,  when  Luther  was  in  retirement,  he  betrayed  a  vio- 
lence of  temper  which  has  been  equally  censured  by  catho- 
lics^ and  protestants.  Not  content  with  promoting  in  a 
legal  and  quiet  way  the  auspicious  beginnings  of  reforma- 
tion which  had  already  appeared  at  Wittemberg,  in  the 
gradual,  omission  and  rejection  of  the  private  mass  and 
other  popish  supierstitions,  he  headed  a  multitude  of  un- 
thinking impetuous  youths,  inflamed  their  minds  by  popu- 
lar harangues,  and  led  them  on  to  actions  the  most  extra- 
vagant and  indefensible.  They  entered  the  great  church 
of  All  Saints,  broke  in  pieces  the  crucifixes  and  x>ther 
images,  aqd  threw  down  the  altars.  He  also  went  so  far 
as  to  assert  that  human  learning  was  useless,  if  not  inju- 
rious to  a  student  of  the  scriptures ;  frequented  the  shops 
of  the  lowest  mechanics,  and  consulted  them  about  tha 

1  Aforeri. — Diet.  Hist-^Haym  Bibl.  Italiana. 

C  A  R  O  L  X)  S  T  A  D  T.  263 

meaning  of  the  scriptures.  He  would  be  called  no  longer 
by  the  appellation  of  Doctor,  or  any  other  honourable 
title,  but  emplojfed  himself  in  rustic  occupations^  and  main- 
tained that  thinking  persons  stood  in  no  need  of  learning, 
and  had  better  labour  with  their  hands.  In  consequence 
of  such  example  and  conversation,  the  young  academics  of 
Wittemberg  left  the  univeirsity,  and  ceased  to  pursue  their 
studies,  and  even  the  schools  of  the  boys  were  deserted. 
Such  was  his  pride  at  the  same  time,  that  he  avowed  to 
Melancthon  that  he  wished  to  be  as  great  and  as  much  ' 
thought  of  as  Luther. 

In  1524,  when  the  controversy  took  place  among  the 
friends  of  the  reformation  respecting  the  body  and  blood 
of  Christ  in  the  eucharist,  Carolostadt  became  the  open 
antagonist  of  Luther,  and  approached  nearer  to  the  senti- 
ments held  now  by  the  majority  of  protestants ;  but  his 
previous  intempevate  conduct  at  Wittemberg  had  so  lower- 
ed his  reputation,  tB^t  he  found  it  expedient  to  retire  to 
Orlamund,  a  small  town  of  Thuringia  ii^  the  electorate  of 
Saxony,  where,  without  legitimate   appointment,  though 
with  the  consent  of  the  inhabitants,  he  became  their  spi- 
ritual pastor.     Here  he  not  only  soon  broached  his  opinion 
of  the  eucharist,  but  raised  new  disturbances  by  bis  furious 
discourses  concerning  the  abolition  of  images.    He  appears 
also  to  have  boasted  of  having  been  favoured  with  super- 
natural communications,  and  was  represented  as  a  partizan 
of  the  turbulent  fanatic  Thomas  Munzer.     The  university 
of  Wittemberg  summoned  him  to  return  back,  and  dis- 
charge in  person  the  ordinary  duties  enjoined  him  by  the 
statutes  in  their  school  and  church.     Carolostadt  promised 
to  obey,  provided  he  could  obtain  the  leave  of  his  pa- 
rishioners of  Orlamund,  whom,  however,  at  the  same  time 
he  is  said  to  have  excited  to  arrogate  to  themselves  the 
divine  right  of  appointing  their  own  pastor.     The  elector 
of  Saxony  was  so  disgusted  with  the  insolent  letters  which 
they  wrote  on  this  occasion,  treating  the  academical  claim 
as  a  papistical  encroachment,  that  he  peremptorily  com- 
manded both  them  and  their  teacher  to  submit  to  the  legal 
authority  of  the  university  and  the  chapter.     Luther  was 
also  sent  to  Orlamund ;  but  this  appears  to  have  only  in- 
flamed Carolostadt's  ^eal  to  a  greater  height  of  imprudence,' 
and  his  violent  proceedings  at  last  provoked  the  elector 
and  his  brother  to  expel  Carolostadt  from  their  territories. 
Carolostadt,  after  his  departure,  Wrote  letters  to  his  people, 

270  C  A  H  O  L  a  S  T  A  -D  T. 

which  were  read  in  full  congregation  upon  the  toll  of  the 
bell,  and  were  subscribed  thus,  "  Andreas^Bodenstenius 
Carolostadt,  unheard,  unconvicted,  banished  by  Maftia 
Luther.^'  Mosheim  and  bis  translator  have  yielded  too 
easily  to  this  calumny  against  Luther,  which  appears  to 
have  been  wholly  unmerited  on  the  part  of  that  great  re* 
former,  who  about  five  months  afterwards  interceded, 
although  ineffectually,  for  him. 

Carolostadt  now  wandered  from  place  to  place  through 
the  higher  Germauy,  and  at  length  made  a  pause  at  Ro- 
tenburgh,  where,   as  usual,  he  soon  raised  tumults,  and 
incited  the  people  to  pull  down  the  statues  sind  paiiitings. 
When  the  seditious  faction  of  the  peasants,  with  Munzer 
their  ringleader,  was  effectually  suppressed,  lie  became  in 
the  greatest  difficulties,  and  even  in  danger  of  his  life  from 
his  supposed  connection  with  these  enthusiastic  rebels,  and 
he  narrowly  escaped,  through  being  let  down  by  the  wall 
of  the  town  in  a  basket.     Thus  reduced  to  the  last  extre- 
mities,   he   and   his  wife  incessantly   intreateJ  both  the 
elector  and  Luther  that  they  might  be  allowed  to  return 
into  their  own  country.     He  said,  he  could  clear  himself 
of  having  had  any  concern  in  the  rebellion ;  and  if  not,  he 
would  cheerfully  undergo  any  punishment  that  could  he 
inflicted  upon  him.     With  this  view  he  wrote  a  little  tract, 
in  which  he  takes  much  pains  to  justify  himself  from  tha 
charge  of  sedition  :  and  he  sent  a  letter  likewise  to  Luther, 
in  which  he  earnestly  begs  his  assistance  in  the  publishing 
of  the  tract,  as  well  as  in  the  more  general  design  of  estab- 
lishing his  innocence.     Luther  immediately  published  Ca- 
Tolostadt's  letter,  and  called  on  the  magistrates  and  on  the 
people  to  give  him  a  fair  hearing.     In  this  he  succeeded ; 
and  Carolostadt  was  recalled  about  the  autumn  of  I525y 
and  then  made  a  public  recantation  of  what'hef  had  ad- 
vanced on  the  sacrament,  a  condescension  which  did  not 
procure  a  complete*  reconciliation  between  him  and  the^ 
other  reformers,  and  indeed  affords  but  a  sorry  proof  of 
his  consistency.    We  find  Carolostadt,  after  this,  at  Zurich 
and  at  Basil,  where  he  was  appointed  pastor  and  professor 
of  divinity,  and  where  he  died  with  the  warmest  effusTonft 
of  piety  and  resignation,  Dec.  25,  1541,  or  1543.     He  was 
a  man  of  considerable  learning,  but  his  usefulness  both  a$. 
a  reformer  and  writer  was  perpetually  obstructed  by  the 
turbulence  of  his  temper,  and  his  misguided  zeal  in  endea-i^ 
vouring  to  promote  that  by  violence  which  the  other  re« 


formers  projected  only  through  the  medium  of  reason  and 
argument.  That  he  should  be  censured  by  Moreri,  Bos- 
suet,  and  other  Roman  catholic  writers,  is  not  surprising,  for 
be  afforded  too  much  ground  of  accusation  ;  but  it  is  more 
inexcusable  in  Mosheim,  Beausobre,  and  some  other  eccle- 
siastical historians,  to  throw  the  blame  of  his  banishment 
and  restless  life  on  Luther,  and  highly  absurd  to  insinuate 
that  the  latter  was  jealous  of  his  fame.  The  comparative 
merits  of  the  conduct  of  Luther  and  Carolostadt  through*- 
out  their  whole  connection^  have  been  examined  with  great 
candour  and  perspicuity  by  Milner. — One  singularity  in 
Carolostadt's  character  still  remains  to  be  noticed,  namely,^ 
that  he  was  the  first  protestant  divine  who  took  a  wife.  Hia 
works  were  numerous,  but^are  now  fallen  into  oblivion. 
His  followrers,  who  for  some  time  retained  the  name  <st 
Carolostadtians,  were  also  denominated  Sacramentarians^ 
4md  agree  in  most  things  with  the  Zuinglians.^ 

CARPENTER  (George  LoRDJ,l?aron  of  Killaghy  in  the 
kingdom  of  Ireland,  descended  from  an  ancient  and  good 
family  in  Herefordshire,  was  born  at  Pitchers  Ocul  in  that 
county,  February  10,  1657.  His  father  was  Mr.  Warncomb 
Carpenter,  sixth  son  of  Thomas  Carpenter,  esq.  of  the 
Homme  or  Holme,  in  the  parish  of  Dilwyn  in  Hereford* 
shire.  His  mother  was  daughter  to  Mr.  Taylor  of  the  same 
county,  and  widow  to  Mr.  John  Hill,  by  whom  she  had 
one  son.  George  lord  Carpenter  was  the  youngest  of  seven 
children,  whom  his  father  left  at  his  death,  and  was  edu-* 
cated  at  a  private  school  in  the  country.  In  1672  he  went 
into  the  third  troop  of  guards  as  a  private  gentleman,  and 
was  afterwards  appointed  quarter-master  to  the  regiment 
of  horse  commanded  by  the  earl  of  Peterborough,  and.  went 
through  the  several  posts  of  cornet,  lieutenant,  captain, 
&c,  till  he  was  advanced  to  that  of  lieutenant-colonel  of 
the  regiment,  in  which  commission  he  continued  thirteen 
years^  though  the  regiment  was  almost  constantly  in  ser- 
vice. In  1693  he  married  Alice,  daughter  of  William  lord 
viscount  Charlemont,  who  having  a  considerable  jointure 
from  her  first  husband  James  Margetson,  esq.  by  the  feale 
of  part  of  it  for  her  life  he  was  enabled  to  purchase  the 
regiment  of  dragoons  which  he  commanded  till  his  death. 
He  served  in  all  the  first  wars  in  Ireland  and  Flanders,  and 

^  Melchior  Adam. — ^Freheri  Theatrum. — Moiheim :  but  principally  Milner'g 
Church  Hrstory,  vol.  V.  p.  602,  773,  794,  809.— -A  Life  of  bim  wai  published  i«^ 
Ci«mau  by  Fueslifli  Leipfic,  177^  8ro.-^S%^i  Onomast. 


the  last  in  Spftio^  with  ttablemished  honour  and  reputation, 
and  distinguished  himself  to  great  advantage  by  his  cou- 
rage, conduct,  and  humanity.  At  the  unfortunate  batde 
of  Almanza  in  Spain  he  commanded  the  rear,  and  brought 
up  the  last  squaulron  in  the  retreat,  which  saved  the  bag<- 
gage  of  the  army.  At  the  battle  of  Almenara  he  was 
wounded,  but  received  the  compliments  of  Charles  then 
king  of  Spain,  and  afterwards  emperor  of  Germany,  for 
his  conduct  in  the  engagement.  He  was  again  desperately 
wounded  in  defending  the  breach  at  Britmega  s^ainst  tbe 
whole  French  and  Spanish  army,  where  they  were  at  last 
.taken  prisoners.  In  1705  he  was  made  a  brigadier-general; 
in  1708  major-general;  and  in  17 10  lieutenant-general.  In 
17 14  he  was  chosen  member  of  parliament  for  Whitchurch 
Jn  Hampshire ;  and  the  year  following  was  appointed  en- 
,voy  extraordinary  and  plenipotentiary  to  the  emperor, 
whose  personal  regard  and  esteem  he  had  gained  while  he 
serVed  under  that  prince  in  Spain.  But  tbe  rebellion 
breaking  out  that  year,  he  was  sent  into  the  North,  where 
he  not  only  prevented  the  rebels  from  seizing  Newcastle, 
and  inarching  into  Yorkshire,  but  having  overtaken  them 
at  Preston,  where  they  were  invested  by  major-general 
Wills,  he,  by  altering  the  disposition  which  that  general 
had  madQ,  cut  oiF  entirely  both  their  escape  and  their  re- 
ceiving any  supplies,  which  immediately  reduced  them  to 
a  capitulation.  In  the  beginning  of  February  1715-16  he 
sent  a  challenge  to  general  Wills,  but  they  were  prevented 
from  fighting  by  the  interposition  of  the  dukes  of  Marlbo- 
rough and  Montague.  In  1716  he  was  appointed  governor 
of  Minorca,  and  commander  in  chief  of  his  majesty's  forces 
in  Scotland;  and  in  1719  was  created  baron  Carpenter  of 
KiUagby  iti  the  kingdom  of  Ireland.  In  1722  he  was  cho- 
sen member  of  parliament  for  the  city  of  Westminster,  and 
upon  all  occasions  voted  for  what  he  thought  to  be  the 
real  good  of  his  country,  without  any  regard  to  party.  la 
October  1731  being  near  seventy-four  years  of  age,  he 
began  to  labour  under  the  failure  of  appetite,  and  h9,ving 
bad  a  fall,  by  which  his  teeth  were  loosened  on  that  side 
which  had  not  been  wounded,  he  ^as  capable  of  taking 
but  little  nourishment,  which  together  with  old  age,  and  a 
decay  of  nature,  put  an  end  to  his  life  February  10, 1731-2. 
He  was  interred  near  bis  beloved  wife  in  the  chancel  of  the 
parish  church  of  Owselbury  in  Hampshire,  where  a  monu- 


ment  of  marble  was  erected  to  \A%  meniory  by  bis  son,  thd 
kte  lord  Carpenter,  who  was  the  only  issue  he  left. 

General  Guest  used  to  flatter  lord  Carpenter  on  account 
of  his  conduct  at  the  battle  of  Almanza,  and  to  put  him  in 
mind  particularly  of  his  horse  Crop,  which  he  rode  in  that 
battle,  and  his  lordship  was  not  a  little  pleased  with  being 
reminded  of  a  circumstance  that  brought  fully  to  his  recol- 
lection an  event  which  he  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
glorious  actions  of  his  life.  It  has  been  said,  that  lord 
Carpenter^s  chief  merit  consisted  in  his  skill  as  a  quarter- 
master-general, and  in  his  industry  in  providing  for  the 
subsistence  of  the  troops. 

Mr.  Jonathan  Richardson,  jun.  as  an  instance  that  th^ 
poor  never  fairly  forgive  the  rich  their  conveniencies  and 
superiority,  but  seize  every  opportunity  of  exerting  their 
own  pride,  and  little  temporary  boast  of  power,  relates 
that  lord  Carpenter,  at  a  Westminster  election,  where  the 
event  of  the  contest  was  very  doubtful,  could  not  prevail 
^Q  four  sturdy  butchers  to  poll  as  he  would  have  them,  but 
by  letting  them  ride  in  his  coach,  whilst  he  himself  walked 
at  the  horses*  heads  afid  led  them.  ^ 

CARPENTER  (Nathaniel),  an  English  clergyman  of 
great  learning  and  parts,-  was  born  in  the  parsonage-house 
of  North- Lew  (not  Northlegh,  as  Wood  says),  iiearHather- 
legh,  in  Devonshire,  Feb.  7,  1588.  His  father,  John  Car- 
|>enter,  a  native  of  Cornwall,  was  at  that  time  rector  of 
this  place,  and  author  of  some  sermons  enumerated  by 
Wood.  His  son,  after  a  private  education,  was  entered  of 
Edmund  hall,  Oxford  ;  and  in  1607,  by  the  casting  vot^ 
of  the  vice-chancellor,  was  elected  fellow  of  Exeter  college, 
to  which  he  removed,  and  became  distinguished  as  alo^ 
gician,  mathematician,  and  philosopher.  He  took  his  de- 
gree of  B.  A.  in  1610,  of  M.  A.  in  1613,  and  of  B.  D.  ill 
.1620,  and  soon  after  completing  his  master's  degree,  en- 
tered into  holy  orders,  and  had  the  reputation  of  a  very 
{>opular  divine.     About  1626  he  became  acquainted  with 

^  1  Gen.  Dict.^-Biog.  Brit. — Richarclsoniana,  p.  §59.  8ae  also  an  aecovnl  of 
his  conduct  in  Scotland  in  "  A  true  relation  of  the  Pursuit  of  the  Rebels  in  the 
Korth.  and  of  their  Surrender  at  Preston  to  lieiitenant*genaral  Carpenter,  com* 

ttonant-ipeneral  Carpenter  and  lAaj^r-senera)  WHls*"    See  likewise  «*  The  Poll<» 
ical  SUte  of  Great  3nUia''  for  F«h.  I71S.1«,  v«l«  ^.  pp.  119  e^  if  qq. 

Vol.  Vllf.  .      T  '       ' 


archbishop  Usher,  then  at  Oxford,  who  admired  his  talents 
and  piety,  took  bim  with  bim  to  Ireland,  and  made  him 
one   of  bis  chaplains,  and   tutor  to   the  king^s  wards  in 
Dublin.     These  king^s  wards  were  the  sons  of  Roman  ca- 
tholics who  had  fled  for  their  religion,  leaving  them  in 
their  minority ;  and   JVlr.  Carpenter's  charge  was  to  bring 
them  up  in  the  protestant  religion.     Soon  after   he  came 
to  Ireland  he  was  advanced  to  a  deanery,  but  what  deanery 
is  not  mentioned.     He  died  at  Dublin  in  1635,  according 
to  Fuller,  or  in  1628,  according  to  Wood.     Dr.  Robert 
Usher,  afterwards  bishop  of  Kildare,  and  brother  to  the 
archbishop,  preached  his  funeral  sermon,  and  gave  a  high 
character  of  him,  which  seems  to  be  confirmed  by  all  his 
contemporaries.     He  published,    1.  ^'  Philosophia  libera^ 
tripUci  exercitationum  decade  proposita,"  Francfort,  162 1, 
under  the  name  of  Cosmopolitanus ;  London,   1622,  Svo, 
with  additions,  Oxford,  1636,  167o.     This  was  considered 
as  a  very  ingenious  work,  and  one  of  the  earliest  attacks 
on  the  Aristotelian  philosophy.     Brucker,  who  has  giyeu 
our   author  a  place  among  the  "  modern  attempters  to 
improve  natural  philosophy,''  adds^  that  he  has  advanced 
inany  paradoxical  notions,  sufficiently  remote  from  the  rer 
ceived  doctrines   of  the  schools.     2.  "  Geography,"    in 
two   books,  Oxford,    1625,    and  corrected   and  enlarged 
1635,  4to.     In  the  latter  part  he  maintains  that  mountain* 
ous  people  are  more  stout,  warlike,  and  generous  than  the 
inhabitants  of  flat  countries,  and  supports  this  doctrine  by 
an  appeal  to  his  countrymen  in  Devonshire.     3.  "  Achito- 
phel ;  or  the  picture  of  a  wicked  Politician,  in  three  parts,'* 
Dublin,  1627,  8vo,  Oxford,  1628,  4to,  1640,  12mo.  These 
three  parts  are  t]^e  substance  of  three  sermons  on  2  Sam« 
xvii.  23.  which  he  had  formerly  preached  at  Oxford.    Sonae 
objections  beins^  made  to  several  passages  against  (not,  as 
Mr.  Malone  says,    in  favour  of)    Arminianism    (for  Car- 
penter was  a  Calvinist),  the  book  was  castrated  by  arch* 
bishop  Laud  in  various  places.     "  The  scene,"  says  the 
writer  in  a  dedication  to  archbishop  Usher,  **  wherein  I 
liave  bounded  my  discourse,  presents  unto  your  grace  a 
sacred  tragedy,  consisting  of  four  chief  actors,  viz.  David, 
an  anointed  king;  Absalom,  an  ambitious  prince;  Acbi- 
tophel,  a  wicked  politician  ;  and  Cushay,  a  loyal  subject : 
9,  passage  of  history,  for  variety  pleasant,  for  instructioa 
useful,   for  event  admirable.'*     He  inveighs    in    general 
against  the  inordinate  ambition  and  subde  practices  of 

C  A  R  P  E  N  T  E  R.  il^ 

dourts'and  courtiers.  Mr.  Malone  takes  more  pains  than 
necessary  to  prove  that  Dryden  adopted  no  hint  from  it 
for  bis  "  Absalom  and  Achitophei."  4.  "  Chorazin  and 
Bethsaida's  woe  and  warning,"  Oxford,  1640.  He  wrote 
also  a  "  Treatise  of  Optics,"  of  which  there  were  some 
imperfect  copies  in  MSS.  but  the  original  was  by  some 
means  lost.  * 

CARPENTER  (Richard),  a  divine  and  poet  of  the  se- 
venteenth century,    was  educated  at  Eton   college,    and 
thence  elected  scholar  of  King's  college  in  Cambridge,  in 
1622.     About   three   years  after,   he   left   England,    and 
studied  in  Flanders,  Artois,  France,  Spain,  and  Ijtaly ;  and 
at  length  received  holy  orders  at  Rome  from  the  hands  of 
the  pope's  substitute.     Soon  after',  having  taken  upon  him 
the  order  of  St.  Benedict,  he  was  sent  into  England  to 
.make    proselytes;    in    which    employment    he  continued 
somewhat  above  a  year,  then  returned  to  the  protestant  re- 
ligion, and,  through  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury's  in- 
terest, obtained  the  small  vicarage  of  Poling  by  the  sea- 
side, near  Arundel  castle,  in  Sussex.     Here  he  was  ex- 
posed to  the  insults  of  the  Romish  party,  particularly  jone 
Francis  a  S.  Clara,  living  in  that  neighbourhood  under  the 
name  of  Hunt,  who  used  to  expose  him  to  scorn  before 
bis  parishioners.     In  the  time,  however,  of  the  civil  war, 
he   quitted   his   living,  retired   to   Paris,  and   reconciling 
himself  to  the  Romish  church,  he  made  it  his  business  to 
rail  against  the  protestants.     Afterwards,  returning  to  Eng- 
land, he  settled  at  Aylesbury  in  Buckinghamshire,  where 
he  had  some  relations ;  and,  being  once  more  a  protestant, 
he  would  often  preach  there  in  a  very  fantastical  manner, 
to  the  great  mirth  of  his  auditors.     He  was  living  there  in 
1 670 ;  but  before  his  death  he  returned  a  third  time  to 
popery,  causing  his  pretended  wife  to  embrace  that  per- 
suasion ;  and   in   that  faith  he  died.     He  was  generally 
esteemed  a  man  of  an  absurd  character,  one  that  changed 
his  opinions  as  often  as  his  cloaths,  and,  for  his  juggles 
and  tricks  in  religion,  a  theological  mountebank. 
'    He  published  the  following  sermons:   1.  "  The  perfect 
Law  of  God,  being  a  sermon 'and  no  sermon,  preached 
and  yet  not  preached,"  1652,  8vo.     2.  **  Astrology  proved 
harmless,  useful,  pious;  on  Gen.  i.  14.  'And  let  theni  be 

.  »  Prinee's  Worthiai  of  Devon.-i^uUer's  WorthieB.->Ath.  Ok  tot.  I.— 'Ma* 
loae'g  Dryden^  vol,  L  p.  139. 

T  2 

876.  e  A  R  P  E'n  T  E  R. 

tor  8ign$%*'  Lond.  1657,  4to;  dedicated  to  Elias  Aslmiole* 
At  the  end  of  the  epistle  dedicatory  is  Richard  Carpenter^s 
picturei  with  a  face  looking  towards  himi  out  of  the  mouth 
of  which  issues  9.  ^erpeOt,  and  out  of  the  serpent's  mouth 
i^re.     Underneath   are  written  these  words:  '*  Ricardus 
Carpenterus  porcello  cuidam  Geraseuorum,  scilicet  in  om- 
nia prcecipiti,  fluctibusque   devoto,    cidem   porco  loquaci 
pariter  et  minadi  mendacique  indicit  sileutium,  et  obmu- 
tescit."     3.  "  Rome  in   her  fruits,"  preached   the  1st  of 
November  1662,  near  the  Standard  in  Cheapside;  in  an- 
swer to  a  pamphlet  entitled  Reasons  why  the  Roman  Ca- 
thoiics  should  not  be   persecuted/'  Lond.  1663,  4to,  on 
IVIatth.  vii.  16.     There  is  extant  by  the  same  author,  a  trea- 
tise entitled  "  Experience,  History,  and  Divinity,  in  five 
books,"  Lond.  1642,  8vo,  dedicated  to  the  parliament  then 
fitting ;  with  his  picture  before  it.     This  book  was  repub- 
lished in  1648,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Downfall  of  An- 
tichrist.'*    It  contains  several  particulars  of  his  personal 
history,  and  e^'poses  many  of  the  practices  of  the  Romish 
missionaries,  but  the  style,  as  in  all  his  works,  is  quaint 
and  extravagant.     Granger  thinks  he  must  have  studied  the 
Spanish  roma\ices  to  produce  the  following  beauty,  pre* 
fixed  to  the  list  of  errata :  "  I  humbly  desire  all  clean- 
hearted  and   right-spirited  people,  who  shall  reade  this 
book  (which-  because  the  presse  was  oppressed,  seems  to 
have  been  suppressed,  when  it  was  by  little  and  little  ina- 
-pressed  ;  but  now  at  least  hath  pressed  through  the  presse 
into  the  publicke)  first  to  restore  it  by  correcting  the  fol- 
lowing errata."     His   comedy,  called   "  The  praghiatical 
Jesuit,"  came  out  after  the  Restoration.     The  picture  be- 
fore it  represents  him  in  a  very  genteel  lay-habit ;  whereas 
that  before  his  "  Experience,"  &c.  exhibits  him  in  the  dress 
of  a  formal  clergyman,  with  a  mortified  countenance.     M]r« 
Langbaine  speaks  with  some  commendation  of  this  play.  ^ 

CARPENTER  (Richarb),  confounded  by  Langbaine 
with  the  former,  but  a,  divine  of  a  very  different  character^ 
and  prior  in  order  of  time,  was  a  Cornish  man,  and  became 
a  batler  in  Exeter  college  in  Oxford,  ia  15^2,  and  four 
years  after  fellow  oS  that  house,  being  then  B*  A.  By 
the  advice  and  direction  of  the  rector,  Dr.  Holland,  be  ap- 
plied himself  to  theological  studies,  and,  in  a  few  yeai^s, 

*  Bio^.  Brit.— »0iaK.  I>rAmiiticA*<^AUi.  Oi«  T^.  I.— Alaouii  Eton.  p.  223*-» 
€jr»iigcr. — ^i>u(i4's  Cburcli  UisiQTj, 

te«  A*i«i»fl 


|>roved  a  learned  divine  and  an  excellent  preacher.  Iri 
1611  he  was  admitted  to  the  reading  of  the  sentences;  and 
about  that  time  was  made  rector  of  Sherwill,  and  of  Lox- 
hore  adjoining,  in  Devonshire;  and  afterwards  obtained 
the  benefice  of  Ham  near  Sherwill.  He  died  Dec.  18, 
1627,  aged  fifty-two,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  the 
church  of  Loxhore.  He  published  some  sermons  :  1.  "The 
Soul's  Centinel,"  preached  at  the  funeral  of  sir  Arthur 
Acland,  knt  Jan.  9,  1611,  on  Jobxiv.  14."  Lond.  1612,  8vo. 

2.  "  A  Pastoral  Charge,  faithfully  given  and  discharged  at 
the  triennial  visitation  of  W.  Bishop  of  Exon,  at  Barn- 
Staple,  Sept.  7,  1616,  on  Acts  xx.  28."  London,  1616,  8vo. 

3.  "  Christ's  Larum-bell  of  Love  resounded,"  &c.  on  John 
XV,  12.  Lond.  1616, 8vo.  4.  "  The  conscionable  Christian," 
&c.  being  three  assize  sermons  at  I'aunton  and  Chard  in 
Somersetshire,   1620,  on  Actsxxiv.  16,  Lond.  1623,  4to.* 

CARPENTIER  (John  le),  a  native  of  Abscons  in  Ostre- 
vant,  was  a  regular  canon  in  the  abbey  of  St.  Aubert  at 
Canibray,  but  retired  into  Holland  with  a  lady  by  whom  he 
had  several  children,  according  to  Foppen,  in  his  Bibl. 
Belgica,  and  died  there  at  ah  advanced  age,  about  1670. 
He  maintained  himself  by  drawing  up  genealogies,  which 
are  in  his  ^^  Histoire  deCambray  et  du  Cambresis,"  Ley- 
den,  1664,  2  vols,  4to,  a  work  which  his  countrymen  say 
must  not  be  depended  upon  too  much.  There  is  only  one 
edition  of  this  book,  but  some  have  the  titles  of  1668.  In 
the  copies  thus  dated,  is  a  short  supplement,  which  con- 
tinues the  third  part  of  the  book  to  page  1110,  instead  of 
1096,  where  it  originally  ended.  There  is  also  a  plan  of 
the  estates  of  Cambresis,  and  some  separate  genealogies, 
the  expence  of  which  was  defrayed  by  the  families. ' 

CARPENTIER  (Peter),  prior  of  Doncheri,  was  born 
At  Charleville  in  1697,  and  entered  early  into  the  congre- 
gation of  St,  Maur,  where  he  acquired  great  esteem  for  his 
learning ;  but  being  presented  to  a  rich  benefice  by  the 
abb^  de  Pompone,  and  patronized  by  the  ministry,  be 
went  into  the  order  of  Cluni.  He  passed  his  time  at  Paris 
without  attaching  himself  to  any  religious  house,  culti- 
vating literature,  and  examining  the  archives  and  libraries. 
He  died  in  D^c.  1767,  aged  seventy.  He  is  partly  author 
of  the  edition  of  the  glossary  of  Du  Cange,  6  vols,  folio, 
and  entirely  of  the  <*  Supplement"  in  4  vols.  fol.  1766, 

>  Atli.  Ox  vol.  L"  <  Dict.'Hi«t.— -L^Advocat.— ^axU  Ononufit. 

278  C,A  R  P  E  N  T  I  E  R. 

»  , 

sometimes  bound  in  two,  which  in  point  of  learned  research 
places  him  on  an  equality  with  his  predecessor.     He  com-    . 
piled  also  "  Alphabetum  Tironianum,  seu  Notas  Tironis 
expiicandi  metbodus,   cum  pluribus  Ludovici  Pii  chartis 
quae  notis  tisdem  exaratoB  sunt."  Paris,  1747,  fol. ' 

CARPI  (Hugo  da),  a  native  of  Italy,  who  flourished  about 
the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century,  was  not  in  any 
degree  considerable  as  a  painter,  but  is  justly  entitled  to 
fame  as  an  engraver  on  wood.     He  was  not,  however,  the 
first  engraver  on  that  material,  as  some  have  asserted,  but 
certainly  invented  that  species  distinguished  by  the  name 
of  chiaro-scuro,   in  imitation  of  drawing.     This  he  per- 
formed by  using  three  blocks :  the  first  for  the  outline  and 
dark  shadows ;  the  second  for  the  lighter  shadows  *,  and  the 
third  for  the  half  tint.     His  prints,  though  slight,  are  usu- 
ally very  spirited,  and  in  a  masterly  style.     They  prescrvei 
at  least,  a  bold,  striking  resemblance  of  the  sketches  of  the 
great  painters  from  whose  designs  they  are  taken.     Strutt, 
and,  before  him,  Vasari,  mention  the  following :  viz.  "A 
Sibyl  reading  in  a  book,  with  an  infant  holding  a  flambeau 
to  light  her;"    *^  The  burning  of  Troy,  with  ^Eneas  saving 
his  father  Anchises ;"  "  A  descent  from  the  cross ;"  **  Da- 
\id  cutting  off  the   head  of  Goliah ;''  all  from   Raphael ; 
and  a  "  Magician  seated  on  the  ground,  with  a  book  open 
before  him,  and  in  the  back-ground  a  bird  with  its  foathers 
plucked  off,"  from  Parmigiano.     This  species  of  engraving 
was  carried  to  great  perfection  by  Andrea  Andriani,  and 
also  by  Balthasar  Perezzi  of  Siena,  and  Parmigiano*. 

CARPI  (GiROLAMO  0e)^  an  artist,  who  was  born  at  Fer- 
rara,  in  1501,  became  a  disciple  of  Garofalo,  and  proved 
the  best  artist  of  all  those  who  studied  in  that  academy ; 
but  when  he  quitted  that  master,  he  devoted  his  whole 
time,  thoughts,  and  attention,  to  study  the  works  of  Cor- 
reggio,  and  to  copy  them  with  a  critical  care  and  observation. 
In  that  labour  he  spent  several  years  at  Parma,  Modena, 
and  other  cities  of  Italy,  where  the  best  works  of  that 
exquisite  painter  were  j)reserved.  He  succeeded  to  admi- 
ration, and  acquired  such  an  excellence  in  the  imitation  of 
Correggio's  style,  and  copying  his  pictures,  that  many 
paintings  finished  by  him  were  taken  for  originals,  and 
were  eagerly  purchased  by  the  connoisseurs  of  that  time. 
Nor  is  it  improbable,    that   several  of    the  paintings  of 

\  Diet  Hist— Saxii  Onomast .  *  StruU.r-Pilkingtom  * 


Girdamo  da  Carpi  pass  at  this  day  for  the  genuine  worJb 
of  Correggio.     He  died  in  1556. !  •* 

CARPOCRATES,'or  CARPOCRAS,  of  Alexandria,  a? 
famous  heretic  of  the  second  century,  is  reported  to  have 
carried  the  Gnostic  blasphemies  to  an  enormous  degree  of 
extravagance.  He  maintained  that  matter  was  eternal; 
that  the  world  was  created  by  angels ;  that  God  formed 
^uman  souls,  which  were  imprisoned  in  bodies  of  malignant 
matter;  that  Jesus  was  but. a  mere  man^  the  son  of  Joseph 
and  Mary,  and  distinguished  from  others  by  his  superior 
greatness  of  soul ;  that  none  can  obtain  everlasting  salvation 
by  him,  unless,  by  committing  all  manner  of  crimes,  they 
fill  up  the  measure  of  their  wickedness ;  that  human  lusts 
and  passions,  being  implanted  by  God,  ought  to  be  gra* 
tified;  that  all  actions  are  in  themselves  indifferent,,  and 
become  good  or  evil,  only  by  the  opinions  of  men,  or  tlttf 
laws  of  the  state ;  and  that  women,  and  every  thing  else^ 
ought  to  be  common  property.  Such  are  the  opinions 
imputed  to  him  by  ecclesiastical  historians,  which  are  said 
to  have  produced  a  corresponding  practice  among  his  foW 
lowers.  Dr.  Lardner  only  has  taken  considerable  pains  to 
defend  Carpocrates ;  and  his  conjectures  are  at  least  in- 
genious, akhough  he  has'  not  been  able  to  render  >  tbW 
heretic  an  object  of  much  interest  or  admiration. ' 

CARPZOVIUS  (Benedict),  the  first  of  a  learned  family 
in  Germany,  was  born  in  1565  in  the  marquisate  of  Bran- 
denburgh.  As  he  excelled  in  the  study  of  jurisprudence, 
he  was  enrolled  among  the  number  of  lawyers  at  Wittem- 
berg  in  1592,  where  be  lectured  on  the  institutes  in  1599 
and  1601.  He  was  afterwards  appointed  chancellor  and 
assessor  of  appeals  to  Sophia,  the  widow  of  Christian  I. 
elector  of  Saxony,  and  after  residing,  some  years  at  that 
court,  obtained  permission  to  return  to  Wittemberg,  where 
be  died  in  1624.' 

CARPZOVIUS  (Benedict),  one  of  the  sons  of  the 
preceding,  was  born  in  1595,  succeeded  to  his  father's 
employments,  which  he  held  for  forty-six  years,  and  died 
in  1666.  He  was  accounted  one  of  the  ablest  lawyers  and 
law-writers  of  bis  time,  and  may  likewise  be  praised  as  a 
legal  antiquary,  as  he  rescued  from  the  archives,  where 
they  were  unknown  or  forgot,  many  constitutions  and  de- 
cisions of  great  curiosity  and  impdrtanoe.     In  his  latter 

■  Ptlkingtoo.  ■       • 

»  Mosheim.— Lardner's  Hist,  of  Heretics,  Works,  vol.  .IX.—'Dupiik 
?  Moreri.-*Freberi  TheatnuD. 



4i9^yB  h^  retired  lo  LeipsiQ,  ud  devoted  his  time  entirely 
to  the  study  of  the  Bible,  which  he  is  said  to  have  read 
over  fifty-three  times,  besides  making  notes  as  he  went 
00,  and  conanltiDg  the  commentators.  The  chief  of  his 
j^biished  works  ase,  1.  ^^  Practica  rerum  criminalittm,^* 
:|635,  fol.  often  reprinled»  and  abridged  by  Suerus,  Leipsic, 
)$35,  4to,  1669.,  8vo.  2.  f<  Deftnitioues  forenses,'*  1638, 
foL;  also  often  reprinted,  and  abridged  by  Schroterus, 
^th  the  author's  consent,  Jena,  1664,  4to,  and  1669,  8vo. 
S«  '^  Copnnent.  ad  legem  regiam  Germanoram,"  1640* 
4'  ^  Besponsa  juris  Electoralia,''  1642,  foL  5.  <<  Defini- 
Stones  ecclesiasticse,''  1649.  6.  <^  Decisiooes  Saxonicae," 
1646—16^4,  St  vols,  folio,  often  reprinted.  7«  '^  Processus 
Juris  Saxonici,''  1657,  folio.  Other  branches  of  this 
&mily  acquired  distinction  as  divines  and  philologists ;  but 
our  accounts  of  them  are  too  imperfect  to  be  interesting, 
^ud  those  in  the  Diet.  Historique  evidently  erroneous.  The 
bst  upon  record,  Johon"  Benedict  Carpzovius,  was  a  very 
eminent  classical  scholar  and  critic.  He  published  an  ex« 
cellent  edition  of  Musasus,  Gr.  and  Lat.  in  1775  ^ . 

CARR  (GsoaoE),  a  clergyman  of  the  episcopal  church 
.in  Scotland,  was  bom  at  Newcastle,  Feb.  16,  1704,  and 
educated  at  St  John's  college,  Cambridge,  where  be  took 
the  degree  of  bachelor  ^f  arts.  Soon  after  his  return  to 
Newcastle  he  went  into  orders,  and  in  1737  was  appointed 
senior  clergyman  of  the  episcopal  chapel  at  Edinburgh^ 
^here  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days,  and  officiated 
for  the  space  of  thirty-nine  years.  On  the  morning  of 
Sunday,  August  18,  1776,  as  he  was  preparing  to  go  to. the 
4^hapel,  he  suddenly  expired.  Three  volomes  of  bis  '^  Ser« 
xnoos'^  were  published  in  the  following  year,  12i»o,  by  sir 
William  Forbes^  bact.  who  undertook  the  task  of  selecting 
^lese  from  his  numerous,  manuscripts.  Oo  his  private  and 
public  character,  sir  William  lived  to  express,  himself  with 
3eal  and  affection  thirty  years  after  the  decease  of  his 
friend,  and  says  of  his  ^  Sermons,*'  that  although  they  do 
qot  contain  the  profound  reasonings  of  Butler,  nor  the 
^Icffant  discussions  of  Sherlock ;  neither  the  learning  of 
Tilktson,  nor  the  declamation  of  Seed,  they  exhibit  the 
most  useful  and  important  truths  of  the  gospel,  net  only 
with  plainness  and  perspicuity,  but  in  language  always 
elegant  and  seldom  incorrect.  Dr.  Beattie,  on  tjio  oocasioii 
of  his  death,  said^  that  *^  to  bis  merits  as  a  preacher,  great 

>  Moreri.-- SazH  OnoniMliooiir  ^ 

C  A  R  R.  281 

ais  they  were,  the  lustre  of  his  private  charadtor  was  still 
superior,^'  ainl  that  ^^  the  death  of  such  a  man  was.  a  real 
loss  to  society.  ^ 

CARR  (John),  LL.  D.  many  years  an  eminent  school- 
master at  Hertford,  and  known  to  the  literary  world  as  the 
translator  of  Lucian,  was  born  at  Muggleswick,  in  the 
coonty  of  Durham,  in  1732;  His  father  was  a  farmer,  and 
had  a  small  estate  of  hia  own,  which  the  doctor  possessed 
at  his  death.  He  was  first  educated  at  the  village  school, 
said  privately  by  the  rev.  Daniel  Watson,  who  was  then  a 
young  man,  and  curate  of  that  place.  Afterwards  he  was 
sent  to  St.  Paul's  school,  where  he  continued  longer  than 
boys  usually  do,  as  his  father  could  not  afford  to  send  him 
to  either  of  the  universities.  He  is  supposed  to  have  beeit 
once  a  candidate  for  the  mastership  of  St.  PauPs,  but  the 
want  of  a  degree  was  fatal  to  his  application.  When  stilt 
young,  however,  he  became  usher  to  Dr.  Hurst,  who  W9^ts 
master  of  the  grammar-school  at  Hertford,  and  succeeded 
him  in  that  situation,  which  he  held  for  many  years  with 
the  highest  credit  He  was  honoured  with  the  degree  of 
LL.  D.  from  the  Mariscbal  college^  Aberdeen,  by  the  in« 
fluence  of  Dr.  Beattie.  He  died  June  6,  1807,  after  ex-^ ' 
periencing  a  gradual  decay  for  nearly  a  year  before,  but  onf 
the  day  of  his  death  was,  as  he  supposed,  in  much  bettier 
health  than  usual.  He  was  buried  in  St.  John's  church, 
Hertford,  with  an  epitaph  in  Latin,  written  hy  himself,  in 
which  he  seems  to  reflect  a  little  on  time  lost,  ^*  studiis 
inanibus."  This  may  probably  allude  to  his  ^*  Translation 
oi  Lucian,"  on  which  be  employed  many  of  his  leisure 
hours,  and  which  was  published  in  5  vols.  8vo.  from  1773 
to  1798.  It  procured  him  considerable  fame,  which',  how^ 
ever,  has  been  diminished,  m  the  opinion  of  many,  since 
the  appearance  of  Dr.  Francklin's  more  classical  translation. 
Br.  Carr's  other  publications  were  trifles,  on  which  himself 
perh^s  set  no  very  high  value:  "Vol.  III.  of  Tristram 
Shandy,*'  in  imitation  of  Sterne,  but  soon  detected,  1760 ; 
*^  FiUal  Piety,"  a  mocfc  heroic,  1763,  fol ;  «  Extract  of  a 
^Private  Letter  to  a  Critic,"  1764,  fol.;  and  **  Eponina,  a 
Dramatic  £}ssay,  addressed  to  the  ladies,"  1765.^ 
'  CARRA  (John  Lewis),  one  of  those  French  philoso* 
phers  and  statesmen  to  whom  the  revolution  gave  a  short* 
lived  importance,  was  born  at  Pont-de-Vesle  in  Dombes, 

i  '  ,  ... 

1  Sermons  as  above. — ^Forbes^s  Life  of  Dr.  Beattie,  vol.  If.  4to,  p.  3,  404, 
f  Nicbol»*s  Bowy«ri  voU*  Xll.<— Gent,  Mag.  Siipp«  191S.  Part  II. 

2S2  C  A  R  R  A. 

of  poor  parents.  He  early  discovered  an  impetuous  and 
ttngovernable  temper,  and  even  his  youth  is  said  to  have 
been  stained  with  crimes.  He  travelled  into  Moldavia  and 
Walacbia,  and  wrote  an  account  of  those  countries,  which 
is  the  most  unexceptionable  of  his  works.  On  the  com* 
xnencement  of  the  revolution  he  came  to  Paris,  with  all 
the  talents  requisite  to  give  him  consequence,  a  violent 
hatred  of  the  royal  family,  and  confused  and  ill-digested 
notions  of  political  freedom.  Mirabeau,  during  his  short 
life,  appears  to  have  discerned  and  despised  his  character  ^ 
but  in  1792  he  acted  without  controul,  and  was  one  of  the 
chiefs  of  the  revolt  on  the  10th  of  August,  and  gloried  in 
having  laid  the  plan  of  that  fatal  day.  When  the  unhappy 
king  was  brought  to  trial,  he  was  among  the  most  active  in 
preventing  any  change  in  the  sentence,  or  any  access  to 
the  voice  of  clemency.  His  triumph,  however,  was  very 
short  Having  fallen  out  with  Robespierre  and  his  col- 
leagues, he  joined  the  party  of  the  Gironde,  was  impli- 
cated  in  their  fete,  and  guillotined  Nov;  1,>1793.  The 
convention  afterwards  honoured  him  as  a  martyr  to  liberty, 
but  his  countrymen  now  seem  disposed  to  revive  his  real 
character.  As  a  writer,  they  tell  us,  he  first  acquired 
notice  by  some  bad  articles  in  the  Encyclops&dia.  His 
separate  publications  were,  1.  "  Systeme  de  la  Raison,"  a 
.declamation  against  royalty ;  said  to  have  been  printed  a| 
London  in  1773.  2.  *^  Esprit  de  la  Morale  et  de  la  Philo^ 
Sophie,"-  1777,  8vo;. in  which  the  principles  of  infidelity 
are  unblushingly  brought  forward.  3.  "  Histoite  de  la 
Moldavie  et  de  la  Valachie,"  1778,  12mo.  4.  "  Nouveauif 
principes  de  Physique,'*  1782,  2  vols.  Svo,  a  work  in 
which  he  has  pretty  nearly  ascertained  bow  far  the  imagina- 
tion, without  the  aid  of  knowledge  or  ex-periment,  can 
carry  conjecture  and  paradox.  5.  ^^  Essai  sur  la  nautique 
aerienn^,"  1784,  in  which  he  assumes  the  merit  of  a  plan 
to  guide  air-balloons  with,  safety  and  speed  ;  which  in  point 
of  utility  may  be  classed  with  the  following :  6.  "  Examen 
physique  du  magnetisme  animal,"  1785,  8vq.  7.  "  Dis- 
sertation elementaire  sur  la  natnre\  de  la  Jiimiere,  de  la 
chaleur,  du  feu,  et  de  Pelectricit6,"  1787,  8voi  8.  "  Uii 
m6t  de  reponse  a  M.  de  Calonne,  sur  sa  Hequete  au  roi.'* 
9.  ^^  L'Orateur  des  Etats-Generawx,"  1789, 8vo.  10.  "  An^ 
Dales  politiques,"  a  sort  of  newspaper,  if  we  mistake 
not,   at  the  time  when  every  party  had  its  newspaper* 

C  A  R  R  A.  2SS 

11.  **  Memoires  historiques  sur  la  Bastille,"  1790,  3  Vols, 
^Vo;  and  many  anonynaous  pamphlets.  ^ 

CARRANZA  (Bartholomew),  a  Dominican,  bora  ia 
1 504  at  Miranda  in  Navarre,  appeared  with  great  distinc-* 
tion  at  the  council  of  Trent,  where  he  composed  a  treatise 
on  the  residence  of  bishops,  which  he  held  to  be  of  divine 
right,  treating  the  contrary  opinion  as  diabolical.  Philip  11. 
king  of  Spain,  having  married  queen  Mary  in  1554,  took 
Carranza  with  him  into  Kngland,  who  laboured  to  restore 
the  Catholic  religion  there,  and  pleased  Philip  so  much^ 
that  he  appointed  him  archbishop  of  Toledo. 1 557.  This 
illustrious  prelate  was,  however,  accused  before  the  Inqui- 
sition, 1559,  and  carried  as  a  heretic  to  Rome,  where  he 
was  thrown  into  prison,  and  ^suffered  greatly  during  t^ii 
years,  notwithstanding  the  solicitations  of  his  friend  Na- 
varrej  who  openly  undertook  his  defence.  '  At  length  the 
Inquisition  declared  by  a  sentence  passed  1576,  that  there 
was  not  any  certain  proof  that  Carranza  was  a  heretic^ 
They  condemned  him  j^evertheless  to  abjure  the  errors 
which  had  been  imputed  to  him,  and  confined  him  to  la 
Minerve,  a  monastery  of  his  order,  where  he  died  the  same 
year,  aged  72.  His  principal  works  are,  1.  **  Summary 
of  the   Councils"  in   Latin,   1681,  4to,  which   is  valued. 

2.  "  A  Treatise  on  the  residence  of  Bishops,"   154-7,  4to. 

3.  "A  Catechism"  in  Spanish,  1558,  fol. ;  censured  by 
the  Inquisition  in  Spain,  but  justified  at,  the  council  of 
Trent  in  1563.* 

CARRE'  (Lewis),  was  born  in  1663,  in  the  province  of 
Brie  in  France.  His  father,  a  substantial  farmer,  intended 
him  for  the  church.  But  young  Carre,  after  going  through 
the  usual  cour<^e  of  education  for  that  purpose,  having  an 
litter  aversion  to  it,  refused  to  enter  upon  that  function ;, 
by  which  he  incurred  his  father's  displeasure.  His  re- 
^ources  being  thus  cut  off,  he  was  obliged  to  quit  the 
university,  and  look  out  into  the  world  for  some  em- 
ployment. In  this  exigency  he  had  the  good  fortune 
to  be  engaged  as  an  amanuensis  by  the  celebrated 
father  Malebranche ;  by  which  be  found  himself  trans- 
ported at  once  from  the  mazes  of  scholanic  darkness,  to 
(he  source  of  the  most  brilliant  and  enlightened ;pbilosophy. 
Under  this  great  master  he  studied  mathematics  and  meta- 
physics, and  after  seven  years  spent  in  this  excellent  school, 

^  Diet.  Hi8t«<— Biog.  Modernc—Por  his  philosophy,  see  Month.  Rev.  vol.  68^ 
B9,  and  70.  *  Moreri. — Dopin.— Gen.  Diet,— Freb«ri  Tbeatrum. 

it*  c  A  R  R  r. 

J  , 

M.  Carr£  found  it  necessary,  in  order  to  procure  himself 
some  less  precarious  establishment^  to  teach  mathematics 
and  philosophy  in  Paris ;  but  especially  that  philosophy 
whicky  on  account  of  its  tendency  to  improve  our  morals, 
he  valued  more  than  all  the  mathematics  in  the  world. 
And  accordingly  his  greatest  care  was  to  make  geometry 
serve  as  an  introduction  to  his  well-beloved  metaphysics. 
Most  of  M.  Carr6*s  pupils  were  of  the  fair  sex.  The  first 
of  these,  who  soon  perceived  that  his  language  was  rather 
the  reverse  of  elegant  and  ccnrrect,  told  him  pleasantly, 
that,  as  an  Acknowledgment  for  the  pains  he  took  to  teach 
ber  philosophy,  she  would  teach  him  French  ;  and  he  ever 
after  owned  that  her  lessons  were  of  great  service  to  him« 
In  general  he  seemed  to  set  more  value  upon  the  genius  of 
'iPomen  than  that  of  men. 

'  M.  t!arr6,  although  he  gave  the  preference  to  meta* 
physics,  did  not  neglect  mathematics  ;  and  while  he  taught 
both,  he  took  care  to  make  himself  acquainted  with  all 
the  new  discoveries  in  the  latter.  This  was  all  that  his 
constant  attendance  on  bis  pupils  would  allow  him  to  do, 
till  the  year  1697,  when  M.  Varignon,  so  remarkable  for 
his  extreme  scrupulousness  in  the  choice  of  his  eleves, 
took  M .  Carr^  to  him  in  that  station.  Soon  af(er,  viz.  in 
1700,  our  author  thinking  himself  bound  to  do  sojnething 
that  might  render  him  worthy  of  that  title,  published  the 
first  complete  work  on  the  integral  calculus,  under  the 
title  of  **  A  method  of  measuring  surfaces  and  soUds,  and 
finding  their  centres  of  gravity,  percussion,  and  oscilla- 
tion." He  afterwards  discovered  some  errors  in  the  work, 
and  was  candid  enough  to  own  and  correct  them  in  a  sub* 
sequent  edition.  In  a  little  time  M.  Carr^  became  asso* 
ciate,  and  at  length  one  of  the  pensioners  of  the  academy. 
And  as  tbis^was  a  sufficient  establishment  for  one  who 
knew  so  well  how  to  keep  his;  desires  within  just  bounds, 
be  gave  himself  up  entirely  to  study  ;  and  as  he  enjoyed 
the  appointment  of  Mechanician,  he  applied  himself  more 
particularly  to  mechanics.  He  took  also  a  survey  of  every 
branch  relating  to  music ;  such  as  the  doctrine  of  sounds,  the 
description  of  musical  instruments;  though  he  despised  the 
practice  of  music,  as  a  mere  sensual  pleasure.  Some  sketches 
of  his  ingenuity  and  industry  in  this  way  may  be  seen  in  the 
Memoirs  of  the  French  Academy  of  Sciences.  M.  CarrS 
also  composed  some  treatises  on  other  branches  of  natural 
philosophy,  and  some  on  mathematical  subjects ;  all  which 

C  A  R  R  ET.  2SS 

Ke  bequeathed  to  that  illustrious  body ;  though  it  does  not 
appear  that  any  of  them  have  yet  been  published.  It  ia 
not  unlikely  that  he  was  hindered  from  putting  the  last 
band  to  them  by  a  train  of  disorders  proceeding  from  a 
bad  digestion,  which,  after  harassing  him  during  the  space 
of  five  or  six  years,  at  length  brought  him  to  the  grave  in 
1711,  at  forty-eight  years  of  age. 

His  memoirs  are  printed  in  the  volumes  of  the  academy^ 
from  the  years  1701  to  1710.* 

CARRENNO  DE  MIRANDA  (Don  Juan),  an  emi- 
nent Spanish  painter,  descended  from  an  ancient  family, 
was  born  at  Aviles,  in  1614;  and  learnt  the  elements  of 
art  at  Madrid,  in  the  school  of  Pedro  de  las  Cueva».     He 
afterwards  finished  his  studies  with  such  success  under  Bar* 
tolom^  Roman,  that  he  was  soon  considered  as  one  of  the 
best  Spanish  painters,  and  charged  with  decorating  some 
apartments  of  the  royal  palace  m  frescos,  which  pleased 
Philip  IV.  so  much,  that  he  nominated  him  painter  to  the 
court,  about   1651.      In  society  with  Francisco  Ri:;i,  he 
acquired  a  surprising  facility  of  execution  ;  his  design  is 
tolerably  correct,  his  colour  brilliant  and  seducing ;  it  re* 
sembles  the  tones  of  Vandyke ;  his  conception  was  vigo*- 
rous,  and  his  composition  rich.     Madrid,  Toledo,  Alcala 
de  Henares,  and  Pamplona,  possess  the  best  of  Miranda's 
works ;  the  patronage  of  Philip  IV.  was  continued  to  hiol 
by  Charles  II.,  and  be  died  at  the  head  of  a  large  school^ 
about  1685.' 

CARRIERA  (Rosalba),  an  eminent  female  artist,  was 
born  at  Chiozza,  in  1675,  and  having  shown  an  early,  taste 
for  painting,  her  father  placed  her  with  an  artist  from 
whom  she  learned  to  paint  in  oil,  but  she  afterwards  prac- 
tised, and  carried  crayon-paintdng  to  a  high  degree  of 
perfection.  Orlandi  celebrates  her  miniatures.  Her  crayon 
painting  arrives  not  seldom  at  the  strength  of  pictures  iii 
oil.  Her  portraits,  spread  over  all  Europe,  are  as  elegant 
and  graceful  in  conception  and  attitude,  as  fresh,  neat^ 
and  alluring  in  colour.  Her  Madonnas,  and  other  sacred 
subjects,  rise  from  grace  to  dignity,  and  even  majesty* 
Equal  and  incessant  application  deprived  her  of  sight 
during  the  last  ten  years  of  her  life.  She  died  at  the  ad« 
iranced  age  of  eighty-^two,  in  1757.* 


1  Moreri. — Martin's  Biog.  Philos.— Hutton'i  Dictionary. — Eloge  by  Fonte- 
nelle,  1711,  in  "  Hist,  de  I'Acade^kie  dc  Sciences, 
s  Pilkington.— Di(6U  Hist.  «  lbid;-^>ArgenTiU«. 

sne  cJ  A  R  R  I  o. 

CARRID  or  CARRION  (Lewis),  a  learned  critic,  was 
of  a  Spanish  family,  but  born  at  Bruges,  in  Flanders.     He 
began  to  study  at  Louvain,  where  he  had   Lipsius  for  his 
school-fellow,  of  whom  he  often  speaks  with  respect  in 
various  parts  of  bis  "  Antiquae  lectiones,*'  and  his  "  Emenda- 
tione^,"  although  it  has  been  insinuated  that  be  felt  some 
degree  of  jealousy  of  the  fame  of  Lipsius.     He  prosecuted 
bis  studies  at  Doway  and  at  Paris,  and  returning  to  Lou- 
vain, was  made  doctor  of  laws  in  1586,  and  about  the  same 
time  lectured  on  the  Institutes  of  Justinian.     He  was  after- 
wards appointed   royal  professor  of  law,    and  had  sbme 
church  preferment,  but  he  died  young  at  Louvaine,  June 
23,  1595,  being  then  president  of  the  college  of  St.  Ives. 
His  classical  and  critical  taste  is  displayed  in   1.  *' Histo- 
riarum  Sallustii  fragmenta,^'  with  notes,  Antwerp,  1573, 
8vo.     2.  "  Censorinus  de  die  natali,**  with  the  fhagment 
of  an  unknown  author  on  the  same  subject,  attributed  to 
Censorinus,  but  which  Carrio  proves  was  not  his,  Paris, 
1583,  8vo.     Lindenbrog,  in  his  own  edition  of  Censorinus, 
Leyden,   1642,  8vo,  bestows  high  praise  on  Carrio,  and 
adopts  most  of  his  readings.     3.  *^  M.  A.  Cassiodori  de  or^ 
tographia  libellus,"  Antwerp,  1579,  8vo.     4.  **  V.  Flacci 
Argonautica,    cum  castigationibus,'*    Antwerp,  Svo,    and 
16mo,    and   Lyons,  1617,    8vo.      5.    "  Antiquarum  lec- 
tiouum  libri  tres,"  Antwerp,  1576,  Svo,  and  inserted  in 
Gruter's  "  Thesaurus'*  as  is  his  other  work,  6.  «  Emenda- 
tionum  et  observationum  Ubri  duo,"  Paris,  4to.* 

CARRUCCI  (Jacob),  an  artist  who  from  the  place  of 
bis  nativity  was  called  Pontormo,  had  great  natural  inge- 
nuity, and  was  in  his  earliest  works  admired  by  Raphael 
and  Michel  Angelo.  He  had  had  a  few  lessons  from 
Liouardo  da  Vinci ;  after  him  from  Albertinelli ;  made 
some  progress  under  Pier  di  Cosimo ;  and  finished  by  en- 
tering the  school  of  Andrea  del  Sarto,  whose  jealousy  and 
ungenerous  treatment,  from  a  scholar,  soon  turned  him 
into  a  rival.  With  such  talents  he  became  the  victim  of 
inconstancy,  roaming  from  style  to  style.  The  Certosa  of 
Florence  exhibits  specimens  of  the  three  different  manners 
commonly  ascribed  to  him.  The  first  is  correct  in  design, 
vigorous  in  colour,  and  approaches  the  style  of  Andrea  del 
Sarto.  The  second,  with  good  drawing  combines  a  languid 
tonc;  and  became  the  model  of  Bronzino  and  the  subse- 

>  Moi«n.-*Feppen  Bibl.  B9%. 


quent  epoch.  The  third  is  a  downright  imitation  of  Albert 
Durer,  and  at  present  can  only  be  found  in  some  histories 
from  the  Passion  in  the  cloister  of  that  monastery,  which 
are  neither  more  nor  less  than  copies  from  the  prints  of 
Albert.  To  these,  perhaps,  a  fourth  manner  might  be 
added,  if  the  frescos  of  the  General  Deluge  and  Universal 
Judgment,  on  which  he  spent  eleven  years  in  S.  Lorenzo, 
and  his  last  work,  had  not  been  whitewashed,  with  the  tacit 
acquiescence  of  all  contemporary  artists.  In  this  labour 
he  strove  to  emulate  Michel  Angelo,  and  to  exemplify, 
like  him,  anatomic  skill,  which  was  then  becoming  the 
favourite  pursuit  of  Florentine  art.  He  died  in  1558,  aged 
sijcty-five.  * 

CARSTARES  (William),  a  politica.1  character  of  con- 
siderable fame  in  Scotland,  was  the  descendant  of  an  an- 
cient family,  and  bom  in  1649  at  Cathcart  in  Glasgow. 
He  was  educated  in  divinity  and  philosophy  at  Edinburgh 
and  Utrecht,  to  which  his  father  sent  him  that  he  might 
avoid  the  political  contests  which  disturbed  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.  but  he  had  a  zeal  which  prompted  him  to  in- 
terfere in  what  regarded  his  country,  although  removed 
from  it,  and  he  must  have  given  some  proofs  of  a  talent 
for  political  affairs  at  a  very  early  period.  When  England 
was  alarmed  about  the  popish  succession,  Carstares  was 
introduced  to  the  pensionary  Fagel,  and  afteirwards  to  the 
prince  of  Orange,  and  entrusted  with  his  designs  relating 
to  British  affairs.  During  his  residence  in  Holland,  his 
principles  both  in  religion  and  politics,  were  sti'ongly  con- 
iirmed ;  and  upon  his  return  tp  his  native  country  he  en- 
tered with  zeal  into  the  counsels  and  schemes  of  those  no- 
blemen and  gentlemen  who  opposed  the  tyrannical  mea- 
sures of  government;  and  although  about  this  time  he  took 
orders  in  the  Scotch  church,  his  mind  seemed  to  have  ac- 
quired such  a  decided  bias  towards  towards  politics,  that 
he  determined  to  revisit  Holland.  On  his  way  thither  he  • 
passed  through  London,  and  was  employed  by  Argyle,  and 
the  other  Scots  patriots,  in  treating  with  the  English,  who 
were  for  excluding  the  duke  of  Vork  from  succession  to  the 
crown.  Towards  the  close  of  1682,^  he  held  various  con- 
ferences with  the  beads  of  that  party,  which  terminated  in 
his  being  privy  to  what  has  been  called  the  *^  Rye-house. 
ploC.    Accordingly,  be  was  committed  to  close  custodjr 

t  ■ 

}  ArgenyiUe,  Tol.  L— ?iIkiii|ton« 

288  C  A  R  S  T  A  R  E  S- 

in  the  Gate-house,  Westminster.  After  several  exait]ifia<« 
lions  before  the  privy  council,  he  was  sent  for  trial  to  Scot- 
land ;  and  as  he  refused  to  give  any  information  respecting 
th^  authors  of  the  exclusion  scheme,  he  was  put  to  the 
torture,  which  be  endured  with  invincible  firmness,  but 
yielded  to  milder  methods  of  a  more  insidious  nature,  and 
when  a  pardon  was  proposed,  with  an  assurance  that  no 
advantage  should  be  taken  of  his  answers  as  evidence 
against  any  person,  he  consented  to  answer  their  interro- 
gatories.  The  privy-council  immediately  caused  to  be 
printed  a  paper,  entitled,  **  Mr.  Carstares's  Confession,'' 
which  contained,  as  he  said,  a  false  and  mutilated  account 
of  the  whole  transaction^  ,and  in  direct  violation  of  their 
promise,  they  produced  this  evidence  in  open  court  against 
one  of  his  most  intimate  friends.^ This  treachery  and  its  con« 
quences  very  deeply  affected  him ;  but  as  soon  as  he  was 
cleared,  he  obtained  permission  to  retire  to  Holland,  to- 
wards the  close  of  1684,  or  the  beginning  of  1685,  wher« 
he  was  kindly  received  by  the  prince  of  Orange,  who  ap- 
pointed him  one  of  his  chaplains,  caused  him  to  be  elected 
minister  of  the  English  protestant  congregation  at  Leyden  ; 
and  when  the  prince  determined  to  transport  an  army  to 
England,  Carstares  accompanied  him  as  his  chaplain,  anct 
continued  about  his  person  till  the  settlement  of  the  crown. 
During  the  whole  of  this  reign  he  was  the  chief  agent  be- 
tween the  church  of  Scotland  and  the  court,  and  contri- 
buted by  his  influence  with  the  king  to  the  establishment 
of  presbytery  in  Scotland,  to  which  his  majesty  was  disin- 
clined, and  to  a  degree  of  coalescence  or  accommodation 
on  the  part  of  the  presbyterian  clergy  with  the  episco- 
palians. When  an  act  was  passed  in  1693,  by  the  Scots* 
parliament,  obliging  all  officers,  civil  and  ecclesiastical,  to 
take  an  oath  of  allegiance,  and  also  to  sign  an  assurance 
(as  it  was  called)  declaring  William  to  be  king  dejure^  as 
well  as  de/acto^  the  ministers  refused  to  sign  th^  declaration^ 
and  appealed  to  the  privy  council,  who  recommended  to 
the  king  to  enforce  the  obligation.  Accordingly,  mea-' 
sures  were  adopted  for  this  purpose ;  and  the  body  of  thcf 
clergy  applied  to  Carstares,  requesting  his  interference  in 
their  favour.  The  king  persisted  in  his  resolution  ;  orders 
Were  renewed  in  peremptory  terms,  and  dispatches  were 
actually  delivered  to  the  messenger  to  be  forwarded  nexti 
{xiorning.  In  these  critical  circumstances  Carstares  has- 
tened to  the  messenger  at  night,  demanded  the  dispatches^ 


trhich  had  been  delivered  to  him  in  the  king^s  name,  and 
instantly  repaired  to  Kensington,  where  he  found  bis 
majesty  gone  to  bed.  Having  obtained  admission  into  his 
chamber,  he  gently  waked  him,  fell  on  his  knees^  and  asked 
pardon  for  the  intrusion,  and  the  daring  act  of  disobe- 
dience of  which  he  bad  been  guilty.  The  king  at  first 
expressed  his  displeasure ;  but  when  Carstares  further 
stated  the  case,  his  majesty  caused  the  dispatches  to  be 
thrown  into  the  fire,  and  directed  him  to  send  such  in- 
structions to  the  royal  commissioners  of  the  general  as- 
sembly as  he  thought  most  conducive  to  the  public  good» 
In  consequence  of  this  seasonable  interposition,  the  oath 
and  assurance  were  dispensed  with  on  the  part  of  the 
clergy.  By  this  timely  service.  Carstares  acquired  the 
confidence  of  the  presb}'terian  party  to  such  a  degree,  and 
so  successfully  cultivated  the  friendship  of  the  earl  of  Port- 
land, and  other  m^n  of  influence  about  the  court,  that  he 
was  regarded  in  the  management  of  Scotch  affairs,  as  a  kind 
of  viceroy  for  Scotland,  though  he  possessed  no  public 
character.  Ail  applications  passed  through  his  hands,  all 
employments,^onours,  and  offices  of  state,  were  left  to  his 
disposal ;  and  without  public  responsibilky,  he  engrossed 
the  secret  direction  of  public  affairs.  Few  Scotchmen  ob- 
tained access  to  the  king,  unless  through  his  intervention ; 
and  in  his  correspondence  with  every  department^  says  a 
late  historian,  it  is  curious  to  remark  how  the  haughty  no- 
bility condescended  to  stoop  and  truckle  to  a  presbyteriaa 
clergyman,  whom  their  predecessors  in  office  had  tortured 
and  deceived.  His  moderation,  secrecy,  and  a  prudence 
apparently  disinterested,  recommended  him  to  king  Wil- 
liam, who  once  said  of  him,  in  the  presence  of  several  of 
his  courtiers,  ^^tbat  he  had  long  known  Mr.  Carstares; 
that  he  knew  him  well,  and  knew  him  to  be  an  honest  man.^* 
He  is  represented  on  the  other  hand,  as  a  cunning,  subtle^ 
insinuating  priest,  whose  dissimulation  was  impenetrable  ; 
an  useful  friend  when  sincere  ;  but,  from  an  air  of  smiling 
sincerity,  a  dangerous  enemy.  * 

Although,  after  the  death  of  king  William,  Carstares  was 
not  much  employed  in  public  affairs,  queen  Anne  conti- 
nued him  in  the  office  of  royal  chaplain  for  Scotland,  and 
obtained  for  him  the  offer  of  an  appointment  to  the  vacant 
place  of  principal  of  the  university  of  Edinburgh;  which 
he  accepted  in  1704,  with  the  first  professorship  of  divi- 
fiity.    After  this  appointment^  whilst  U^  refused  any  addi« 

voL.vnr.  u 

990 '  C  A  R  S  T  A  R  E  S. 

tion  to  his  own  salary,  he  used  his  influence  at  court  for 
augmenting  the  very  small  salaries  pertaining  to  the  re- 
gents in  the  several  universities  of  Scotland ;  and  in  the 
execution  of  his  oflSce,  as  principal,  he  secured  the  affec- 
tion and  respect  of  those  that  were  subject  to  his  authority^ 
by  the  dignified  affability  and  gentleness  of  his  deportment. 
In  the  year  of  his  appointment  to  the  principalship  of  the 
university,  be  was  unanimously  invited  to  the  pastoral 
office  in  one  of  the  parishes  of  Edinburghj  which  he  per- 
formed with  exemplary  diligence  ;  and  as  moderator  of  the 
general  assembly,  which  post  he  occupied  four  times  ii> 
eleven  years,  he  maintained  great  weight  in  its  debates. 
When  the  union  of  tlie  two'kingdoms  was  agitated,  it  en- 
gaged his  cordial  eoncurrerrce,  and  he  was  the  principal 
instrument  of  preventing  any  public  opposition  from  the 
presbyterian  clergy.  His  efforts  to  controul  the  opinions 
ef  this  body  rendered  him  unpopular;  aud  with  a  view 
of  gaining  their  assistance,  he  accepted  the  office  of  one 
of  the  agents  sent  to  London  to  oppose  the  bills  for  the 
yestoration  of  patronage  in  Scotland^  and  for  the  toleratior» 
of  the  episcopal  clergy  ;  though  in  the  latter  instance,  at 
least,  his  opposition  must  have  counteracted  his  principles. 
His  excuse  seems  to  have  been  an  apprehension  that  the 
Scots  episcopalians  wished  the  exiled  family  to  be  restoji*ed. 
His  eflbrts,  however,  whether  they  were  sincere  or  not, 
proved  unsuccessful.  To  the  succession  of  the  house  of 
Hanover  he  gave  his  active  support ;  and  he  obtained  frona 
the  general  assembly  an  address  of  congratulation  ta 
George  I.  on  his  accession  to  the  throne  ;  and  in  return 
for  this  service  his  office  of  royal  chaplain  was  continued. 
His  death  happened  soon  after  this  event,  in  December 
1715.  Some  years  ago  was  published  a  volume,  entitled 
•*  State  papers  and  letters  addressed  to  William  Carstares^ 
confidential  secretary  to  king  William  during  the  whole  of 
his  reign,  afterwards  principal  of  the  university  of  Edin- 
burgh^ relating  to  public  affairs  in  Great  Britain,  but 
more  particularly  in  Scotland,  during  the  reign  of  king 
William  and  queen  Anne ;  to  which  is  prefixed  the  life 
of  Mr.  Carstares,  published  from  the  originals  by  Joseph 
M^Cormick,  D.  D»  minister  at  Preston-pans,"  1774,  4ta. 
This  is  unquestionably  a  collection  of  great  importance 
in  illustrating  that  period  of  the  history  of  Great  Britain, 
«nd  particularly  Scotland ;  and  the  life  of  Mr.  Carstares  is 
4E^oth  interesting  aod  ao^using^     We  have  already  hinted 

CAR  ST  A  R  E  Si  291 

that  his  character  was  not  contemplated  in^the  most  fa<* 
vourable  light  by  all  his  contemporaries.  It  appears,  how-^ 
ever,  by  his  biographer's  account,  that  his  private  cha- 
racter was,  in  every  view  of  it,  amiable  and  respectable* 
His  religion  was  not  tinctured  with  the  extravagancies  of 
enthusiasm,  or  debased  by  the  rigours  of  superstition.  He 
was  distinguished  for  his  discbarge  of  the  dyties  of  hospi* 
tality ;  and  his  charity  was  unbounded.  Such  of  the  epis** 
copal  clergy  as  had  been  deprived  of  their  livings  at  the 
Revohition,  he  always  treated  with  peculiar  tenderness 
and  humanity.  H^  often  relieved  their  families  when  ia 
distress,  and  was  solicitous  to  dispense  his  benefactions  in 
the  manner  that  would  be  the  least  offensive  to  the  delicacy 
of  their  feelings.  His  ingenuity  was  sometimes  exercised 
in  devising  methods  of  imposing  upon  the  modesty  and 
pride  of  such  as  would  have  rejected  his  good  offices  with 
disdain,  if  be  had  not  disguised  his  intentions.  Several  qf 
the  episcopal  clergy,  who  were  his  annual  pensioners,  ne- 
ver knew  from  what  channel  their  rehef  flowed,  till  they 
found  by  his  death  that  the  source  of  it  was  dried  up.^ 

CARTE  (Samuel),  an  English  divine,  was  the  son  of 
Thomas  Carte,  a  clothier  at  Coventry,  where  he  was  bom 
October  21,  1652,  or  1653,  and  in  the  free-school  of  whicTi 
place  he  received  his  grammatical  education.  He  was  af- 
terwards removed  to  Magdalen  college,  Oxford,  where  he 
took  his  degree  of  B.  A.  1672  ;  and  M.  A.  1675.  After  he 
entered  into  holy  orders  he  had  several  preferments,  the 
chief  of  which  were,  a  prebend  in  the  cathedi*al  church  o£ 
Litchfield,  the  rectory  of  Eastwell  in  Leicestershire,  and^i 
Jast  of  all,  the  vicarage  of  St.  Martin's,  in  the  town  of  Leices- 
ter.  It  has  been  supposed  that  he  resigned  his  preferments 
at  the  accession  of  king  George  the  First,  and  that  at  one 
time  he  assisted  the  celebrated  Jeremiah  Collier,  in  preach- 
ing to  a  nonjuripg  congregation  in  Broad-street^  London  ; 
but  this  belongs  to  his  son.  It  is  certain  that  Mr.  Samuel 
Carte  spent  the  latter  part  of  his  life  on  his  living  at  Leices- 
ter, where  he  died  on  the  16th  of  April,  1740,  in  the  eighty- 
seventh  year  of  his  age.  A  high,  and,  we  doubt  not,  a 
just  character  is  given  of  him,  in  an  inscription  to  his  me- 
mory in  the  chancel  of  St.  Martin's  church.  He  published 
two  sermons,  and  ^^  Tabula  Chronologica  Archiepiscopatuum 

1  Life  prefixed  to  the  State  Papers.— Btog.  Brit.--^Swift's  Works,  edit  I8OI9 
vol.  XVIII.  p.  238.<*44iiDg'i  Hist,  of  ScoUand. 

U  2 


C  A  It  r  E. 

ct  Episcopatunm  in  Anglia  et  Wallia,  Ortus,  Dlvisioneff, 
Translationes,  &c.  breviter  exhibens ;  una  cuni41ndice  aU 
phabetico  Nominum,  quibus  apud  Authores  insigniuntur,"' 
folio,  without  date.  Part  of  a  letter  of  his  on  a  tesselated 
pavement  at  Leicester  is  in  Phil.  Trans.  No.  331,  and  hid 
account  of  Leicester  is  in  the  Bibl.  Top.  Britannica.  Those? 
eminent  antiquaries,  Dr.  Willis  and  Mr.  Stukeley,  ac- 
knowledged his  assistance  and  correspondence.  * 

CARTE  (Thomas),  a  very  learned  English  histo;'ian, 
was  born  at  Clifton,  in  Warwickshire ;  at  which  place  his 
father,  the  object  of  the  preceding  article,  at  that  time 
resided  as  vicar  ;  and  was  baptized  there  by  immersion,  on 
April  23,  1686.  If  this  account  be  exact,  his  progress  in 
grammatical  learning  must  have  been  very  rapid  and  ex- 
traordinary ;  for  it  appears  that  he  was  admitted  a  member 
of  University-college,  in  Oxford,  and  matriculated  on 
inly  4,  1698,  having  then  not  long  entered  into  the  thir- 
teenth year  of  his  age*.  He  took  his  degree  of  B.  A. 
Jan.  1702  ;  after  which  he  was  incorporated  at  Cambridge^ 
where  he  became  M.  A.  in  1706. 

In  1712  he  made  the  tour  of  Europe  with  a  nobleman, 
and  on  his  return  entered  into  orders,  and  was  appointed 
reader  of  the  Abbey-church  at  Bath ;  where  he  preached 
a  sermon  on  Jan.  30,  1714,  in  which  he  took  occasion  to 
vindicate  Charles  L  from  aspersions  cast  upon  his  memory 
^vith  regard  to  the  Irish  rebellion.  This  drew  Mr.  Carte 
into  a  controversy  with  Mr.  (afterwards  the  celebrated  Dr.) 
Chandler,  and  gave  rise  to  our  historian*s  first  publication, 
entitled  "  The  Irish  Massacre  set  in  a  clear  light,"  &c. 
which  is  inserted  in  lord  Somers's  Tracts.  Upon  the  ac- 
cession of  George  I.  Mr.  Carte's  principles  not  permitting 
him  to  take  thetiaths  to  the  new  government,  he  assumed  a 
]ay- habit,  and  at  one  time  assisted  the  celebrated  Jeremiab 
Collier,  who  preached  to  a  nonjuring  congregation  in  a 
iiouse  in  Broad -street, .  London,  and  on  a  Sunday  he  used 
to  put  on  his  gown  and  cas$ock,  and  perform  divine  service 
in  his  own  family.  What  particular  concern  he  had  in  the 
rebellion  of  1715  does  not  appear;  but  that  he  had  some 
degree  of  guilt  in  this  respect,  or,  at  least,  that  be  was 

«  There  i»ere  matty  instances  of  this  ki6d  at  and  previous  to  our  anther** 
time.  Mr.  Nichols  wa«  informed  that  Carte  removed  from  University  to  Brasea- 
Moce-ooUege.  '  •         .  . 

«  Biog.  Brir. — Bnt  chiefly  Nicholses  Bowyer,.  inhere  are  many  additional  par* 

ticuUrs  yt'  Mr.  Cane. 

CARTE.  99i 

strongly  suspected  of  it  by  administratioJOi,  is  evident,  from 
the  king*&. troops  having  orders  to  discover  and  apprehend 
hioa.  He  had  the  good  fortune  to  elude  their  search,  by 
concealing  himself  at  Coleshill,  Warwickshire,  in  thf&  house 
of  Mr.  Badger,  then  curate  of  that  town.  Mr.  Carte  hin.- 
self  officiated  for  a  time  as  curate  of  the  same  place  3 
after  which,  ho  was  some  time  secretary  to  bishop  Atter- 
bury.  This  connexion  threw  him  into  fresh  difficulties : 
so  deeply  was  he  thought  to  be  engaged  in  the  conspiracy 
ascribed  to  that  eminent  prelate,  that  a  charge  of  high 
treason  was  brought  against  him ;  and  a  proclamation  was 
issued,  Aug.  13,  1722,  offering  a  reward  of  1000/.  for 
seizing  his  person.  He  was  again  successful  in  making  his 
escape,  and  fled  into  France,  where  he  resided  several 
years,  under  the  borrowed  name  of  Philips.  Whilst  Mr. 
Carte  continued  in  that  country,  be  was  introduced  to  the 
principal  men  of  learning  and  family,  and  gained  access  to 
the  most  eminejit  libraries,  pubUc  and  private,  by  whicli 
means  he  was  enabled  to  collect  large  materials  for  illus- 
trating an  English  edition  of  Thuanus.  The  collection  was 
in  such  forwardness  in  1724,  that  he  consulted  Dr.  Mead, 
at  that  time  the  great  patron  of  literary  undertakings, on  the 
mode  of  publication.  The  doctor,  who  perceived  that  the 
plan  might  be  rendered  more  extensively  useful,  obtained 
Mr.  Carte's  materials  at  a  very  considerable  price,  and  en« 
gaged  Mr.  Buckley  in  the  noble  edition  completed  in  1733^ 
in  7  vols.  fol.  Mr.  Carte  would  probably  himself  have 
been  the  principal  editor,  if  he  had  not  been  an  exile 
at  the  time  the  undertaking  commenced,  but  we  find  that 
the  Latin  address  to  Dr.  Mead,  prefixed  to  that  work,  and 
dated  from  the  Inner-ttemple,  Jan.  1733,  is  signed  Thomas 
Carte.  Whilst  this  grand  work  was  carrying  on,  queea 
Caroline,  whose  regard  to  men  of  letters  is  well  known, 
received  such  favourable  impressions  of  Mr.  Carte,  that 
she  obtained  permission  for  his  returning*  to  England  in 
security;  which  he  did  some  time  between  the  years  172^ 
and  1 7  30.  He  had  not  long  been  restored  to  his  own  country 
before  he  engaged  in  one  of  the  most  important  of.  his 
works,  "  The  history  of  the  life  of  James  duke  of  Ormonde, 
from  bis  birtb,  in  1610,  to  his  death,  in  1688,"  3  vols.  foK 
The  third  volume,  which  was  published  first,  came  out  in 
1735,  and  the^first  and  second  volumes  in  1736,  Frpm  a 
letter  of  Mr.  Carte's  to  Dr.  Swil^t,  dated  Aug.  11,  1736,  it 
appears,  that  in  writing  the  life  of  the  duke  of  OrmQude, 

294  CARTE. 

he  had  availed  hims<3lf  of  some  instructions  which  he  had 
derived  from  the  dean  *.  In  the  same  letter  he  mentions 
his  design  of  composing  a  general  bistory  of  England  ;  and 
finds  great  fault,  not  only  with  Rapin,  but  with  Rymer^s 
Foedera ;  but  his  accusations  of  that  noble  collection  are  in 
several  respects  erroneous  and  groundless. 

It  is  highly  probable  that  the  success  and  popularity  of 
Rapines  History  gave  considerable  disgust  to  Mr.  Carte, 
and  other  gentlemen  of  the  same  principles,  and  suggested 
the  scheme  of  a  new  undertaking.  It  is  evident,  from 
some  letters  written  about  this  time  to  Dr.  Z.  Grey  by 
our  author,  that  he  laid  a  great  stress  upon  that  part  of  his 
Life  of  the  duke  of  Ormonde  which  vindicated  Charles  I. 
in  his  transactions  with  the  earl  of  Glamorgan,  and  which 
brought  a  charge  of  forgery  against  that  nobleman,  but  in 
this  it  has  since  been  proved  he  was  mistaken.  Some  book- 
sellers of  Dublin  having  formed  a  design  of  printing  in  Ire- 
land a  piratical  edition  of  the  **  History  of  the  duke  of 
Ormonde,"  Mr.  Carte  recollected  an  order  of  the  house  of 
lords,  made  in  1721,  which  was  full  to  his  purpose.  By 
this  order,  which  had  been  issued  upon  occasion  of  CurlPs 
publication  of  the  duke  of  Buckingham's  writings,  it  was 
declared  that  whoever  should  presume  to  print  any  account 
of  the  life,  the  letters,  or  other  works  of  any  deceased 
peer,  without  the  consent  of  his  heirs  or  executors,  should 
he  punished  as  guilty  of  a  breach  of  privilege  of  that  house. 
An  attested  copy  of  the  order  was  carried  by  our  historian 
to  the  earl  of  Arran,  and  his  lordship  sent  it  to  his  agent 
in  Dublin,  to  serve  upon  the  booksellfers  concerned  in  the 
pirated  impression,  and  to  discharge  them  in  his  name  from 
proceeding  in  the  design.  But  as  this  was  a  remedy  only 
in  Mr.  Carte's  case,  and  arising  from  the  particular  nature 
of  his  work,  he  was  very  solicitous  that  a  new  act  of  par- 
liament should  be  passed,  to  secure  the  property  of  au- 
thors in  their  writings,  and  drew  up  a  paper  recommending 
such  an  act.  Lord  Cornbury,  at  the  instance  of  the  uni- 
versity of  Oxford,  had  procured  the  draught  of  a  bill  to 
he  prepared,  which  was  approved  by  the  speaker  of  the 

*  Lord  Orrery,  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  name  after  his  could  not  add  to  your 

Carte,  from  Dablin,  writes  to  him  in  the  satisfaction.      But    I    may  say,    the 

following  terms :  **  Your  history  is  in  worthy  and  the  wise  are  with  you  to  a 

great  esteem  here.     All  sides  seem  t<^  man,  and  you  have  me  into  the  bar- 

like  it.    The  dean  of  St.  Patrick's  ho-  gain." 
aours  ypu  with  his  approbation.    Any 

CARTE.  «»$ 

house  of  comtnons ;  but  we  do  not  find  that  any  farlber 
measures  were  pursued  in 'the  affair.  In  April  1738,  Me. 
Carte  published  on  a  separate  sheet,  "  A  general  account 
of  the  necessary  materials  for  a  history  of  England,  of  the 
society  and  subscriptions  proposed  for  defraying  the  ex»- 
pences  of  it,  and  the  method  in  which  he  intended  to  pro^ 
ceed  in  carrying  on  the  work."  In  the  following  October 
he  had  obtained  subscriptions,  or  the  promise  of  subscript 
tions,  to  the  amount  of  600/.  a  year.  Not  long  after,  he 
was  at  Cambridge,  collecting  materials  for  his  history,  from 
the  university  and  other  libraries.  Whilst  he  was  thus 
employed,  his  head  quarters  were  at  Madingly,  the  seaft 
of  sir  John  Hinde  Cotton,  hart,  whose  large  collection  of 
old  pamphlets  and  journals,  published  during  the  civil  wsfir 
between  1639  and  1660,  he  methodized,  and  procured  to 
be  bound  in  a  great  number  of  volumes  now  in  the  library 
there.  March  8,  1744,  a  cause  in  chancery  was  deter- 
mined in  his  favour  against  his  brother  Samuel  and  bis 
sister  Sarah,  with  regard  to  a  doubt  concerning  their  fa;* 
ther's  will.  Not  many  weeks  after,  our  author  fell  under 
the  suspicions  of  administration,  and  was  tak^n  into  -cus- 
tody, together  with  a  Mr.  Garth,  at  a  tiiue  when  the 
habeas-corpus  act  was  suspended,  in  con9e<}uence  of  some 
apprehended  designs  in  favour  of  the  pretender.  It  is  cer- 
tain that  nothing  material  was  discovered  against  him,  for 
he  was  soon  discharged  out  of  custody.  May  9,  1 744  ^.  Tiiis 
event  did  not  detract  from  his  popularit}^,  or  prevent  his 
receiving  such  encouragement  in  bis  historical  design,  ab 
never  before  or  since  has  been  afforded,  or  expected  m 
any  literary  undertaking.  On  July  18,  the  court  of  com- 
mon-council of  the  city  of  London  agreed  to  subscribe  50/. 
a  year  for  seven  years  to  Mr.  Carte,  towards  defraying  the 
expence  of  his  writing  the  history  of  England.  In  the 
next  month  was  printed,  in  an  8vo  pamphlet,  ^*  A  collec- 
tion of  the  several  papers  that  had  been  published  by  him 
relative  to  hisrgreat  work."  Oct.  18^  the  company  of 
goldsmiths  voted  25L  a  year  for  seven  years,  towards  de- 

*  Whilst  under   examination,    the  walking  in  a  heavy  shower,   he   was 

duke  of  Newcastle  asked  him  if  lie  was  plied    with    **  A  Coach,    your  Reve* 

not  a  bishop  ?  "No,  my  Lord  Duke,'*  rence  !" — "  No,  houest  friend,"    au- 

replied  Mr.  Carte,  "  there  arc  no  bi-  swered  Carte,  **  this  is  not  a  reign  fqr 

shops  in  England  but  what  are  made  me  to  ride  in  a  coach."    This  story^, 

by  your  Grace  j  and  I  am  sure  1  have  l^pwevt-r,    is  told   by   dean   Swift,    qf 

no  rea:ion  to  expect  that  honour.'-' —  Daniel  Purccll^  another  nonjuror. 
Soon  after  the  accession  of  George  I., 



irajriog  the  expences  of  transcribing  letters,  negotiations) 
and  other  materials  of  the  like  nature ;  and,  in  the  De- 
cember following,  the  companies  of  grocers  and  vintners 
subscribed  25/.  a  year  each  to  the  same  purpose  ;  and  the 
chapter  of  Durham,  21/.  The  university  of  Oxford,  and 
the  societies  of  New«college,  Magdalen,  Brazen-nose,  and 
Trinity,  were  contributors,  but  no  mention  is  made  of 
Cambridge  in  the  dedication  of  the  first  vohime.  Pro- 
posals for  printing  the  history  were  circulated  in  17^6,  and 
the  first  volume  of  it  was  completed  in  December  1747 ; 
when  the  credit  of  a  work  which  had  been  ushered  into  the 
world  with  so  much  preparation  and  expectation,  and 
which  had  been  supported  by  such  ample  subscriptions,  was 
almost  wholly  overturned  by  a  remarkable  act  of  literary  in^- 
discretion.  Mr.  Carte,  having  taken  occasion  to  speak  of 
the  unction  of  our  kings,  and  of  the^great  effects  annexed 
to  it,  introduced  in  a  note  a  story  of  one  Christopher 
Lovel,  a  native  of  Wells,  in  Somersetshire,  who  is  repre* 
aented  as  having  been  healed  of  the  evil,  at  Avignon,  in 
1716,  by  application  to  the  pretender*.  The  indiscretion 
he  had  been  guilty  of  was  hurtful  to  his  interest,  und  pro- 
duced the  three  following  pamphlets:  1.  ^^  Remarks  on 
Mr.  Carte's  General  History  of  England ;"  2.  "  A.  letter 
to  the  Jacobite  Journalist,  concerning  Mr.  Carte's  His- 
tory, by  Duncan  Mac  Carte,  a  Highlander;"  and  3.  ^^  Some 
Specimens  of  Mr.  Carte's  History  of  England,  with  Re- 
marks thereon,  by  Donald  Mac  Carte."  But  this  was  not 
sAl :  the  corporation  of  London  unanimously  resolved,  in 
April  1748,  to  withdraw  their  subscription;  and  the  his- 

*  The  fad  appears  to  have  been, 
Hint  the  nan,  by  his  journey  and 
change  of  diet,  and  physic,  was  1re- 
lieved  ;  but  bis  cure  lasted  only  for  a 
short  time.  His  sores  broke  out  again, 
with  violence,  in  many  other  parts  of 
bis  body ;  aiKl  he  returned,  in  hopes 
of  the  same  success,  to  France,  where 
be  died  miserably,  before  he  reucbed 
Jlvignon.  It  has  been  alleged  in  ex- 
tenuation of  our  author's  conduct,  that 
the  note  concerning  Christopher  Lovel 
-was  not  in  reality  his  own ;  and  that 
be  was  over-persuaded  to  insert  it,  after 
the  sheet  in  which  it  was  printed  had  been 
committed  to  the  press.  Bat  he  could 
not  have  been  prevailed  upon  to  intro- 
duee  it,  if  he  had  not  himself  believed 
the  fisct;  and  if  he  had  hot  at  the  same 
time  been  extremely  solicitoos  to  lay  hold 
CNf  ooy  circumstance  which  he  thought 

would  promote  the  cause  of  the  exiled 
family.  In  the  preface  to  his  second 
volume,  he  continues  to  avow  ibe 
truth  of  the  story.  He  bad,  accordioip 
to  his  own  account  of  the  matter,  been 
an  unbeliever  with  regard  to  the  cure 
of  the  king's  evil  by  the  royal  touch, 
till  he  was  convinced  of  his  mistake  by 
Mr.  Anstis,  who  furnished  him  with 
those  proofs  out  of  the  English  recon)a 
which  attest  the  facts,  and  are  printed 
in  Taoker*8  Treatise  on  the  subject, 
published  in  1597.  If,  however,  Mr. 
Carte  had  examined  the  narrations  with 
a  due  degree  of  scepticism,  he  would 
not  have  been  so  easily  misled.  See  oq 
this  subject  Barrington's  Observations 
on  the  Statutes,  p.  107.  108,  notes , 
and  Nichols's  Bowyer,  vol.  II.  foote^ 
p.  495,  &c. 


tory  fell  into  very  general  neglect  *.     It  is  to  the  honour 
of  Mr.  Carte's  fortitude,  that  he  was  not  discouraged  from 
prosecuting  his  undertaking  ;  and  perhaps  he  might  re-» 
ceive  private  aid  and  support,    though  public  assistance 
was  withdrawn.     Whatever  may  have  been  the  case  in  that 
respect^  bis  second  volume,  containing  an  account  of  all 
public  transactions,  from  the  accession  of  Henry  III.  in 
1216,  to  the  death  of  Henry  VII.  in  1509,  aj)peared  in 
1750.     The  third  volume,  which  extended  to  the  marriage 
of  the  elector  palatine  with  the  princess  Elizabeth,  daughj^er 
of  James  I.  in  1613,  was  published  in  1752.     The  fourth 
volume,  which  Mr.  Carte  did  not  live  to  complete,  ap« 
peared  iu  1755.     It  was  intended  to  have  been  carried  on 
to  the  restoration,  but  concludes  with  the  year  1654.     I| 
was  his  design  to  have  brought  the  narration  down  to  the 
revolution,  for  which  purpose  he  had  been  at  uncommon 
pains  to  collect  materials  wherever  they  could  be  found* 
Notwithstanding  our  author's  peculiar  opinions  and  pre* 
judices,  his  general  history  is  undoubtedly  a  work  of  great 
merit  in  point  of  information.     It  is  written  with  eminent 
exactness  and  diligence,  and  with  a  perfect  knowledge  of 
original  authors  ;  and  has  of  late  years  risen  considerably 
in  reputation,  as  well  as  in  price,  especially  since  it  was 
(discovered  how  much  Hume  was  indebted  to  it.     Mr.  Carte 
died  at  Caldecot-house,  near  Abingdon,  Berkshire^  April 
2,  1754,  and  was  buried  at  Yattenden  church,  in  a  vault 
on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel.     The  disorder  which  car- 
ried him  off,  was  a  diabetes.     At  his  decease,  all  his  pam- 
pers came  into  the  hands  of  his  widow,  daughter  of  colonel 
Brett,  who  afterwards  married  Mr.  Jernegan,  a  gentleman 
intended  for  orders  in  the  church  of  Rome.     Mrs.  Carte 
left  the  papers  to  her  second  husband  for  life,  and  after 
his  death  to  the  university  of  Oxford.     They  are  now  de- 
posited in  the  Bodleian  library,  having  been  delivered  bj 
Mr.  Jernegan  to  the  university,  1778,  for  a  valuable  con- 
sideration.    Whilst  they  were  in  this  gentleman's  posses** 
sion,  the  earl  of  Hardwicke  paid  200/.  for  the  perusal  of 
them,   and,   it  is  said,    might  have  purchased  them  for 
1500/. ;  but  we  do  not  see  how  this  can  be  reconciled  withi 
.  the  terms  of  the  will.     It  is  certain,  however,  that  as  late 
as  1775,  Mr.  Jernegan  advertised  the  tcse  of  them.     For  a 

*  la  1749  the  first  volume  was  retailed  to  the  public,  in  numbers,  at  !«. 
each,   ia  all   thirty-six,  by   the  booksellers  Cooper   and  Strahaoi  .and  tiM 


298  CARTE. 

consideration  of  SCO/.  Mr.  Macpherson  bad  the  use  of  them  ^ 
who,  from  these  and  other  materials,  compiled  his  historj 
and  state  papers.  Mr.  Carte  was  a  man  of  a  strong  consti* 
tution,  and  indefatigable  application.  When  the  studies 
of  the  day  were  over,  he  would  eat  heartily  ;  and  in  con*, 
versation  was  cheerful  and  entertaining ;  but  his  external 
appearance  was  slovenly  and  uninviting. 

Besides  the  works  mentioned,  he  was  the  author  of  the 
following  publications:  1.  "  A  collection  of  original  letters 
and  pjfpers,  concerning  the  affairs  of  England,  from  1641 
to  1660,V  1739,  2  vols.  8vo.  2.  "  The  History  of  the  Re- 
volutions of  Portugal,  from  the  foundation  of  that  kingdom 
to  the  year  1567,  with  letters  of  sir  Robert  Southwell, 
during  his  embassy  there,  to  the  duke  of  Ormonde ;  giving 
a  particular  account  of  the  deposing  don  Alphonso,  and 
placing  don  Pedro  on  the  throne,"  1740,  8vo.  3.  "  A  full 
Answer  to  the  Letter  from  a  bystander,"  a  pamphlet,  1742, 
8vo.  4.  "A  full  and  clear  vindication  of  the  full  answer 
to  a  Letter  from  a  bystander,"  ditto,  1743.  The  letter 
from  a  bystander,  was  written  by  the  late  Corbyn  Morris, 
esq.  5.  "  Catalogue  des  roUes  Gascons,  Normans,  et 
Francois,  conserves  dans  les  archives  de  la  Tour  de  Londres; 
t\v6  d'apres  celui  du  Gard^  desdites  archives;  &  contenant 
la  precis  &  le  sommaire  de  tons  les  titres  qui  s*y  trouvent 
concernant  la  Guienne,  la  Normandie,  &  les  autres  pro- 
vinces de  la  France,  sujettes  autres  fois  aux  rois  d'An- 
gleterre,  &c."  Paris,  1743,  2  vols,  folio,  with  two  most 
exact  and  correct  indexes  of  places  and  persons.  This 
valuable  collection,  being  calculated  for  the  use  of  the 
French,  is  introduced  with  a  preface  in  that  language. 
6.  ^^  A  preface  to  a  translation,  by  Mrs.  Thompson,  of  the 
history  o(  the  memorable  and  extraordinary  calamities  of 
Margaret  of  Anjou,  queen  of  England,  &c.  by  the  chevalier 
Michael  Baudier,"  London,  1736,  Svo.  7.  **  Advice  of 
a  Mother  to  her  son  and  daughter,"  translated  from  the 
French  of  the  marchioness  de  Lambert.  This  has  gone 
through  several  editions.  8,  "  Farther  reasons, '  addressed 
to  parliament,  for  rendering  more  effectual  an  act  of  queen 
Anne,  relating  to  the  vesting  in  authors  the  right  of  copies, 
for  the  encouragement  of  learning,  by  R.  H."  about  1737. 
Mr.  Carte  wrote,  also,  a  paper  (the  MS.  of  which  is  in 
Mr.  Nichols's  possession),  recommending  a  public  library 
to  be  formed  at  the  Mansion-house,  and  that  the  twelv^ 
great  companies  of  the  city  of  London  should  each  of 

CARTE.  29§ 

thein  subscfribe  2000/.  for  that  purpose.  No  notice  ap- 
pears to  have  been  taken  of  this  proposal  at  the  time,  but 
very  lately,  1 806,  in  the  mayoralty  of  sir  James  Shaw,  bart. 
and  at  the  suggestion  of  that  magistrate,  the  foundation  of  a 
library  at  the  Mansion-house  was  laid,  and  a  fine  collection 
of  English  classics  deposited  there,  by  a  vote  of  the  court  of 
aldermen,  under  the  direction  of  John  Nichqls,  esq.  then  s^ 
member  of  the  corporation,  who  was  assisted  in  the  selec- 
tion by  the  late  very  learned  professor  Porson.  A  translation 
of  Mr.  Carte's  General  History  of  England  into  French,  was 
undertaken  by  several  gentlemen  in  conjunctign,  but  was 
never  completed.  Some  parts  of  the  translation  were  in  Dr. 
Ducarel's  possession.  Mr.  Carte  left  behind  him,  in  MS.  a 
Vindication  of  Charles  I.  with  regard  to  the  Irish  massacre* 
In  1758  was  published  a  book,  partly  upon  the  same  subject, 
entitled  "  The  case  of  the  royal  martyr  considered  with  can- 
dour," in  2  vols.  8vo,  the  author  of  which  acknowledges 
his  obligations  to  Mr.  Carte.  It  was  written  by  the  rev. 
J.  Bosweil,  M.  A.  a  clergyman  and  a  schoolmaster,  at 
*  Taunton,  in  Somersetshire,  and  the  author  of  a  "  Method 
of  Study,  6r  a  useful  library,"  printed  in  1733,  in  8vo,  a 
work  of  no  distinguished  merit;  and  of  two  pamphlets, 
called  "  Remarks  on  the  Free  and  Cartdid  Disquisitions,'* 
which  appeared  in  1750  and  1751. 

A  singular  circumstance  yet  remains  to  be  noticed  re- 
specting the  conduct  of  the  city  of  London  towards  our 
author.  At  a  court  of  common  council  held  Oct.  11,  1750, 
he  petitioned  that  the  subscription  of  50/.  per  annurrij  to- 
wards compiling  a  history  of  England,  voted  to  him  by 
that  court  in  1744,  and  taken  off  in  1748,  might  be  paid 
him  for  the  latter  year,  of  which  ten  months  were  elapsed 
when  the  resolution  of  withdrawing  that  subscription  was 
taken  ;  and  it  was  agreed  that  the  chamberlain  should  pay 
him  the  50/.  for  that  year ! 

Mr.  Carte  had  two  brothers,  Samuel  and  John.  Samuel 
Carte  was  admitted  a  scholar  of  Trinity-hall,  Cambridge, 
on  the  5th  of  May,  1704,  and  proceeded  LL.  B.  He  was 
afterwards  a  member  of  Symond's-inn,  and  practised  as  a 
solicitor  in  Chancery  in  1708,  in  which  profession  he  be- 
came eminent.  He  was  also  a  learned  antiquary.  Most 
of  his  manuscripts  and  papers  relative  to  antiquities  are 
supposed  to  have  been  sold  by  his  widow  to  the  late  sir 
Thomas  Cave,  bart.  He  assisted  Mr.  Jackson,  school- 
master of  Coventry,  in  his  account  of  the  benefactions  and 
charities  belonging  to  that  city  ;.and  was  the  editor,  though 

too  CAR  T.E. 

without  his  name,  of  Brewster^s  '^  Collectanea  Ecclesia^- 
tica,'*  to  which  he  added  many  learned  notes.  Mr.  Samuel 
Carte  was  alive  in  17 60,  but  died  not  long  after.  Several 
manuscript  letters  of  his,  relative  to  subjects  of  antiquity, 
were  in  Dr.  DucarePs  possession,  and  are  now  in  that  of 
Mr.  Nichob. 

Mr.  John  CarYe  was  entered  at  Trinity-ball,  Cam* 
bridge,  Jan.  9,  1707,  where  b^was  admitted  to  the  degree 
of  LL.  B.  Having  taken  holy  orders,'  be  became  first  vicar 
of  Tachbroke,  in  the  county  of  Warwick,  and  Was  after- 
wards promoted,  by  the  dean  and  chapter  of  V/estminster, 
to  the  vicarage  of  Hinckley,  in  Leicestershire,  with  the 
rectory  of  Stoke  annexed.  At  this  place  he  resided,  from 
the  yjear  1720^  till  his  death,  which  was  on  the  17th  of 
December,  1735.  Mr.  John  Carte  was  very  remarkable 
for  his  absence  of  mind.  Some  years  before  bis  decease, 
he  paid  his  addresses  to  Miss  Dugdale,  a  descendant  of  the 
illustrious  antiquary,  and  the  wedding-day  was  fixed.  But 
he  forgot  to  go  to  the  place  appointed  for  the  celebration 
of  the  marriage,  till  the  day  after  the  time  agreed  upon ; 
which  the  lady,  as  might  justly  be  expected,  resented  so 
much,  that  she  absolutely  refused  him  her  hand.  Being 
perpetually  absorbed  in  thought,  he  was  careless  in  his 
dress,  and  destitute  of  oBconomy.  His  inattention  to  money 
matters  he  carried  to  such  an  excess,  that,  when  the  inha« 
bitants  of  Stoke  have  brought  to  him  the  tithes,  which  he 
never  took  the  trouble  to  ask  for,  it  was  not  unusual  with 
him,  if  he  chanced  to  be  engaged  with  a  book,  to  request 
that  they  would  come  at  a  future  time,  though  perhaps  he 
was  the  next  hour  obliged  to  borrow  a  guinea  for  his  sub- 
sistence. The  parsonage-house  adjoins  to  the  church- 
yard ;  and  yet  he  was  frequently  so  engaged  in  study,  that 
the  sermon-bell  used  to  ring  till  the  congregation  were 
weary  of  waiting,  and  the  clerk  was  obliged  to  remind  him 
of  his  duty.  During  the  fifteen  years  in  which  he  was 
vicar  of  Hinckley,  he  neglected  to  make  any  demand  for 
tithes  of  the  hamlet  of  The  Hide,  belonging  to  that  parish, 
which  afterwards  involved  the  parish  in  a  tedious  law-suit. 
Mr.  John  Carte's  unaffected  piety,  his  learning,  his  inte* 
grity,  his  simplicity  of  manners,  and  we  may  probdbly  add, 
his  avoiding  to  insist  upon  his  legal  dues,  are  still  remem- 
bered with  veneration  by  his  surviving  parishioners.  He 
was  a  most  zealous  assertor  of  the  rites  and  ceremoqies  of 
the  church  of  England,  which,  he  justly  observed,  were 

C  ^  R  T  E.  801 


equally  remote  fram  the  extremes  of  popery  and  fanatidsro, 
and  his  opinions  were  founded  on  the  firm  basis  of  scrip- 
tare,  with  which  he  was  so  intimately  acquainied,  as  to  be 
able  to  repeat  the  greater  part  of  the  Bible.  ^ 

CARTER  (Elizabeth),  an  English  lady  of  profound 
learning  and  genius,  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  the  rev. 
Dr.  Nicholas  Carter,    a  clergyman  iix  Kent,    who,  with 
other  preferment,  held  the  cure  of  the  chapel  of  Deal, 
where  this  daughter  was  born,  Dec.  16,  1717,  and  edu- 
cated by  her  father.     At  first  she  discovered  such  a  slow- 
ness'of  faculties,  as  to  make  him  despair  of  her  progress  in 
intellectual  attainment,  even  with  the  aid  of  the  greatest 
industry,  and  the  most  ardent  desire,  which  characterized 
her  efforts.     She  herself,  however,  though  mortified  and 
sorrowful  at  her  own  difficulties,  resolved  to  persevere,  and 
her  perseverance  was  crowned  with  unexampled  success. 
She  early  became  mistress  of  Latin,  Greek,  French,  Grer- 
man,  and  afterwards  understood  Italian,  Spanish,  Portu- 
guese, and  Hebrew,  and  last  of  all  acquired  something  of 
Arabic    Before  she  was  seventeen  years  of  age,  many  of' 
her  poetical   attempts   bad  appeared,  particularly  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine  for    1734,  with   the  signature   of 
Eliza.     This  extraordinary  display  of  genius  and  acquire- 
ments procured  her  immediate  celebrity,  and  the  learned 
flocked  about  her  with  admiration.     In   1738,  when  she 
was  about  twenty.  Cave,  the  proprietor  of  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine,    published  some    of  her   poems  in  a    quarto 
pamphlet,  now  little  known,  as  it  was  published  without 
her  name.     It  is  probable  she  did  not  think  many  of  these 
worthy  of  her ;  as  in  1762,  when  she  published  a  small  col- 
lection with  her  name,  she  admitted  only  two  from  the  for- 
mer publication,  the  <^  Lines  on  her  birth-day,''  and  the 
"  Ode  of  Anacreon.'* 

In  1739,  she  translated  "The  Critique  of  Crousaz  on 
Pope's  Essay  on  Man  ;"  and  in  the  same  year  gave  a  trans- 
lation of  ^^  Algarotti^s  Explanation  of  Newton's  Philosophy 
for  the  use  of  the  Ladies."  These  publications  extended 
her  acquaintance  among  the  literati  of  her  own  country ; 
and  her  fame  reached  the  continent,  where  Baratier  be- 
stowed high  praises  on  her  talents  and  genius.  In  174i, 
she  formed  an  intimacy  with  Miss  Catherine  Talbot,  niece 


1  Nichols's  Bowyer. — Biog.  Brit,  ^be  whole  of  which  was  furnished  by  Mr. 
Nichols.— C3ent.  Masr.  vol.  VHI.  IX.  XIV.  XVIII.  XX.  XXtV.  See  Index.— 
«^iu»toa'»  UU,  p.  358,  366. 

302  CART  E  R. 

to  the  lord.  <:;hancellor  Talbot,  and  a  young  lady  of  coi»U 
derable  genius  and  most  amiable  disposition.     This  was  an 
important  event  of  Miss  Carter's  life  on  many  accounts. 
The  intimacy  of  tb^ir  friendship,  the  importance  of  theic 
'  correspondence,  and  the  exalted  piety  of  both,  made  it  the 
main  ingredient  of  their  mutual  happiness  :  and  in  additioii 
to  this,  it  procured  a  friendship    with   Dr.  Seeker,  then 
bishop  of  Oxford,  and  afterwards  archbishop  of  Canter-, 
bury,  with   whom  Miss  Talbot  resided,-  which'  extended 
her  knowledge  of  the  world,  cherished  her  profound  learn-* 
ing,    and  exercised  the  piety  of  her  thoughts.     To  this 
event  is  to  be  traced  her  undertsd^ing  and  completing  the 
•work  by  which  her  fame  has  been  most  known  abroad,  and 
will  longest  be  remembered   by  scholars  at   home,    her 
*'  Translation  of  Epictetus."     It  was  not,  however,  till  the 
beginning  of  1749,  that  this  translation  was  commenced. 
It  ,was  then  sent  up  in  sheets,  as  finished,  to  Miss  Talbot, 
who  earnestly  pressed  its  continuance,  which  was  further 
Urged   by  bishop  Seeker,  to  whom  her  friend  shewed  it. 
Her  biogr^ipher  has  given  a  minute  account  of  its  progress 
till  its  conclusion  in  December  1752.     She  then  by  the 
bishop's  desire,  added  notes  and  an  introduction,  both  ad- 
mirably executed ;  and  the  work  was  sent  to  press  in  June 
1757,  and  finished  in  April  1758,  in  an  elegant  quarto  vo- 
lume.    At  the  entreaty  of  her  friends,  she  permitted  it  to 
published  by  subscription  (at  the  price  of  iL  ls,)y  and  by 
their  liberality,  it  produced  her  a  clear  1000/. 

Mrs.  Carter  and  Mrs.  Montague  had  been  acquainted 
from  their  earliest  years.  The  latter,  though  not  born  in 
Kent,  bad  an  earlj'  connection  with  it,  by  her  father's  suc-t 
cession  to  the  estate  and  seat  at  Horton  near  Hythe,  where 
she  passed  many  of  her  juvenile  years.  From  1754  their 
correspondence  was  regular  and  uninterrupted;  and  Mrs. 
Carter's  visits  to  Mrs.  Montague  at  her  house  in  London, 
where  she  met  an  union  of  rank  and  talent,  were  constant, 
and  at  her  seat  at  Sandleford  in*  the  summer  or  autumn^ 
not  unfrequent.  The  epistolary  communication  between 
these  two  celebrated  women  would  unquestionably  be 
highly  acceptable  to  the  public,  and  we  trust  it  will  not 
be  long  withheld.  In  1756,  sir  George  Lyttelton,  after- 
wards lord  Lyttelton,  visited  Mrs.  Qarter  at  Deal ;  and  from 
thence  a  gradual  intimacy  grew  up  between  them,  which 
ended  only  with  his  life.  About  the  same  time  she  became 
acquainted  with  the  celebrated  William  Pulteney,  earl  of 


Bath,  who  delighted  in  her  society,  and  regarded  her  in« 
tellectual  powers  and  acquisitions  with  unfeigned  admira* 
tion.  By  his  persuasion  she  published  the  volume  of  her 
poems,  already  noticed,  1762,  8vo,  and  dedicated  them  to 
him.  They  are  introduced  by  some  poetical  compliments 
from  the  pen  of  lord  Ly ttelton. 

In  1763,  Mrs.  Carter  accompanied  lord  Bath,  and  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Montague,  with  Dr.  Douglas  (afterwards  bishop 
of  Salisbury,  but  then  lord  Bath*s  chaplaiu)  to  Spa.  They 
landed  at  Calais  June  4 ;  and  after  visiting  Spa,  made  a 
short  tour  in  Germany ;  and  then  proceeded  down  the 
Rhine  into  Holland  ;  whence  through  Brussels,  Ghent, 
Bruges,  and  Dunkirk,  they  came  again  to  Calais,  and  re- 
turned to  Dover  Sept.  19.  Lord  Bath's  health  seemed 
improved  by  this  tour ;  but  appearances  were  fallacious, 
for  he  died  in  the  summer  of  1764.  His  death  gave  Mrs. 
Carter  deep  concern.  In'  August  176$,  she  had  an  addi- 
tional loss  in  the  death  of  her  revered  friend  and  patron 
archbishop  Seeker.  Two  years  after  she  sustained  a  more 
severe  deprivation  in  the  loss  of  her  bosom  friend  Miss 
Talbot,  of  whom,  among  other  praises  dictated  by  sense 
and  feeling,  she  says,  *^  Never  surely  was  there  a  more 
p^fect  pattern  of  evangelical  goodness,  decorated  by  all 
the  ornaments  of  a  highly-improved  understanding ;  and 
recommended  by  a  sweetness  of  temper,  and  an  elegance 
and  politeness  of  manners,  of  a  peculiar  and  more  enga- 
ging kind  than  in  any  other  character  I  ever  knew." 

She  was  indeed  now  arrived  at  a  time  of  life  when  every 
year  was  stealing  from  her  some  intimate  friend  or  dear 
relation.  In  1774,  she  lost  her  father,  in  his  eighty- 
seventh  year,  to  which  late  period  he  had  preserved  all 
his  faculties  unimpaired,  except  that  his  hearing  was  a 
little  difficult.  She  had  passed  the  greater  part  of  her  life 
with  him.  The  house  in  which  they  latterly  resided  was 
bought  by  her;  and  their  affection  had  been  uninterrupted. 
Half  the  year  she  was  in  the  habit  of  passing  in  London ; 
the  other  half  was  spent  together  in  this  house. 

In  1782  an  event  occurred,  which  once  more  disturbed 
the  uniformity  of  Mrs.  Carter's  life :  she  had  been  under 
great  obligations  to  sir  William  Pulteney,  who  very  libe- 
rally settled  on  her  an  annuity  of  150/.  a  year,  which  it 
had  been  expected  by  her  friends  that  lord  Bath  would 
have  done.  She  therefore  complied  with  his  wishes  to 
accompany  his  daughter  to  Paris,  though  she  was  now  iu 

804  C  A  R  T  E  R, 

ber  sixty-fifth  year.  She  was  only  absent  sixteen  days,  of 
which  one  week  was  spent  at  Paris.  Mrs.  Carter  was  not 
insensible  to  the  fatigues  and  inconveniencies  of  her  jour- 
ney, but  her  sense  of  them  yielded  to  her  friendship.  At 
home,  however,  she  was  able  to  enjoy  summer  tours,  which 
doubtless  contributed  to  her  health  and  amusement.  la 
1791,  she  had  the  honour,  by  the  queen's  express  desire, 
of  being  introduced  to  her  majesty  at  lord  Cremorne'a 
bouse  at  Chelsea,  an  incident  which  naturally  reminds  us 
of  a,  similar  honour  paid  to  her  friends,  Dr.  Johnson  at 
Buckingham-house,  and  Dr.  Beattie  at  Kew.  Afterwards, 
when  the  princess  of  Walesr  occupied  lord  Keith's  house  in 
the  Isle  of  Thanet,  she  called  on  Mrs.  Carter  at  her  house 
at  Deal;  and  the  duke  of  Cumberland,  when  attending 
bis  regiment  at  Deal,  also  paid  her  a  visit.  Such  was  her 
reputation  many  years  after  she  had  ceased  to  attract  pub- 
lic notice  as  an  author,  and  when  the  common  mass  of 
readers  scarcely  knew  whether  such  a  person  existed. 
*  About  nine  years  before  her  death,  she  experienced  an 
alarming  illness,  of  which  she  never  recovered  the  effects, 
in  bodily  strength,  but  the  faculties  of  her  mind  remained 
unimpaired ;  and  her  heart  was  as  warm  as  ever.  In  the 
summer  of  1803,  her  weakness  evidently  increased.  As 
the  winter  approached,  and  the  time  of  her  annual  journey 
to  London,  which  she  never  omitted,  drew  near,  her 
strength  and  spirits  appeared  to  revive.  On  the  23d  of 
December,  she  left  Deal  for  the  last  time,  having  six  days 
before  completed  her  eighty -eighth  year,  and  on  the  24th 
arrived  at  her  old  lodgings  in  Clarges-street.  For  some 
days  she  seemed  better,  and  visited  some  of  her  old  friends, 
particularly  her  very  intimate  friend  Lady  Cremorne.  On 
Jan.  4,  she  exhibited  symptoms  of  alarming  weakness, 
after  which  all  her  strength  gradually  ebbed  away,  till 
about  3  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  Feb.  19,  1806,  when 
she  expired  without  a  struggle  or  groan.  She  lies  interred 
in  the  burial-ground  of  Grosvenpr  chapel,  under  a  stone 
on  which  is  a  plain  prose  epitaph,  reciting  the  dates  of 
birth,  &c.  A  mural  monument  was  afterwards  erected  to 
ber  memory  in  the  chapel  of  the  town  of  Deal. 

The  year  following  her  death  were  published  "  Me- 
moirs of  her  \U'e,  with  a  new  editioix  of  her  poems,  some 
of  which  have  never  appeared  before  :  to  which  are  added, 
some  Miscellaneous  Essays  in  prose,  together  with  Note* 
on  the  Bible,  and  Answers,  to  Objections  coDcernipg  the 

C  A  ft  1i  H  R.  305 

Christian  religion.  By  tbe  Rev.  Montague  Pennington^ 
M.  A.  Vicar  of  Northbourn  in  Kent,  her, nephew  and  0xer 
cutor,"  4to,  and  since  published  in  2  vols.  8 vo. 

In  this  interesting  volume  a  more  perfect  portrait  is  ex-^ 
hibited  of  Mrs.  Carter  than  can  be  admitted  in  any  skejfoH 
like  the  present.  With  respect  to  genius,  she  had  unques- 
toonabiy  a  considerable  portion,  but  she  had  it  not  casill* 
atcommand;  it  did  not  precipitate  her  into  any  of  tho^ef 
dazzHAg^  productions  which  are  admired  even  f6r  their 
£uilts.  What  she  accomplished  was  the  fruit  of  labour,  bui 
it  was  labour  which  amply  made  up  for  the  time  it  c6ti^ 
somed.  Her  poems,  the  only  productions  which  c^h  ti^ 
considered  under  this  head,  are  distinguished'  for  ele- 
gance of  style  and  sentiment,  often  for  sublimity  arid' a£ 
peculiar  vigbur  of  thought  Her  versification  is  hdrnioniousdj 
and  her  language  pure  and  forcible.  But  the  more  rei? 
markable  qualities  of  her  character  must  be  'sought  in  a 
mind  ouhh'uted  with  the  highest  degree  of  care,  and  '^n^* 
riched  with  a  greater  fund  of  various  learning  thap.f^lj  t^' 
the  lot. of  many  of  her  contemporaries; of  the  o^^^r  sex; 
Mfs.  Carter  was  a  learned  lady  in  the  most  honourably 
sense,  and  appears  uniformly  to  have  applied  it  to  tbe.cnos| 
valuable  purposes.  In  the  sexual  rivaiship  she  was  not  am- 
bitioUS'to  attain  either  equality  or  superiority  by  affetting' 
iHSiv  discdveries  in  religion,  morals,  or  politics,  yet, attained 
a  higher  and  more  enviable  rank  in  the  literary  world  thaii 
any  of  thoseunsexed  females,  in  whose  case  the  world  has 
lately  beeh^^b(ig^d  t^  add  pity  to  its  ^  admiration^  and  to 
withhold  esteem.  Her  principles,  on  all  the  great  leading 
topics  that  are  interesting  to  human  beings,  were  sounds 
the  result  of  examination  and  conviction;  and  while,,  by 
aflhering  to  them,,  she  secured  her  own  happiness^  sli^ 
added  to  that  of  others  by  example  and  precept. 
.'The  year  following  the  publication  of  the  Life  of ^Mr§, 
Garter,  the  same  editor  published  **  A  Series^  of  Letters 
between  her  and  Miss  Catherine  Talbot,  &c.**  2  vols.  4to, 
m  which  the  talents,  various  knowledge,  vivacity,  and 
spirit  of  these  ladies,  as  well  as  of  Mrs.  Vesey,  anbthec 
female*  of  taste  and  learning,  are  displayed  to  great  ad-^'  • 
vsmtage.  These,  as  well  as  the '  life,  have  been  sincei 
reprinted,  and  are  among  the  books  without  which  n.9  lady '5. 
libigiry [can  be  complete;*  ,  / 

1  Life,  ubi  supra.— Sketch  by  sir  £.  Brydges,  in  Cens.  Lit.  vol.  V.— -Gent* 
Mag. ;  see  InckiXi^F^bes'f  JUlls  of  fielttti^^-rXaitiper's  Woi'ktf^  vol. ^ VIL-^Bm*    ' 
welPs  Life  of  Johasoiu  .  .      -  *  ' 

Vol.  VIII,  X 

$0«  C  A  R  T  E  R. 

CARTER   (FiiANCfs),  F.S.  A..    Of  this  gentleman  ir# 
have  little,  information.      He  was  author  ot  a  **  Journey, 
from  Malaga  to  Gibrattar/'   1776,  2  voU.  8vo,  with  platen 
^old  separately  ;  reprinted  io  2  vuU.  8vo,   1778,  with  the 
plates  iuseried.     The  many  coins  engraved  in  this  work 
\^re  from  the  collection  of  the  celebrated  Spanish  medallist 
Flores,  whose  cabinet  Mr.  Carter  had  purchased  on  luf. 
heathy   and  disposed  of  the   duplicates  to   Dr.  Hantejnr 
Mr.  Carter  died  August  1,.   178'i,  when  he  bad  jq^t.^otviHr 
pleted  (and  had  actually  printed  the  first  sheet  of)  .^^  AxK 
historical  and  critical  aecouat  of  early  .printed   8p|ipi$b« 
Vooks;^*  in  which,  to  use  his  own  words,  his  intent  W9^. 
*^  to   write   an    historical    and    critiqal    account    of   tbe;;. 
most  early  printed    volumes    in    the    Spanish  Ungui^ge^. 
which  bad  fallen  into  my , possession  during  t)iirty  yean 
diligently  collecting  tbeniy   botb   in   Spain,   Francei  9n4 
j^n^land.**    Of  the  lives  of  the  autborsr  be  proposed  to  ^ive. 
a  summary  account,  wit^  occasional  .speoimeo^  of  thi^  s^yte 
fod  manner  of  their  writings,  .^^  strictures  on  tbe,  9X^ip 
*  and  progress  of  learning  and  poetry,  ,fjrom  the,  days  .of 
John  11.  king  of  Castile  down  to  the  prftsent  age :  tQ  ap- 
pearance an  humble  and  easy  tasky  but  which  will  be  fpuud 
in  the  execution  to  require  no  sipaH  Ubour,  judgment^ 
#nd  experience,  and  be.  evidently  pf.  great,  advantage  to, 
those  who  wish  to  enrich  their,  librariea  wilb  the  beat  Spar, 
nish  works,  and  be  informed  of  the  reput^'tioHv  V^Ot,  auds. 
rank,  each,  author  holds  ip  the.liteofy^fWQrl^•.  ^We  h«)fye 
to  lament  that  this  was  never  finished.    JL  ^pecimea  of  it 
mty  be  seen  in  our  authority..^ 

CARTERET  (SiV  Georgb),  a  loyalist  in  the  time  of 
Charles  I.  of  uncommon  firmness  and  brayery,   the  de-^^^ 
scendant  of  an  ancient  family,  originally  from  Normandy^ 
but  afterwards  settled  at  Guernsey  ana  Jersey,  was  bora.: 
at  Jersey  in  1599,  bis  father  Uelier  Carteret^  esq.  beipg., 
at  that  time  deputy  gx^vernor  of  the  island.     He  eoteredi . 
early  into  the  sea  service,  and  had  acquired  the  cha^racter  . 
of  an  experienced  officer,  when  |(iug  Charles  J.  ascenrd^d 
the  thfone>. .  This  circumstance  recommending  him  to  the  * 
notice  and  ^steem  of  the  duke  of  Buckingham,  he  .waa  - 
appointed,  in  1626,  joint  governor  of  Jersey,  with  Henry,.. . 
afterwards  lord  Jermyn  ;  and,  in  1639,  he  obtained  a  gnuat ..' 
#rthe  office  and  place  of  comptroller  of  all  his  Majesty'*^  .; 

^  QfnU  Utig.  Mai  UU.-^msk^i^Bvttfv,  ^>  Itfi 

ffitp!l.  At  the  commencement  of  the  civil  war,  ^heil  thcl 
jj^arliatnent  resolved  to  send  odt  the  earl  b(  Warwict  ai 
Admiral  of  the  fleets  they  also  fesolved,  that  captain  Car-* 
li^ret  should  be  vice-admiral.  But  be,  thinking  that  h^ 
(iugbt  not  to  accept  the  command  without  knowing  tlie. 
i^yai  pie^sufe,  addressed  himself  to  the  king  for  direction^ 
timb  ordered  him  to  decline  the  employment ;  ahd  captaia. 
Battevi,  surveyor-generalj  was  substituted  in  h\k  place* 
His  Majesty  was  probably  mistaken  in  this  advice;  for,  if 
^d^tiaiia  Carteret  had  accepted  of  th6  qhargCi  be  might* 
jiVbbably  have  prevented  the  greater  part  of  the  fleet  front 
^gaging  in  the  cause  of  the  parliament.  Captain  Car- 
tferet,  however,  like\vise  quitted  the  post  of  compti-oller,  and. 
rei&'ed^  with  his  family,  to  the  island  of  Jersey,  the  inha-. 
l^t&hts  of  Which  were  confirmed  by  him  in  their  adherencd^ 
to ^he  king;  and  tlesirous  of  more  active  servic^^  be  trani-^-^ 
pbirt^  himself  into  Cornwall,' with  the  purpose  of  raising  a 
tfbob  of  hbt^i  AVheh  he  arrived  in  that  country,  finding^ 
tflite  vi/2L^  a  ^reat'w^ht  of  powder,  he  went  into  France  tcL 
pi^ctitb  that  and  other  tiecessary  supplies ;  and  was  so  suc-*^ 
ct3sful,  that,' through  the  remainder  of  the  war,  tiie  Coic-, 
nfeb'army  was  never  destitute  of  ammunitibn.  This  was  so : 
iitipdrtant  and  seasonable  a  servibe,  that  the  king  acknow- 
ledged it  by  particular  approbatiorl  ;*and  by  conferring 
Vp'bh''  him',  at  Oxford,  the  honour  of  knighthood^  which. 

'  was^  speedily  followed  by  his* being  advanced,  on  the  9t\K, 
of  May  ^  1 6  45,  to  the  dignity  of  a  baronet.  Returning  the  I 
safa^^e^V'intb^  Jersey,' he  found  thkt  several  of  theinha-'J 
bitauts  had  been  induced  to  embiUce  the  cause  of  the  par**  ^ 
lilihienl:,  oh  Which  account  he  threw  soaie  of  them  into  . 
coiiBneim'ent^  'This  vgSLS  so  alartning  arid  offensive  to  the  . 
members  at  Westminster,  that  atl  bVder  was  made,  that  if^  \, 
fot  the'ftrtmte;  he  should  piit  to  d'eatth  any  of  the  island  * 
wfeom  he  ^hoiild  tak0  prisoners,  for  every  one  so  slain^* 
ihiree'of  the  king's' men  should  l>e  hung  up.  From  the  '. 
w6ffehere  iiseJ,  it  seems. impliiSd' that  sir  George  Carteret 
Md'aSttially  cxeetiteU  sbttie'bne  or  hiore  of  the  people  oft 

J^Ti^y'  who  had  appeared  for  the  IParliatnent ;  a  st^p  highly^, 
iiijudicl6tis,  tVhence,  ih  ail  the  subsequent  propositipns  foi  ,. 
peace  iifitfr  the  king,  i^r  GebVi^^  was  excepted  from  pardon* 
Vrtif^tf  the  brinctj  of  Wkles,  and  rnany  persons  of  distinc- 
ti^Vt^fth  him,  't*dtne4ht6' Jersey  irr  1646,  and  brought'  with 
tJatem  very  little  for  their  subsistence,  tliey  were  aII  chear* 

308  CART  E  R  E  T. 

fully  entertained,  and  at  a  large  expence,  by  sir  George 
Carteret;  Vvho,  beine:  sensible  how  mucb  it  behoved  him 
to  take  care  for  supplies,  equipped  about  half  a  score  small 
frigates  and  privateers,  which  soon  struck  a  terror  through 
the  whole  channel,  and  made  a  number  of  captures.    Upon 
the  prince's  leaving  the  island,  at  the  positive  command  of 
the  queen,  several  of  the  council  chose  to  stay  with  sir 
George ;  and  the  chancellor  of  the  exchequer  (afterwards 
earl  of  Clarendon)    resided   with  him  above  two  years. 
After  the  death  of  the  king,  sir  George  Carteret,  though 
the   republican   party   was   completely    triumphant,    and 
though  Charles  II.  was  at  the  Hague  in  a  very  destitute  con- 
dition, immediately  proclaimed  him  at  Jersey,    with   all 
his  titles.    Some  months  afterwstrds  his  Majesty  determined 
to  pay  a  second  visit  to  the  island  of  Jersey,  and  arrived 
in  the  latter  end  of  September  1649,  accompanied  by  his 
brother  the  duke  of  York,  with  several  of  the  nobility. 
Here  they  were  supplied  by  sir  George  with  all  necessaries. 
The  king,  when  prince  of  Wales,  had  procured  his  father's 
Jeave  for  making  sir  George  Carteret  his  vice-chamberlain, 
and  he  now  appointed  him  treasurer  pf  his  navy ;  which  how- 
ever, at  this  time,  chiefly  consisted  of  the  privateers  that  sir 
George  had  provided,  and  of  the  noen  of  war  with  prince  Ru- 
pert. Charles  II.  staid  in  the  island  till  the  latter  end  of  March 
1650,  when  he  embarked  for  HoUajid,  in  order  to  be  more 
commodiously  situated  for  treating  with  the  Scots,  who  had 
invited  him  into  that  kingdom.    This  defiance  of  sir  George  . 
Carteret  in  harbouring  the  king,  and  taking  many  of  theii: 
trading  vessels,  enraged  the  republicans  so  much,  that  they 
determined  to  exert  every  n.erve  for  the  reduction  of  Jersey. 
A  formidable  armament  being  prepared,  it  put  to  sea  in 
October  1651,  under  the  command  oT  admiral  Bjkke,  and 
major-general  Holmes,  to^tbe  last  of  whon^  the  charge  of 
the  forces  for  the  descent  was -committed.     In  this  crisis, 
sir  George  Carteret  prevented  the.  Jftoding  of  the  repub- 
lican army  as  long  as  possible ;  and  when  that  was  effected, 
and  the  remaining  forts  of  the  island  were  taken,  he  retired 
into  Elizabeth  castle,  resolving  to  hold  it  out  to  the  last  extre- 
mity.    The  king  being  safely  arrived  in  France,  after  thp 
fatal  battle  of  Worcester,  sir  George  informed  Him.  of  the. 
state  of  the  garrison,  but  the  kin^  not  being  able  to  assist 
him,  he  advised  sir  George  Carteret,  rather  to  accept  of  a  . 
reasonable  composition,  than,  by  too  obstinate  a  defence,. 

C  A  -R  T  E  "R  E  T.  '309 


to  bring  himself  and  the  loyal  gentlemen  who  were  with 
him  into  danger  of  being  made  prisojiiers  of  wai?.  Sir 
George  wa^  ambitious  that  Elizabeth  castle  should  be  the 
last  of  the  king's  garrisons  (as  was  in  fact  the  case)  which 
should  yield  to  the  prevailing  powers.  He  determined^ 
therefore,  to  conceal  his  majesty's  permission  to  treat,  that 
the  knowledge  of  it  might  not  renew  the  cry  for  a  sur- 
render. But,  at  length,  provisions  growing  scarce,  the 
number  of  defenders  lessening  daily  by  death  and  deser- 
tion, and  there  being  no  possibility  of  supplies  or  recruits, 
Elizabeth  castle  was  surrendered  in  the  latter  end  of  De- 
cember,  and  sir  George  went  first  to  St.  Maloes,  and 
afterwards  travelled  through  several  parts  of  Europe.  To 
facilitate  his  reception  at  tne  different  courts  and  places  he 
might  be  disposed  to  visijt,  he  obtained  from  his  royal 
master  a  very  honourable  and  remarkable  certificate  of  rer 
commendation.  In  1657,  sir  George  had  given  siich  offence 
to  Oliver  Cromwell,  by  some  hostile  design  or  attenipt 
against  the  English  vessels  trading  to  the  French  p>orts^ 
that,  by  the  Protector's  interest  with  cardinal  Mazarine,  h^ 
was  committed  prisoner  to  tfie  Basjtile;  from  which  he  Was, 
after  some  time,  released  by  the  intercession  of  bis  friends, 
iipoh  condition  of  his  quitting  France.  Jn  1659,  however, 
we  find  him  at  Rheims,  from  whence  he  repaired  to  the 
king  at  Brussels,  and  followed  him  to  Breda.  Upon  •  his 
inajesty's  being  restored  to  his  kingdoms,  sir  George  Car- 
teret rode  with  him  in  his  triumphant  entry  into  the  city  oi 
London,  on  the  2yth  of  May  1660,  and  next  day  hp  was 
declared  vice-chamberlain  of  the  houshold,  and  sworn  of 
the  privy  council.  He  was  also  constituted  treasurer  of 
the  navy ;  and  at  tBfe  coronation  of  the  king,  he  had  the 
honour  of  being  almoner  for  the  day.  In  the  first  parlia- 
nient  called  by  Charles  II.  in  May,  1 66 1,  sir  George  Carteret 
was  elected  representative  for  the  corporation  of  Ports- 
mouth ;  and  it  appears,  that  he  was  an  active  member  of 
the  house.  When  the  duke  of  York,  1673,  resigned  the 
office  of  high  admiral  of  England,  sir  George  was.  consti- 
tuted one  of  the  commissioners  of  the  aidmiraity;  anc}  in^ 
1676,  he  was  appointed  one  of  the  lords  of  the  Committee 
of  trade.  He  was  also  vice-treasurer  of  Ireland,  and 
treasurer  of  the  military  forces  there.  At  length,  incon- 
sequence of  his  merit  and  services,  the  king  determined 
to  raise  him  to  the  dignity  of  a  peerage ;  but  before  the 
design  could  be  accomplished,  he  departed  this  life,  on  the 

hd  C  A  il  T  E  Id  E  T^. 


T4th  of  January,  1679,  being  nearly  eighty  years  of  agq. 

X)n  the  1 1  th  of  February  following,  a  royal  warrant  w8^ 

issue^,  in  which  it  is  recited,  "  That  whereas  sir  George 

XJarteret  died  before  his  patent  for  his  barony  was  sued  ou'tf, 

liis   Alajesty  authorizes   Elizabeth,    his  Widow,    and    her 

ypungest  children,  James  Carteret,  Caroline^  wife  of  .sir 

Thomas  Scot,  kiit.  and  Louisa,  wife  of  sir  Rotert  Aikina, 

.lent,  to  enjoy  their  precedency  and  pre-^einihency,  as  if  tl^ 

said  sir  George  Carteret  had  actually  been  created  a  baroii^  • 

*Sir  George*s  eldest  son,  by  his  lady  Elizabeth,  who  was  nu 

cousiji-german,  being  the  daughter  of  sir  Philip  Carterdt, 

was  named  Philip  after  his  grandfathe|r.     This  gentlenaan 

/eminently  distinguished  himself  in  the  civil  wars,  and  wag 

Icuighted  by  Charles  II.  on  his  arrivjil  in  Jersey.     After  the 

king's  restoration,   sir   Philip  Carteret  married  Jemima, 

daughter  of  Edward  Montague,  the  first  earl  of  Sandwicp, 

and  perished  with  that  illustrious  nobleman,,  in  the  ^eat 

.  sea-fight  with  the  Dutch,  in  Solbay,  on  the  28th  of  May, 

1672.'     Sir  Philip  determined,  whilst  many'others  leH:'  tjl|e 

chip,  to  share  the  fate  of  his  father-in-law.     His  eldest  son 

George  was  the  first  lord  Carteret,  and  father  to  the  subject 

of  the  following  article.*  .    r 

'    CARXERET  (Jo^N),  earl  Granville,  one  of  ttie  most 

distinguished  orators  and  statesmen  of  the  last  century, 

.was,  born  on  the  22d  of  Apri'i  l^i^O,   "His  father  was  George 

lord  Carteret,  baron  Carteret,  of  Hawnes  in  the  county  of 

-  Bedford,  haying  been  so  created  on  the  l^Uiof  OctoWr  J  68f  I, 

when  he  was^  only  fifteen  years  of  age;  and  his  mother  vyas 

'  Jady  Grace,  yoqngest  daughter  of  John  earl  of  Bath.  ,  He 

^jpucceeded  his  father  when  only  in  his  fifth  year,     Hejyas 

^  educated  at  Westminster  school,  from  whicli  he  wa?  |;e- 

idoved   to  Christ-churcb  Oxford;    in  both   which  places 

he  made  such,  exjtraordinjary  inpproTementsi  that  he  Be- 

.  came   one  of  the  qaost  lej^rned  young,  noblemen   of  nis 

]  tiine ;,  and  he  retained  to  .^he  last  hi8.knQ\Vledgq  ancl  I^ve 

of  literature.    Dr.  I^wift  humorously  asserts,  that  ^e  carried 

"away,  from  Oxford,  with  a  singularity  scarcely  to  be  jn|ti- 

.Jfie,d,\inore  Greek,  Latin, .  and  philosophy,  than  propj^rly 

./became  a  person  of  his  ra^k.;  indeed,  niucl;i'moije  of  ^jich, 

than  most  of  those  who  ar^  f^orced  to  live  liy  tiieir  lejirr^g 

..  will  be  at  the  unnecessary  , pains  to  load  th^jc  heads  wi|b. 

,  B^ing  tl^us  accomplished,  lord  Carteret  wsU  (juali^^^ 

/  '  .   .' .     ■.»■'.  .'.4,.  •••'>>|-'^(j*r  9^t:^    -'^'  '^i'-i    '-''•.*    ii*i<'/  &t«l  A 


make  an  early  figure  in  life.    As  soon  as  he  was  introduced 
into  the  house  of  peers,  which  was  on  the  25tb  of  ^Way^ 
1711,  he  distinguished  himself  by  his  ardent  zeal  for  the 
protestant  succession,  which  procured  hioi  the  eariy  notice 
of  king  George  I.  by  whom  he  was  appointed,  in  1714,  one 
of  the  lords  of  the  l>ed-chamber ;  in  1715,  bailiff  of  the 
island  of  Jersey ;  aiid  in  1716,  lord  lieutenant  Imd  cUstoa 
taiuiornm  of  the  county  of  Devon;  which  last  office  he 
held  till  Aup:tist  I'Til,  when  he  resigned  it  in  favoUr'of 
Hugh  lord   Clinton.      His  mother  also,"  lady  Grace,  vras 
created  nscountess  Carteret  and  countess  Granville,  by 
letters  patent,  bearing  date  oh  the  first  of  January,  1714-15, 
with  limitation  of  these  honours  to  her  son  John  lord  Ckrteiret, 
His  lordship,  though  still  young,  became,  from  the  early 
part  of  king  George  the  First's  reign,  an  eminent  speaker 
in  the  house  of  peers.     The  first  instance  of  the  display  6f 
.his  eloquence,  was  in  the  famous  debate  on  the  bill  for 
lengthening  the  duration  of  Parliaments,  in  which  he  sup* 
ported  the  duke  of  Devonshire's  motion  for  the  repeal  of 
/fche  triennial  act.     On  the  18th  of  February,  1717-18,  he 
'  irpoke  in  behalf  of  the  bill  for  punishing  mutiny  and  deser- 
*^  don  ;  and   in  the  session  of  parliament  which  mei  on  the' 
11th  of  November  following,  he  moved  for  the  address  of 
thanks  to  the  king,  to  congratulate  his  majesty  on  the  sea- 
sonable success  of  his  naval  forces ;  and  to  assure  him, 
that  the  house  would  support  him  in  the  pursuit  df  those 
prudent  and  necessary  measures  he  had  taken  to  secure  the 
trade  and  quiet  of  his  dominions,  and  the  tranquillity  of 
J^urope.     In  Jan.  1718-19  he  was  appointed  ambassador 
extraordinary  and  minister  plenipotentiary  to  the  queen  of 
Sweden,  with  whom  his  first  business  was  to  remove  the 
difficulties  which  the  British  subjects  had  met  with  in  their 
commerce  in  the  Baltic,  and  to  procure  satisfaction  for  the 
losses  they  had  sustained ;  and  in  both  he  completely  sue* 
ceeded.     On  the  6th  of  November,  1719,  lord  Carteret 
,  first  took  upon  him   the  character  of  ambassador  extra* 
ordinary  and  plenipotentiary;  at  which  time,  in  a  private 
audience,  he  offered  his  royal  master^s  mediation  to  make 
peace  between  Sweden  and  Denmark^  and  between  SWie-' 
den  and  the  Czar;  both  of  which  were  readily  accepted  by 
the  queen,     A  peace  between  Sweden,  Prussia,  aiid  Ha- 
nover,  having  been  concluded  by  lord  Carteret,  it  vi^aa 
'^  prodaimed  at  Stockholm  on  the  9th  of  Mirch,  1719-3a 
Tius  was  tb^  prelude  to  a  re<:i>QCiliation  between  Sweden 

ii^ii.  CJ  A'  R  T  E  Bj  5^  IS 

idd  D^nfii^rk^  which  be  also  effected,  s^nd '  the  Ireaty  W9tk 
signed  July  3, 1 720.  Xn  August  his  lord&hip  was  appointed, 
tbjgelher  with  earl  Stanhope  and  sir  Robert  Sutton,  ambas* 
i^ador  extraordinary  and  plenipotentiary  at  the  congress  of 
Catnbray  \  but  whether  he  acted  iii  this  capacity  does  not 
dpbefir.  FroiQ  Denmark,  however^  he  arrived  in  JCngland  Dec. 
£,  ^nd  a  few  weeks  after  took  a  share  in  the  debates  on  the 
sts^te  of  the  na;tional'  credit,  occasioned  by  the  uQfortunate 
and  iniquitous  effects  of  the  South-Sea  scheme,  maintain- 
ipg  tb^t  the  estates  of'  the  criminals,  whether  directors  or 
iot  dire.ctof9,  ought  to  be  confiscated.  Whilst  this  affair 
vri^^'in  agitation,  he  was  appointed  ambassador  extraor- 
djuVxy  to  the  court  of  France,  and  was  on  the  point  of 
a($|tting  out,  when  the  death  of  secretary  Craggs  induced 
hS^  niajesty  to  appioiut  lord  Carteret  his  successor,  May  4,^ 
i721,  and  next  day  he  was  admitted  into  offi.c/$,  and 
sjeprn  of  his '  majei^ty^s  most  honourable  privy  QOuaciL 
whijsit  lord  Carter^et  was  secretary  pf  state,  he  not  only 
discharged  the  general  duties  of  his  epiploymeut  to  the  sa-. 
I^fac^ion  of  his  royal  mastef,  but  ably  ^defended  in  parlia- 
In^pl  tfi^  jooceasjures  of  administration.  This  he  did  iu  the 
Rebate  concerning  Mr.  Law,  the  famous  projector  of  the 
A||s^issippi  scheme,  whose  arrival  in  SngUpd,  in  17231)  by 
the  cpnnivance,  as  it  was  thought,  and  even  under  the 
Kahi^J^ion  of  tl^e  ministry,  excited  no  ,?m?dl  degree  of  dis- 
^ilfty  and  he  also  took -a  part  on  the  sjde  of  government, 
in  t^^  debate  on  the  navy  debt,  and  with  regard  to  the  va- 
i!i(}us' pth^r  motions  and  bills  of  the  session.  In  the  liew 
p^xUainent,  which  met  on  the  Uth  of  October,  J  722,  his 
lpjcl3hip,  on  occasion  of  Layers  plot,  sppke  in  favour  of 
^j;;i.9penaiug  the  habeas  corpus  act  for  one  year;  ac* 
ioaaiuted  the  house  with  the  bishop  of  Rochester's,  lord 
l^fprth  and  Grey's,  and  the  et^rl  of  Orrery's  commitment 
to  tl^e  Tower;  and  c|ffei?ded  th^  motion  for  the  imprison- 
xipent  of  the  duke  of  Norfolk.  In  all  the  debates  concera- 
ing  this  conspiracy,  and  particularly  with  regard  to  Atter-* 
bii^y,  lord  Carteret  vindicated  the  proceedings  of  the 
qourt ;  as  he  did,  likewise,  in  the  case  of  the  act  for  lay- 
ir^  au  extraordinary  tax  upon  papists.  On  the  26th  of 
M^Yf  172.3.,  when  the  king's  affairs  called  him  abroad,  his 
lordship  was  appointed  one  of  the  lords  jioaticea  of  the 
Ki^igdom  ;.  but  notwithstanding  tbii?)  he  went  to  Hanover, 
iiV  conj[unct\ou  with  lord  Townshend,  the  othec  secretary; 
t^x'i\  both  thes^  ng^emyen,  in  tboir  jreturn:  to  Eugtami)  mi. 

.€'A  K  T  FR  ET.  SiS 


sereral  cofifel^nc^  at  tbe  Hague,  with  the  principal  per«. 
90118  of  the  DiUQh  administration^  on  subjects  of  import-^ 
ance.  Ip  the  session  of;pariiament,  January,  ]  72^*4,  lord 
Carteret)  in  the  debate  on  the  mutiny  bill,  supported  the 
necessity  qf  eightee^n  thousand  men  hieing  kept  up,  as  the 
f^unnber  of  laftd-forcfes,  in  opposition. to  lor(^  Trevor,  who 
had  moved  that  the  four  thousand  additional  men,  who  had 
been  raised  the  year  before,  should  be  discontinued.  Not 
many  .days  after  this  debate,  several  alterations  took  place 
at  court.  "Lord  Carteret  quitted  the  office  of  secretary  of 
^te,  in  %¥hich  iie  was  succeeded  by  the  duke  of  New- 
castle; and  on  the  same  day,  being  the  third  of  Apriiy 
1V24,  he  was  constituted  lord -lieutenant  of  Ireland,  and 
in  October  airited  att  Dublin,  where  be  was  received  with 
iHe  usual  solemnity.  The  Irish  were  at  that  time  in  a  grjat 
fbraienV  about:  the  patent  for  Wood's  halfpence,  which 
makes  00  signal  a  figure  in  the  life  and  writings  of  Dn 
Siwift.  Ovie  of  the  lirat  things  ^6ne  by  the  t^rd-lieutenant 
was  to- publish  a  pmoiam^tioa,  oflPering  a  re^vard  of  three 
hundred  pounds  Ibr  fl  discovery  of  the  author  of  the  Dra« 
pier's  Letters.  When  he  was  aaked,  by  Dr,  Swift,  how 
Ke  could  concur  in*  the  prosecutioit  of  a  poor  honest  fellow, 
who  had  been 'guilty  of  no  other  crime  thad  that  of  writing 
three  or  ifour  letters  for  rh^  good  of  his  country,  his  excel- 
lency cpplied^  io  the  words  of  Virgil, 

— *— — ■     ■  Regni  novitae  me  talia  cogit 

Lord  Cartevet  lived  at  Uiat  very  time  in  great  friendship 
with  the  deai>;  and^  therefore,  if  he  suspected  the  real- 
author,  CQu|d  have  no  sincere  wish  that  he  might  be  dis- 
covered, Notwithstanding  the  measures  Ins  lordship  was 
obliged.  oi]^iaUy  to  pursue,  he  was  sensible  that  Wood's 
patent  ought  not  tq  be  supported  ;  and,  accordingly,  pro- 
cured iu  bei^g.  revoked ; .  by  which  means,  one  of  the  most 
i^iives^al  and  remarkable  ferments  ever  raised  iu  Ireland 
speedily  subtsided.  The  lord< lieutenant  used  sometimes  to 
converse  with  Di?.  Swift  on  public  affairs.  The  dean,  on 
so^ne  occa^KHij  happening  to  dispute  with  him  concerning 
the  grievances  suffered  by  the  Irish,  and  tlie  folly  and  non- 
sense of  the  English  government  in  the  management  of 
Ireland,  his  exoelleBey  replied  with  such  mastery  and 
strengt;b  of  reason,  that  Swift  wiss  incapable  of  supporting 
bis  ajguaj^eBA*    Being  displeased  at  this,  he  cried  out  in  a 

ti*  C  A  R  T  B  R  E  T. 

violent  passion^  '^  What  the  vengeance  brought  yon  among 
us ;  get  you  gone,  get  you  gone ;  pray  God  Almighty  send 
us  our.  boobieii  back  ag^n.'*  At  another  time,  Dr.  Swift 
^having  written  two  lines  on  a  window  of  the  castle,  ia 
which  his  pride  affected  an  absolute  independence,  lord 
Carteret  gently  rebuked  his  haughtiness,  .  by  inscribing 
under  them  the  following  couplet : 

''  My  very  good  Dean,  none  erer  comes  here. 

But  who  hath  something  to  hojie^  or  something  to  fear.** 

His  lordship,  bpwever,  kept  on  good  terms  with  Swif^ 
and  obliged  him  by  conferring  preferment  on  Dr.  Sheridan^ 
and  others  of  his  friends.  Ev^n  in  the  Drapier^s  Letters, 
the  d<?an  expressed  a  very  high  opinion  of  the  lord-lieute- 
naaL  Besides  revoking  Wuod^s  patent,  lord  Carteret's 
administration  was,  in  oth^r  respects,  very  acceptable  auft 
beneficial  to  the  Irish.  He  discharged  the  duties  of  h^ 
high,  station,  in  general,  with  wisdqiii  and  fidelity,  and  tW 
people  were  happy  under  his  governmefit.  . ACter.-the  close 
of  the  session  in  March,  1725-6,  hi^  lordship  having  C0Q« 
stituted  lords  justices  during.  Iiis  absence,  embarked  for, 
England,  where  he  arrived  in  May,,  i7il6,  and  received 

.  his  majesty't  japprobation  of  his  prudent  conduct.  On  thie 
24th  of  January,  1726-7,  lord  Carteret  ably  defended 
the  king's  speech,  which  had  beea  wafmly  animadverted 
upon  by  the  opposition.  On  the  31st  of  May,  1727,  be 
was  appointed  one  of  the  chief  justices  during  his  majesty^s 
absence,  and  upon  the  decease  of  George  L  who  died 
suddenly  at  Osnabrug,  in  his  way  to  Hanover,  on  the 
11th  of  June,  1727,  lord  Carteret  was  one  of  the  old 
privy  council  who  assembled  at  Leicester  house,  where  the 
new  king  was  proclaimed.  This  was  on  the  14th  of  Jime^ 
and  the  same  day  he  was  sworn  of  his  majesty's  privy 
council.     On  the  29th  of  July  following,  he  was  again  ap« 

'  pointed  lord  lieutenant  and  chief  governor  of  the  kingdoih 
of  Ireland,  and  having  arrived  there,  the  parliament  lyas 
opened,  by  his  excellency,  Nov.  28,  and  the  session  con- 
tinued till  the  6th  of  May,  1728,  when  be  gave  the  royal 
assent  to  twent}^  public  acts,  and  concluded  with  a  speech, 
expressive  of  his  high  rcjgard  for  the  welfare  of  the  king-» 
dom.  4^fter  this,  he  embarked  for  England,  but  in  1729, 
returned  again  to  Ireland,  and  held  another  session  of  pav« 
liameut,  which,  began  on  the  23d  of  September^  and 
9pd^  on  the  I5th  of  April,  1730.    His  Iordship'^  second 

iO  A  R  T  E  R  £  T.  tis 

S*d^6rehcy  over  the  Irish  nation  was  as  populac,  if  not 
piote  so,  as  the  first  His  polite  and  sociable  manners 
Were  highly  acceptable  to  all  ranks  of  peopFe.  ,  What  par- 
ticularly recommended  him  was,  his  being  above  the  little 
xiistinctions  of  party.-  He  maintained  a  good  correspon* 
^dence  with  several  of  thp$e  who  were  called  or  reputed 
lories,  and  occasionally  distributed  a  few  preferments^,  of 
no  great  significance,,  in  that  line.  This  having  excited 
the  complaint  of  some  of  the  bigotted  whigs,  gave  occa* 
slon  to  a  facetious  and  sensible  tract  of  Dr.  Swift's,  enti^ 
^iied,  "  A  Vindication  of  his  excellency  John  lord  Carteret, 
from  the  charge  of  favouring  none  but  Tories,  High- 
church-men,.  and  Jacobites."  With  Dr.  Swift  the  lord- 
Ijeutenant  appears  to  have  maintained  a  strict  friendship  ; 
and  he  wail  solicitous  to  act  agreeably  to  the  dean's  views 
of  the  interest  of  the  kingdom.  In  one  of  his  letters, 
written  to  the  dean  some  years  afterwards,  he  thus  ex- 
presses himself;  ^^  When  people  ask  me  how  I  governed 
Ireland  ?  I  say,  that  I  pleased  Dr.  Swift.'*  The  prefer- 
iOQents  which  his  excellency  bestowed,  at  the  instance  of 
^e  dean  of  St.,  Patrick's,  were  conferred  on  learned  and 
Svorthy  men,  who  did  not  disgrace  their  recommender; 
knd  whatever  may  be  thought  of  the  pride,  petulance,  and 
[peculiarities  of  Swift,  it  cannot  rationally  be  denied,  that 
%e  was  sincerely  devoted  to  the  welfare  of  the  Irish  nation. 
'^His  lordship,  having  continued  the  usual  time  allotted  to 
'Ilk  high  ofi^ce,  quitted  it  in  1730,  and  was  succeeded  by 
the  duke  of  Dorset 

J"  We  now  come  to  a  part  of  lord  Carteret's  life,  including 

^nearly  twelve  years,  from  1730  to  1742,  during  which  he 

etigaged  in  the  grand  opposition,  that  was  carried  on  so 

long,  and  with  so  much  pertinacity,  against  sir  Robert 

Walpole.     In  this  opposition  he  tobk  a  very  distiuguished 

part,  and  was  One  of  its  ablest  and  most  spirited  leaders. 

^There  was  scarcely  any  motion  or  question  on  which  his 

eloquence  was  nbt  displayed.     His  powers  of  oratory  are 

, allowed  to  hdve  been  eminently  great;  and  it  is  highly 

prbbab'le,  that  ihey  were  invigorated   and  increased  by 

that  superior  ardour  which  naturally  accompanies  an  attack 

upon  the  measures  of  government     In  the  session  of  par-^ 

liament,  1730-1,  he  supported  the  bill  against  pensioners 

being  permittefd  to  sit  in  that  house ;  and  the  motion  for 

^discharging  the  twelve  thousand  Hessian  forces  in  the  pay 

of  Grlbat  Britain.    In  the  subsequent  session,  which  open^ 

81«  C  A  ft  T  E  tt  £  T. 

On  the  13th